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Centro de Información de Micronutrientes

Referencias: Niacina


1.  Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

2.  Penberthy WT, Kirkland JB. Niacin. In: Erdman JW, MacDonald I, Zeisel SH, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed. Ames: International Life Sciences Institute; 2012:293-306.

3.  Cervantes-Laurean D, McElvaney NG, Moss J. Niacin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:401-411.

4.  Di Girolamo M, Dani N, Stilla A, Corda D. Physiological relevance of the endogenous mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of cellular proteins. FEBS J. 2005;272(18):4565-4575.  (PubMed)

5.  Jacobson MK, Jacobson EL. Discovering new ADP-ribose polymer cycles: protecting the genome and more. Trends Biochem Sci. 1999;24(11):415-417.

6.  Hottiger MO, Hassa PO, Luscher B, Schuler H, Koch-Nolte F. Toward a unified nomenclature for mammalian ADP-ribosyltransferases. Trends Biochem Sci. 2010;35(4):208-219.  (PubMed)

7.  Morris BJ. Seven sirtuins for seven deadly diseases of aging. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;56:133-171.  (PubMed)

8.  Park YK, Sempos CT, Barton CN, Vanderveen JE, Yetley EA. Effectiveness of food fortification in the United States: the case of pellagra. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(5):727-738.  (PubMed)

9.  Gregory JF, 3rd. Nutritional properties and significance of vitamin glycosides. Annu Rev Nutr. 1998;18:277-296.  (PubMed)

10.  Jacob R, Swenseid M. Niacin. In: Ziegler E, Filer L, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:185-190.

11.  Oldham MA, Ivkovic A. Pellagrous encephalopathy presenting as alcohol withdrawal delirium: a case series and literature review. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2012;7(1):12.  (PubMed)

12.  Murray MF. Tryptophan depletion and HIV infection: a metabolic link to pathogenesis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3(10):644-652.  (PubMed)

13.  Hao K, Zhou Q, Chen W, et al. Possible role of the 'IDO-AhR axis' in maternal-foetal tolerance. Cell Biol Int. 2013;37(2):105-108.  (PubMed)

14.  Fu CS, Swendseid ME, Jacob RA, McKee RW. Biochemical markers for assessment of niacin status in young men: levels of erythrocyte niacin coenzymes and plasma tryptophan. J Nutr. 1989;119(12):1949-1955.  (PubMed)

15.  Dawson B, Favaloro EJ, Taylor J, Aggarwal A. Unrecognized pellagra masquerading as odynophagia. Intern Med J. 2006;36(7):472-474.  (PubMed)

16.  Jagielska G, Tomaszewicz-Libudzic EC, Brzozowska A. Pellagra: a rare complication of anorexia nervosa. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;16(7):417-420.  (PubMed)

17.  Kertesz SG. Pellagra in 2 homeless men. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76(3):315-318.  (PubMed)

18.  Prakash R, Gandotra S, Singh LK, Das B, Lakra A. Rapid resolution of delusional parasitosis in pellagra with niacin augmentation therapy. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2008;30(6):581-584.  (PubMed)

19.  Rosmaninho A, Sanches M, Fernandes IC, et al. Letter: Pellagra as the initial presentation of Crohn disease. Dermatol Online J. 2012;18(4):12.  (PubMed)

20.  Zaraa I, Belghith I, El Euch D, et al. A case of pellagra associated with megaduodenum in a young woman. Nutr Clin Pract. 2013;28(2):218-222.  (PubMed)

21.  Bilgili SG, Karadag AS, Calka O, Altun F. Isoniazid-induced pellagra. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2011;30(4):317-319.  (PubMed)

22.  Dreizen S, McCredie KB, Keating MJ, Andersson BS. Nutritional deficiencies in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Postgrad Med. 1990;87(1):163-167, 170.  (PubMed)

23.  Nogueira A, Duarte AF, Magina S, Azevedo F. Pellagra associated with esophageal carcinoma and alcoholism. Dermatol Online J. 2009;15(5):8.  (PubMed)

24.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Niacin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:123-149.  (National Academy Press)

25.  Jacobson EL, Jacobson MK. Tissue NAD as a biochemical measure of niacin status in humans. Methods Enzymol. 1997;280:221-230.

26.  Jacobson EL, Shieh WM, Huang AC. Mapping the role of NAD metabolism in prevention and treatment of carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999;193(1-2):69-74.  (PubMed)

27.  World Health Organization, United Nations High Commissions for Refugees. Pellagra and its prevention and control in major emergencies. World Health Organization. 2000. Available at http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/
emergencies/WHO_NHD_00.10/en/index.html
. Accessed 6/20/13.

28.  Negrini S, Gorgoulis VG, Halazonetis TD. Genomic instability--an evolving hallmark of cancer. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2010;11(3):220-228.  (PubMed)

29.  Kirkland JB. Niacin requirements for genomic stability. Mutat Res. 2012;733(1-2):14-20.  (PubMed)

30.  Spronck JC, Nickerson JL, Kirkland JB. Niacin deficiency alters p53 expression and impairs etoposide-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in rat bone marrow cells. Nutr Cancer. 2007;57(1):88-99.  (PubMed)

31.  Spronck JC, Kirkland JB. Niacin deficiency increases spontaneous and etoposide-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow cells in vivo. Mutat Res. 2002;508(1-2):83-97.  (PubMed)

32.  Kostecki LM, Thomas M, Linford G, et al. Niacin deficiency delays DNA excision repair and increases spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow. Mutat Res. 2007;625(1-2):50-61.  (PubMed)

33.  Dantzer F, Santoro R. The expanding role of PARPs in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin. FEBS J. 2013;280(15):3508-3518.  (PubMed)

34.  El Ramy R, Magroun N, Messadecq N, et al. Functional interplay between Parp-1 and SirT1 in genome integrity and chromatin-based processes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66(19):3219-3234.  (PubMed)

35.  Boyonoski AC, Spronck JC, Gallacher LM, et al. Niacin deficiency decreases bone marrow poly(ADP-ribose) and the latency of ethylnitrosourea-induced carcinogenesis in rats. J Nutr. 2002;132(1):108-114.  (PubMed)

36.  Boyonoski AC, Spronck JC, Jacobs RM, Shah GM, Poirier GG, Kirkland JB. Pharmacological intakes of niacin increase bone marrow poly(ADP-ribose) and the latency of ethylnitrosourea-induced carcinogenesis in rats. J Nutr. 2002;132(1):115-120.  (PubMed)

37.  Weitberg AB. Effect of nicotinic acid supplementation in vivo on oxygen radical-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes. Mutat Res. 1989;216(4):197-201.  (PubMed)

38.  Hageman GJ, Stierum RH, van Herwijnen MH, van der Veer MS, Kleinjans JC. Nicotinic acid supplementation: effects on niacin status, cytogenetic damage, and poly(ADP-ribosylation) in lymphocytes of smokers. Nutr Cancer. 1998;32(2):113-120.  (PubMed)

39.  Yong LC, Petersen MR. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(4):496-505.  (PubMed)

40.  Jacobson EL. Niacin deficiency and cancer in women. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12(4):412-416.  (PubMed)

41.  Negri E, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, et al. Selected micronutrients and oral and pharyngeal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2000;86(1):122-127.  (PubMed)

42.  Franceschi S, Bidoli E, Negri E, et al. Role of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals in the aetiology of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Int J Cancer. 2000;86(5):626-631.  (PubMed)

43.  Gensler HL, Williams T, Huang AC, Jacobson EL. Oral niacin prevents photocarcinogenesis and photoimmunosuppression in mice. Nutr Cancer. 1999;34(1):36-41.  (PubMed)

44.  Jacobson EL, Kim H, Kim M, et al. A topical lipophilic niacin derivative increases NAD, epidermal differentiation and barrier function in photodamaged skin. Exp Dermatol. 2007;16(6):490-499.  (PubMed)

45.  Bermudez Y, Benavente CA, Meyer RG, Coyle WR, Jacobson MK, Jacobson EL. Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e20487.  (PubMed)

46.  Benavente CA, Jacobson EL. Niacin restriction upregulates NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human keratinocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44(4):527-537.  (PubMed)

47.  Benavente CA, Schnell SA, Jacobson EL. Effects of niacin restriction on sirtuin and PARP responses to photodamage in human skin. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42276.  (PubMed)

48  Lampeter EF, Klinghammer A, Scherbaum WA, et al. The Deutsche Nicotinamide Intervention Study: an attempt to prevent type 1 diabetes. DENIS Group. Diabetes. 1998;47(6):980-984.  (PubMed)

49.  Greenbaum CJ, Kahn SE, Palmer JP. Nicotinamide's effects on glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for IDDM. Diabetes. 1996;45(11):1631-1634.  (PubMed)

50.  Gale EA, Bingley PJ, Emmett CL, Collier T, European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial Group. European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT): a randomised controlled trial of intervention before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Lancet. 2004;363(9413):925-931.  (PubMed)

51.  Hedman M, Ludvigsson J, Faresjo MK. Nicotinamide reduces high secretion of IFN-gamma in high-risk relatives even though it does not prevent type 1 diabetes. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2006;26(4):207-213.  (PubMed)

52.  Fernandez IC, Del Carmen Camberos M, Passicot GA, Martucci LC, Cresto JC. Children at risk of diabetes type 1. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine plus nicotinamide - Case reports. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013;26(3-4):347-355.  (PubMed)

53.  Ku CR, Lee HJ, Kim SK, Lee EY, Lee MK, Lee EJ. Resveratrol prevents streptozotocin-induced diabetes by inhibiting the apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cell and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Endocr J. 2012;59(2):103-109.  (PubMed)

54.  Knopp RH. Drug treatment of lipid disorders. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(7):498-511.

55.  Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term benefit with niacin. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986;8(6):1245-1255.  (PubMed)

56.  Guyton JR, Capuzzi DM. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with combined niacin-statin regimens. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82(12A):82U-84U; discussion 85-86U.  (PubMed)

57.  Bays HE, Shah A, Lin J, Sisk CM, Dong Q, Maccubbin D. Consistency of extended-release niacin/laropiprant effects on Lp(a), ApoB, non-HDL-C, Apo A1, and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio across patient subgroups. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2012;12(3):197-206.  (PubMed)

58.  Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(22):1583-1592.  (PubMed)

59.  Vittone F, Chait A, Morse JS, Fish B, Brown BG, Zhao XQ. Niacin plus Simvastatin Reduces Coronary Stenosis Progression Among Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Despite a Modest Increase in Insulin Resistance: A Subgroup Analysis of the HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS). J Clin Lipidol. 2007;1(3):203-210.  (PubMed)

60.  Zhao XQ, Morse JS, Dowdy AA, et al. Safety and tolerability of simvastatin plus niacin in patients with coronary artery disease and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (The HDL Atherosclerosis Treatment Study). Am J Cardiol. 2004;93(3):307-312.  (PubMed)

61.  Sazonov V, Maccubbin D, Sisk CM, Canner PL. Effects of niacin on the incidence of new onset diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with normoglycaemia and impaired fasting glucose. Int J Clin Pract. 2013;67(4):297-302.  (PubMed)

62.  Taylor AJ, Sullenberger LE, Lee HJ, Lee JK, Grace KA. Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol (ARBITER) 2: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of extended-release niacin on atherosclerosis progression in secondary prevention patients treated with statins. Circulation. 2004;110(23):3512-3517.  (PubMed)

63.  Taylor AJ, Zhu D, Sullenberger LE, Lee HJ, Lee JK, Grace KA. Relationship between glycemic status and progression of carotid intima-media thickness during treatment with combined statin and extended-release niacin in ARBITER 2. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(1):159-164.  (PubMed)

64.  Villines TC, Stanek EJ, Devine PJ, et al. The ARBITER 6-HALTS Trial (Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis): final results and the impact of medication adherence, dose, and treatment duration. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(24):2721-2726.  (PubMed)

65.  McKenney J. New perspectives on the use of niacin in the treatment of lipid disorders. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(7):697-705.  (PubMed)

66.  Wink J, Giacoppe G, King J. Effect of very-low-dose niacin on high-density lipoprotein in patients undergoing long-term statin therapy. Am Heart J. 2002;143(3):514-518.  (PubMed)

67.  Brown RR, Ozaki Y, Datta SP, Borden EC, Sondel PM, Malone DG. Implications of interferon-induced tryptophan catabolism in cancer, auto-immune diseases and AIDS. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;294:425-435.  (PubMed)

68.  Taylor EW. The oxidative stress-induced niacin sink (OSINS) model for HIV pathogenesis. Toxicology. 2010;278(1):124-130.  (PubMed)

69.  Dunham RM, Gordon SN, Vaccari M, et al. Preclinical evaluation of HIV eradication strategies in the simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaque: a pilot study testing inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29(2):207-214.  (PubMed)

70.  Tang AM, Graham NM, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143(12):1244-1256.  (PubMed)

71.  Murray MF, Langan M, MacGregor RR. Increased plasma tryptophan in HIV-infected patients treated with pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide. Nutrition. 2001;17(7-8):654-656.  (PubMed)

72.  Dube MP, Lipshultz SE, Fichtenbaum CJ, et al. Effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy on the heart and vasculature. Circulation. 2008;118(2):e36-40.  (PubMed)

73.  Carr A, Samaras K, Burton S, et al. A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors. AIDS. 1998;12(7):F51-58.  (PubMed)

74.  Giannarelli C, Klein RS, Badimon JJ. Cardiovascular implications of HIV-induced dyslipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219(2):384-389.  (PubMed)

75.  Chow DC, Stein JH, Seto TB, et al. Short-term effects of extended-release niacin on endothelial function in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2010;24(7):1019-1023.  (PubMed)

76.  Balasubramanyam A, Coraza I, Smith EO, et al. Combination of niacin and fenofibrate with lifestyle changes improves dyslipidemia and hypoadiponectinemia in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: results of "heart positive," a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):2236-2247.  (PubMed)

77.  Hoffer LJ. Vitamin therapy in schizophrenia. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2008;45(1):3-10.  (PubMed)

78.  Pauling L. Orthomolecular psychiatry. Varying the concentrations of substances normally present in the human body may control mental disease. Science. 1968;160(3825):265-271.  (PubMed)

79.  Seybolt SE. Is it time to reassess alpha lipoic acid and niacinamide therapy in schizophrenia? Med Hypotheses. 2010;75(6):572-575.  (PubMed)

80.  Zell M, Grundmann O. An orthomolecular approach to the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Adv Mind Body Med. 2012;26(2):14-28.  (PubMed)

81.  Messamore E. Niacin subsensitivity is associated with functional impairment in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2012;137(1-3):180-184.  (PubMed)

82.  Horrobin DF. The membrane phospholipid hypothesis as a biochemical basis for the neurodevelopmental concept of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1998;30(3):193-208.  (PubMed)

83.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. 2012. Available at: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/. Accessed 6/24/13.

84.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

85.  Vitamins. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:6-33.

86.  Knopp RH. Evaluating niacin in its various forms. Am J Cardiol. 2000;86(12A):51L-56L.  (PubMed)

87.  Kar S, Chockalingam A. Statin-associated rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure complicated by intradialytic NSTEMI: a review of lipid management considerations. Am J Ther. 2013;20(1):57-60.  (PubMed)

88.  Cziraky MJ, Willey VJ, McKenney JM, et al. Risk of hospitalized rhabdomyolysis associated with lipid-lowering drugs in a real-world clinical setting. J Clin Lipidol. 2013;7(2):102-108.  (PubMed)

89.  Maccubbin DL, Chen F, Anderson JW, et al. Effectiveness and safety of laropiprant on niacin-induced flushing. Am J Cardiol. 2012;110(6):817-822.  (PubMed)

90.  HPS2-THRIVE Collaborative Group. HPS2-THRIVE randomized placebo-controlled trial in 25 673 high-risk patients of ER niacin/laropiprant: trial design, pre-specified muscle and liver outcomes, and reasons for stopping study treatment. Eur Heart J. 2013;34(17):1279-1291.  (PubMed)

91.  Lewey J, Shrank WH, Bowry AD, Kilabuk E, Brennan TA, Choudhry NK. Gender and racial disparities in adherence to statin therapy: a meta-analysis. Am Heart J. 2013;165(5):665-678, 678 e661.  (PubMed)

92.  Cheung MC, Zhao XQ, Chait A, Albers JJ, Brown BG. Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21(8):1320-1326.  (PubMed)

93.  Brown BG, Cheung MC, Lee AC, Zhao XQ, Chait A. Antioxidant vitamins and lipid therapy: end of a long romance? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22(10):1535-1546.  (PubMed)