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Centro de Información de Micronutrientes

Referencias: Vitamina E


1.  Traber MG. Utilization of vitamin E. Biofactors. 1999;10(2-3):115-120. (PubMed)

2.  Traber MG. Vitamin E. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkiins; 2006:396-411.

3.  Bruno RS, Leonard SW, Atkinson J, et al. Faster plasma vitamin E disappearance in smokers is normalized by vitamin C supplementation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;40(4):689-697. (PubMed)

4.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin E. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:186-283. (National Academy Press)

5.  Traber MG. Does vitamin E decrease heart attack risk? summary and implications with respect to dietary recommendations. J Nutr. 2001;131(2):395S-397S. (PubMed)

6.  Traber MG. Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms. Annu Rev Nutr. 2007;27:347-362. (PubMed)

7.  Traber MG, Elsner A, Brigelius-Flohe R. Synthetic as compared with natural vitamin E is preferentially excreted as alpha-CEHC in human urine: studies using deuterated alpha-tocopheryl acetates. FEBS Lett. 1998;437(1-2):145-148. (PubMed)

8.  Christen S, Woodall AA, Shigenaga MK, Southwell-Keely PT, Duncan MW, Ames BN. gamma-tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO(X) and complements alpha-tocopherol: physiological implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94(7):3217-3222. (PubMed)

 9.  Li D, Saldeen T, Mehta JL. gamma-tocopherol decreases ox-LDL-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;259(1):157-161. (PubMed)

10.  Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(24):2018-2023. (PubMed)

11.  Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, Ames BN. gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(6):714-722. (PubMed)

12.  Traber MG. Vitamin E. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 9th ed. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:211-219.

13.  Ford ES, Sowell A. Serum alpha-tocopherol status in the United States population: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(3):290-300. (PubMed)

14.  Fulgoni VL 3rd, Keast DR, Bailey, Dwyer J. Foods, fortificants, and supplements: where do Americans get their nutrients? J Nutr. 2011;141(10):18-47-1854. (PubMed)

15.  Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R, Heliovaara M, Aromaa A. Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139(12):1180-1189. (PubMed)

16.  Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y, Bostick RM. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(18):1156-1162. (PubMed)

17.  Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(20):1450-1456. (PubMed)

18.  Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(20):1444-1449. (PubMed)

19.  Cherubini A, Zuliani G, Costantini F, et al. High vitamin E plasma levels and low low-density lipoprotein oxidation are associated with the absence of atherosclerosis in octogenarians. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(5):651-654. (PubMed)

20.  Gale CR, Ashurst HE, Powers HJ, Martyn CN. Antioxidant vitamin status and carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(3):402-408. (PubMed)

21.  McQuillan BM, Hung J, Beilby JP, Nidorf M, Thompson PL. Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis. The Perth Carotid Ultrasound Disease Assessment study (CUDAS). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38(7):1788-1794. (PubMed)

22.  Simon E, Gariepy J, Cogny A, Moatti N, Simon A, Paul JL. Erythrocyte, but not plasma, vitamin E concentration is associated with carotid intima-media thickening in asymptomatic men at risk for cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2001;159(1):193-200. (PubMed)

23.  Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;294(1):56-65. (PubMed)

24.  Glynn RJ, Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Zee RY, Buring JE. Effects of random allocation to vitamin E supplementation on the occurrence of venous thromboembolism: report from the Women's Health Study. Circulation. 2007;116(13):1497-1503. (PubMed)

25.  Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300(18):2123-2133. (PubMed)

26.  Traber MG, Frei B, Beckman JS. Vitamin E revisited: do new data validate benefits for chronic disease prevention? Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008;19(1):30-38. (PubMed)

27.  West AL, Oren GA, Moroi SE. Evidence for the use of nutritional supplements and herbal medicines in common eye diseases. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141(1):157-166. (PubMed)

28.  A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(10):1439-1452. (PubMed)

29.  Gritz DC, Srinivasan M, Smith SD, et al. The Antioxidants in Prevention of Cataracts Study: effects of antioxidant supplements on cataract progression in South India. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90(7):847-851. (PubMed)

30.  McNeil JJ, Robman L, Tikellis G, Sinclair MI, McCarty CA, Taylor HR. Vitamin E supplementation and cataract: randomized controlled trial. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(1):75-84. (PubMed)

31.  Teikari JM, Rautalahti M, Haukka J, et al. Incidence of cataract operations in Finnish male smokers unaffected by alpha tocopherol or beta carotene supplements. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52(7):468-472. (PubMed)

32.  Meydani SN, Meydani M, Blumberg JB, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997;277(17):1380-1386. (PubMed)

33.  Han SN, Meydani SN. Vitamin E and infectious diseases in the aged. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58(3):697-705. (PubMed)

34.  Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, et al. Vitamin E and respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(7):828-836. (PubMed)

35.  Slatore CG, Littman AJ, Au DH, Satia JA, White E. Long-term use of supplemental multivitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E, and folate does not reduce the risk of lung cancer. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177(5):524-530. (PubMed)

36.  Alkhenizan A, Hafez K. The role of vitamin E in the prevention of cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Saudi Med. 2007;27(6):409-414. (PubMed)

37.  Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90(6):440-446. (PubMed)

38.  Gaziano JM, Glynn RJ, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301(1):52-62. (PubMed)

39.  Klein EA, Thompson IM, Lippman SM, et al. SELECT: the next prostate cancer prevention trial. Selenum and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. J Urol. 2001;166(4):1311-1315. (PubMed)

40.  National Cancer Institute. Review of Prostate Cancer Prevention Study Shows No Benefit for Use of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplements. [Web page]. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/pressreleases/SELECTresults2008. Accessed 10/28/08.

41.  Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009;301(1):39-51.  (PubMed)

42.  Klein EA, Thompson IM, Jr., Tangen CM, et al. Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 306(14):1549-1556. (PubMed)

43.  Azen SP, Qian D, Mack WJ, et al. Effect of supplementary antioxidant vitamin intake on carotid arterial wall intima-media thickness in a controlled clinical trial of cholesterol lowering. Circulation. 1996;94(10):2369-2372. (PubMed)

44.  Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, Kelly F, Cheeseman K, Mitchinson MJ. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet. 1996;347(9004):781-786. (PubMed)

45.  Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, et al. Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2000;356(9237):1213-1218. (PubMed)

46.  Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1997;349(9067):1715-1720. (PubMed)

47.  Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, Bosch J, Sleight P. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(3):154-160. (PubMed)

48.  Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999;354(9177):447-455. (PubMed)

49.  Lonn E, Bosch J, Yusuf S, et al. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293(11):1338-1347. (PubMed)

50.  Roberts LJ 2nd, Oats JA, Linton MF, et al. The relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humans. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43(10):1388-1393. (PubMed)

51.  Davi G, Ciabattoni G, Consoli A, et al. In vivo formation of 8-iso-prostaglandin f2alpha and platelet activation in diabetes mellitus: effects of improved metabolic control and vitamin E supplementation. Circulation. 1999;99(2):224-229. (PubMed)

52.  Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Varricchio M, D'Onofrio F. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57(5):650-656. (PubMed)

53.  Paolisso G, Di Maro G, Galzerano D, et al. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(6):1291-1296. (PubMed)

54.  Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1993;16(11):1433-1437. (PubMed)

55.  Reaven PD, Herold DA, Barnett J, Edelman S. Effects of Vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(6):807-816. (PubMed)

56.  Jain SK, McVie R, Jaramillo JJ, Palmer M, Smith T. Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type I diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15(5):458-461. (PubMed)

57.  Meydani M. Antioxidants and cognitive function. Nutr Rev. 2001;59(8 Pt 2):S75-80; discussion S80-72.

58.  Kontush K, Schekatolina S. Vitamin E in neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1031:249-262. (PubMed)

59.  Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG, et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(17):1216-1222. (PubMed)

60.  Petersen RC, Thomas RG, Grundman M, et al. Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(23):2379-2388. (PubMed)

61.  Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, et al. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology. 2000;54(6):1265-1272. (PubMed)

62.  Yu W, Sanders BG, Kline K. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cells involves Bax translocation to mitochondria. Cancer Res. 2003;63(10):2483-2491. (PubMed)

63.  You H, Yu W, Munoz-Medellin D, Brown PH, Sanders BG, Kline K. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate-induced differentiation of human MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2002;33(4):228-236. (PubMed)

64.  Neuzil J, Weber T, Schroder A, et al. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by alpha-tocopheryl succinate: molecular pathways and structural requirements. FASEB J. 2001;15(2):403-415. (PubMed)

65.  Brigelius-Flohe R, Kelly FJ, Salonen JT, Neuzil J, Zingg JM, Azzi A. The European perspective on vitamin E: current knowledge and future research. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(4):703-716. (PubMed)

66.  Weber T, Lu M, Andera L, et al. Vitamin E succinate is a potent novel antineoplastic agent with high selectivity and cooperativity with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2 ligand) in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(3):863-869. (PubMed)

67.  Malafa MP, Fokum FD, Mowlavi A, Abusief M, King M. Vitamin E inhibits melanoma growth in mice. Surgery. 2002;131(1):85-91. (PubMed)

68.  Malafa MP, Neitzel LT. Vitamin E succinate promotes breast cancer tumor dormancy. J Surg Res. 2000;93(1):163-170. (PubMed)

69.  Quin J, Engle D, Litwiller A, et al. Vitamin E succinate decreases lung cancer tumor growth in mice. J Surg Res. 2005;127(2):139-143. (PubMed)

70.  Cheeseman KH, Holley AE, Kelly FJ, Wasil M, Hughes L, Burton G. Biokinetics in humans of RRR-alpha-tocopherol: the free phenol, acetate ester, and succinate ester forms of vitamin E. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995;19(5):591-598. (PubMed)

71.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

72.  Berson EL, Rosner B, Sandberg MA, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(6):761-772. (PubMed)

73.  Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(1):37-46. (PubMed)

74.  Shekelle PG, Morton SC, Jungvig LK, et al. Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19(4):380-389. (PubMed)

75.  Eidelman RS, Hollar D, Hebert PR, Lamas GA, Hennekens CH. Randomized trials of vitamin E in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(14):1552-1556. (PubMed)

76.   Abner EL, Schmitt FA, Mendiondo MS, Marcum JL, Kryscio RJ. Vitamin E and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Curr Aging Sci. 2011 Jan 14; [Epub ahead of print] (PubMed)

77.  Vivekananthan DP, Penn MS, Sapp SK, Hsu A, Topol EJ. Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2003;361(9374):2017-2023. (PubMed)

78.  Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2007;297(8):842-857. (PubMed)

79.  Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(22):1583-1592. (PubMed)

80.  Collins R, Peto R, Armitage J. The MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study: preliminary results. Int J Clin Pract. 2002;56(1):53-56. (PubMed)