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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Micronutrients and Bone Health


1.  Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of medical physiology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1996.

2.  Thompson J, Manore M. Nutrition: an applied approach. 2nd ed. San Francisco, Calif.: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings; 2009.

3.  Nordin BE, Need AG, Chatterton BE, Horowitz M, Morris HA. The relative contributions of age and years since menopause to postmenopausal bone loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990;70:83-88.  (PubMed)

4.  Heaney RP, Abrams S, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Peak bone mass. Osteoporos Int. 2000;11:985-1009.  (PubMed)

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8.  Heaney RP. The bone-remodeling transient: implications for the interpretation of clinical studies of bone mass change. J Bone Miner Res. 1994;9:1515-1523.  (PubMed)

9.  Raisz LG. Bone physiology: bone cells, modeling, and remodeling. In: Holick MF, Dawson-Hughes B, eds. Nutrition and bone health. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004:43-62.

10.  Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium supplementation and bone loss: a review of controlled clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:274S-280S.  (PubMed)

11.  Heaney RP. Constructive interactions among nutrients and bone-active pharmacologic agents with principal emphasis on calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and protein. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20:403S-409S; discussion 17S-20S.  (PubMed)

12.  Bonewald LF. The amazing osteocyte. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:229-238.  (PubMed)

13.  Khosla S, Oursler MJ, Monroe DG. Estrogen and the skeleton. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2012. [Epub ahead of print]  (PubMed)

14.  Marcus R. Osteoporosis. In: Coulston AM, Boushey C, eds. Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2nd ed. Amsterdam, Boston: Academic Press; 2008:853-869.

15.  Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B. Heritable and life-style determinants of bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res. 1993;8:1-9.  (PubMed)

16.  Gafni RI, Baron J. Childhood bone mass acquisition and peak bone mass may not be important determinants of bone mass in late adulthood. Pediatrics. 2007;119 Suppl 2:S131-S136.  (PubMed)

17.  Schonau E. The peak bone mass concept: is it still relevant? Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19:825-831.  (PubMed)

18.  Krolner B, Pors Nielsen S. Bone mineral content of the lumbar spine in normal and osteoporotic women: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Clin Sci (Lond). 1982;62:329-336.  (PubMed)

19.  Gallagher JC, Goldgar D, Moy A. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status. J Bone Miner Res. 1987;2:491-496.  (PubMed)

20.  Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999.

21.  Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium and vitamin D for bone health in adults. In: Holick MF, Dawson-Hughes B, eds. Nutrition and bone health. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004:197-210.

22.  Ahmadieh H, Arabi A. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D. Nutr Rev. 2011;69:584-598.  (PubMed)

23.  Palacios C. The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46:621-628.  (PubMed)

24.  Fulgoni VL, 3rd, Keast DR, Bailey RL, Dwyer J. Foods, fortificants, and supplements: Where do Americans get their nutrients? J Nutr. 2011;141:1847-1854.  (PubMed)

25.  Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:669-683.  (PubMed)

26.  Reid IR, Mason B, Horne A, et al. Randomized controlled trial of calcium in healthy older women. Am J Med. 2006;119:777-785.  (PubMed)

27.  Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, et al. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:1637-1642.  (PubMed)

28.  Shea B, Wells G, Cranney A, et al. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VII. Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev. 2002;23:552-559.  (PubMed)

29.  Tang BM, Eslick GD, Nowson C, Smith C, Bensoussan A. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370:657-666.  (PubMed)

30.  Hunt CD, Johnson LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance data from metabolic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1054-1063.  (PubMed)

31.  Council NR. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, D.C. : The National Academies Press; 2011.

32.  Bolland MJ, Grey A, Avenell A, Gamble GD, Reid IR. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular events: reanalysis of the Women's Health Initiative limited access dataset and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011;342:d2040.  (PubMed)

33.  Li K, Kaaks R, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S. Associations of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation with myocardial infarction and stroke risk and overall cardiovascular mortality in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC-Heidelberg). Heart. 2012;98:920-925.  (PubMed)

34.  Heaney RP. Sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. In: Holick MF, Dawson-Hughes B, eds. Nutrition and bone health. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004:327-344.

35.  Heaney RP, Rafferty K. Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:343-347.  (PubMed)

36.  Ringe JD. Fluoride and bone health. In: Holick MF, Dawson-Hughes B, eds. Nutrition and bone health. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004:345-62.

37.  McDonagh MS, Whiting PF, Wilson PM, et al. Systematic review of water fluoridation. BMJ. 2000;321:855-589.  (PubMed)

38.  Farley JR, Wergedal JE, Baylink DJ. Fluoride directly stimulates proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of bone-forming cells. Science. 1983;222:330-332.  (PubMed)

39.  Meunier PJ, Sebert JL, Reginster JY, et al. Fluoride salts are no better at preventing new vertebral fractures than calcium-vitamin D in postmenopausal osteoporosis: the FAVOStudy. Osteoporos Int. 1998;8:4-12.  (PubMed)

40.  Haguenauer D, Welch V, Shea B, Tugwell P, Adachi JD, Wells G. Fluoride for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2000;11:727-738.  (PubMed)

41.  Phipps KR, Orwoll ES, Mason JD, Cauley JA. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women. BMJ. 2000;321:860-864.  (PubMed)

42.  Li Y, Liang C, Slemenda CW, et al. Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16:932-939.  (PubMed)

43.  Fatemi S, Ryzen E, Flores J, Endres DB, Rude RK. Effect of experimental human magnesium depletion on parathyroid hormone secretion and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991;73:1067-1072.  (PubMed)

44.  Stendig-Lindberg G, Tepper R, Leichter I. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnes Res. 1993;6:155-163.  (PubMed)

45.  Dawson-Hughes B, Fowler SE, Dalsky G, Gallagher C. Sodium excretion influences calcium homeostasis in elderly men and women. J Nutr. 1996;126:2107-2112.  (PubMed)

46.  Mellanby E. Skeletal changes affecting the nervous system produced in young dogs by diets deficient in vitamin a. J Physiol. 1941;99:467-486.  (PubMed)

47.  Mellanby E. Vitamin A and bone growth: the reversibility of vitamin A-deficiency changes. J Physiol. 1947;105:382-399.  (PubMed)

48.  Binkley N, Krueger D. Hypervitaminosis A and bone. Nutr Rev. 2000;58:138-144.  (PubMed)

49.  Hathcock JN, Hattan DG, Jenkins MY, McDonald JT, Sundaresan PR, Wilkening VL. Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:183-202.  (PubMed)

50.  McGuire J, Lawson JP. Skeletal changes associated with chronic isotretinoin and etretinate administration. Dermatologica. 1987;175 Suppl 1:169-181.  (PubMed)

51.  Barker ME, Blumsohn A. Is vitamin A consumption a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture? Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62:845-850.  (PubMed)

52.  Genaro Pde S, Martini LA. Vitamin A supplementation and risk of skeletal fracture. Nutr Rev. 2004;62:65-67.  (PubMed)

53.  Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A, et al. Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129:770-778.  (PubMed)

54.  Promislow JH, Goodman-Gruen D, Slymen DJ, Barrett-Connor E. Retinol intake and bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:1349-1358.  (PubMed)

55.  Feskanich D, Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;287:47-54.  (PubMed)

56.  Ribaya-Mercado JD, Blumberg JB. Vitamin A: is it a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture? Nutr Rev. 2007;65:425-438.  (PubMed)

57.  Ballew C, Galuska D, Gillespie C. High serum retinyl esters are not associated with reduced bone mineral density in the Third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16:2306-2312.  (PubMed)

58.  Lim LS, Harnack LJ, Lazovich D, Folsom AR. Vitamin A intake and the risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Osteoporos Int. 2004;15:552-559.  (PubMed)

59.  DeLuca HF. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1689S-1696S.  (PubMed)

60.  Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Shao A, Dawson-Hughes B, Hathcock J, Giovannucci E, Willett WC. Benefit-risk assessment of vitamin D supplementation. Osteoporos Int. 2010;21:1121-1132.  (PubMed)

61.  Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2005;293:2257-2264.  (PubMed)

62.  Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, et al. Prevention of nonvertebral fractures with oral vitamin D and dose dependency: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:551-561.  (PubMed)

63.  Boonen S, Lips P, Bouillon R, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Vanderschueren D, Haentjens P. Need for additional calcium to reduce the risk of hip fracture with vitamin d supplementation: evidence from a comparative metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1415-1423.  (PubMed)

64.  Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Orav EJ, et al. A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:40-49.  (PubMed)

65.  Gallagher JC, Sai A, Templin T, 2nd, Smith L. Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal women: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:425-437.  (PubMed)

66.  Grimnes G, Joakimsen R, Figenschau Y, Torjesen PA, Almas B, Jorde R. The effect of high-dose vitamin D on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with low bone mass--a randomized controlled 1-year trial. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:201-211.  (PubMed)

67.  Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Williamson EJ, et al. Annual high-dose oral vitamin D and falls and fractures in older women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;303:1815-1822.  (PubMed)

68.  Booth SL, Charette AM. Vitamin K, oral anticoagulants, and bone health. In: Holick MF, Dawson-Hughes B, eds. Nutrition and bone health. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004:457-478.

69.  Binkley N, Harke J, Krueger D, et al. Vitamin K treatment reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin but does not alter bone turnover, density, or geometry in healthy postmenopausal North American women. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:983-991.  (PubMed)

70.  Shea MK, Booth SL. Update on the role of vitamin K in skeletal health. Nutr Rev. 2008;66:549-557.  (PubMed)

71.  Cheung AM, Tile L, Lee Y, et al. Vitamin K supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (ECKO trial): a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med 2008;5:e196.  (PubMed)

72.  Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1256-1261.  (PubMed)

73.  Kanellakis S, Moschonis G, Tenta R, et al. Changes in Parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012;90:251-262.  (PubMed)

74.  Moschonis G, Kanellakis S, Papaioannou N, Schaafsma A, Manios Y. Possible site-specific effect of an intervention combining nutrition and lifestyle counselling with consumption of fortified dairy products on bone mass: the Postmenopausal Health Study II. J Bone Miner Metab. 2011;29:501-506.  (PubMed)

75.  Masse PG, Jougleux JL, C CT, Dosy J, Caissie M, S PC. Enhancement of calcium/vitamin d supplement efficacy by administering concomitantly three key nutrients essential to bone collagen matrix for the treatment of osteopenia in middle-aged women: a one-year follow-up. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010;46:20-29.  (PubMed)

76.  Poal-Manresa J, Little K, Trueta J. Some observations on the effects of vitamin C deficiency on bone. Br J Exp Pathol. 1970;51:372-378.  (PubMed)

77.  Mizushima Y, Harauchi T, Yoshizaki T, Makino S. A rat mutant unable to synthesize vitamin C. Experientia. 1984;40:359-361.  (PubMed)

78.  Hasegawa T, Li M, Hara K, et al. Morphological assessment of bone mineralization in tibial metaphyses of ascorbic acid-deficient ODS rats. Biomed Res. 2011;32:259-269.  (PubMed)

79.  Herrmann M, Widmann T, Herrmann W. Homocysteine--a newly recognised risk factor for osteoporosis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43:1111-1117.  (PubMed)

80.  Liu G, Nellaiappan K, Kagan HM. Irreversible inhibition of lysyl oxidase by homocysteine thiolactone and its selenium and oxygen analogues. Implications for homocystinuria. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:32370-32377.  (PubMed)

81.  Raposo B, Rodriguez C, Martinez-Gonzalez J, Badimon L. High levels of homocysteine inhibit lysyl oxidase (LOX) and downregulate LOX expression in vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis. 2004;177:1-8.  (PubMed)

82.  Herrmann M, Schmidt J, Umanskaya N, et al. Stimulation of osteoclast activity by low B-vitamin concentrations. Bone. 2007;41:584-591.  (PubMed)

83.  Levasseur R. Bone tissue and hyperhomocysteinemia. Joint Bone Spine. 2009;76:234-240.  (PubMed)

84.  Gjesdal CG, Vollset SE, Ueland PM, Refsum H, Meyer HE, Tell GS. Plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B 12 and the risk of hip fracture: the hordaland homocysteine study. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:747-756.  (PubMed)

85.  van Meurs JB, Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, Pluijm SM, et al. Homocysteine levels and the risk of osteoporotic fracture. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2033-2041.  (PubMed)

86.  McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, et al. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in older persons. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2042-2049.  (PubMed)

87.  Gerdhem P, Ivaska KK, Isaksson A, et al. Associations between homocysteine, bone turnover, BMD, mortality, and fracture risk in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:127-134.  (PubMed)

88.  Perier MA, Gineyts E, Munoz F, Sornay-Rendu E, Delmas PD. Homocysteine and fracture risk in postmenopausal women: the OFELY study. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18:1329-1336.  (PubMed)

89.  Ravaglia G, Forti P, Maioli F, et al. Folate, but not homocysteine, predicts the risk of fracture in elderly persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60:1458-1462.  (PubMed)

90.  Yang J, Hu X, Zhang Q, Cao H, Wang J, Liu B. Homocysteine level and risk of fracture: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Bone. 2012;51:376-382.  (PubMed)

91.  Sawka AM, Ray JG, Yi Q, Josse RG, Lonn E. Randomized clinical trial of homocysteine level lowering therapy and fractures. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2136-2139.  (PubMed)

92.  van Wijngaarden JP, Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Schoor NM, et al. Rationale and design of the B-PROOF study, a randomized controlled trial on the effect of supplemental intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid on fracture incidence. BMC Geriatr. 2011;11:80.  (PubMed)

93.  Wong PK, Christie JJ, Wark JD. The effects of smoking on bone health. Clin Sci (Lond). 2007;113:233-241.  (PubMed)

94.  Yoon V, Maalouf NM, Sakhaee K. The effects of smoking on bone metabolism. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:2081-2092.  (PubMed)

95.  Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, et al. Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:155-162.  (PubMed)

96.  Law MR, Hackshaw AK. A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture: recognition of a major effect. BMJ. 1997;315:841-846.  (PubMed)

97.  Ward KD, Klesges RC. A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;68:259-270.  (PubMed)

98.  Maurel DB, Boisseau N, Benhamou CL, Jaffre C. Alcohol and bone: review of dose effects and mechanisms. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:1-16.  (PubMed)

99.  Kiel DP. Smoking, alcohol, and bone health. In: Holick MF, Dawson-Hughes B, eds. Nutrition and bone health. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004:481-513.

100.  Kohrt WM, Bloomfield SA, Little KD, Nelson ME, Yingling VR. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: physical activity and bone health. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1985-1996.  (PubMed)

101.  Singh MAF. Exercise and bone health. In: Holick MF, Dawson-Hughes B, eds. Nutrition and bone health. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004:515-548.