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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Alcoholic Beverages

1.  Ecker RR, Klatsky AL. Doctor, should I have a drink? An algorithm for health professionals. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;957:317-320.  (PubMed)

2.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans [Web site]. Available at: Accessed November 4, 2003.

3.  Klatsky AL. Drink to your health? Sci Am. 2003;288(2):74-81.  (PubMed)

4.  National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Helping Patients Who Drink to Much: A Clinician's Guide [Web page]. February 2006. Available at: Practitioner/CliniciansGuide2005/clinicians_guide.htm. Accessed October 3, 2007.

5.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture. If You Drink Alcoholic Beverages, Do So in Moderation [Web page]. Available at: Accessed December 6, 2007.

6.  National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol alert: Are women more vulnerable to alcohol's effects? [Web page]. October, 2000. Available at: Accessed January 21, 2004.

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8.  Goldberg IJ, Mosca L, Piano MR, Fisher EA. AHA Science Advisory: Wine and your heart: a science advisory for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001;103(3):472-475.  (PubMed)

9.  Corrao G, Rubbiati L, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, Poikolainen K. Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Addiction. 2000;95(10):1505-1523.  (PubMed)

10.  Mukamal KJ, Conigrave KM, Mittleman MA, et al. Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(2):109-118.  (PubMed)

11.  Klatsky AL, Friedman GD, Armstrong MA, Kipp H. Wine, liquor, beer, and mortality. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(6):585-595.  (PubMed)

12. Klatsky AL, Chartier D, Udaltsova N, et al. Alcohol drinking and risk of hospitalization for heart failure with and without associated coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96(3):346-351.   (PubMed)

13.  Djousse L, Gaziano JM. Alcohol consumption and risk of heart failure in the Physicians' Health Study I. Circulation. 2007;115(1):34-39.  (PubMed)

14.  Ross R. Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(2):115-126.  (PubMed)

15.  Rader DJ. Regulation of reverse cholesterol transport and clinical implications. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92(4A):42J-49J.  (PubMed)

16.  Rimm EB, Williams P, Fosher K, Criqui M, Stampfer MJ. Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors. BMJ. 1999;319(7224):1523-1528.  (PubMed)

17.  Albert MA, Glynn RJ, Ridker PM. Alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. Circulation. 2003;107(3):443-447.  (PubMed)

18.  Stewart SH, Mainous AG, 3rd, Gilbert G. Relation between alcohol consumption and C-reactive protein levels in the adult US population. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2002;15(6):437-442.  (PubMed)

19.  Imhof A, Froehlich M, Brenner H, Boeing H, Pepys MB, Koenig W. Effect of alcohol consumption on systemic markers of inflammation. Lancet. 2001;357(9258):763-767.  (PubMed)

20.  Sierksma A, van der Gaag MS, Kluft C, Hendriks HF. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels; a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(11):1130-1136.  (PubMed)

21.  O'Keefe JH, Bybee KA, Lavie CJ. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the razor-sharp double-edged sword. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50(11):1009-1014.  (PubMed)

22.  St Leger AS, Cochrane AL, Moore F. Factors associated with cardiac mortality in developed countries with particular reference to the consumption of wine. Lancet. 1979;1(8124):1017-1020.  (PubMed)

23.  Criqui MH, Ringel BL. Does diet or alcohol explain the French paradox? Lancet. 1994;344(8939-8940):1719-1723.  (PubMed)

24.  German JB, Walzem RL. The health benefits of wine. Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:561-593.  (PubMed)

25.  Renaud SC, Gueguen R, Siest G, Salamon R. Wine, beer, and mortality in middle-aged men from eastern France. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(16):1865-1870.  (PubMed)

26.  Gronbaek M, Becker U, Johansen D, et al. Type of alcohol consumed and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cancer. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133(6):411-419.  (PubMed)

27.  Rimm EB, Klatsky A, Grobbee D, Stampfer MJ. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits. BMJ. 1996;312(7033):731-736.  (PubMed)

28.  Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG. Type of alcoholic drink and risk of major coronary heart disease events and all-cause mortality. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(5):685-690.  (PubMed)

29.  Mortensen EL, Jensen HH, Sanders SA, Reinisch JM. Better psychological functioning and higher social status may largely explain the apparent health benefits of wine: a study of wine and beer drinking in young Danish adults. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(15):1844-1848.  (PubMed)

30.  Barefoot JC, Gronbaek M, Feaganes JR, McPherson RS, Williams RB, Siegler IC. Alcoholic beverage preference, diet, and health habits in the UNC Alumni Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(2):466-472.  (PubMed)

31.  McCann SE, Sempos C, Freudenheim JL, et al. Alcoholic beverage preference and characteristics of drinkers and nondrinkers in western New York (United States). Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2003;13(1):2-11.  (PubMed)

32.  American Stroke Association. What is a stroke? [Web page]. Available at: Accessed October 3, 2007.

33.  Berger K, Ajani UA, Kase CS, et al. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of stroke among U.S. male physicians. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(21):1557-1564.  (PubMed)

34.  Sacco RL, Elkind M, Boden-Albala B, et al. The protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on ischemic stroke. JAMA. 1999;281(1):53-60.  (PubMed)

35.  Malarcher AM, Giles WH, Croft JB, et al. Alcohol intake, type of beverage, and the risk of cerebral infarction in young women. Stroke. 2001;32(1):77-83.  (PubMed)

36.  Mukamal KJ, Chung H, Jenny NS, et al. Alcohol use and risk of ischemic stroke among older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Stroke. 2005;36(9):1830-1834.  (PubMed)

37.  Reynolds K, Lewis B, Nolen JD, Kinney GL, Sathya B, He J. Alcohol consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003;289(5):579-588.  (PubMed)

38.  Mills JL. Peripheral arterial disease. In: Rakel RE, Bope ET, eds. Rakel: Conn's Current Therapy 2002. 54th ed. New York: W. B. Saunders Company; 2002:340-343.

39.  Vliegenthart R, Geleijnse JM, Hofman A, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease: the Rotterdam study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(4):332-338.  (PubMed)

40.  Camargo CA, Jr., Stampfer MJ, Glynn RJ, et al. Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease in US male physicians. Circulation. 1997;95(3):577-580.  (PubMed)

41.  Djousse L, Levy D, Murabito JM, Cupples LA, Ellison RC. Alcohol consumption and risk of intermittent claudication in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2000;102(25):3092-3097.  (PubMed)

42.  Tsumura K, Hayashi T, Suematsu C, Endo G, Fujii S, Okada K. Daily alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men: the Osaka Health Survey. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(9):1432-1437.  (PubMed)

43.  Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Spelsberg A, Manson JE. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(7):1025-1030.  (PubMed)

44.  Conigrave KM, Hu BF, Camargo CA, Jr., Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rimm EB. A prospective study of drinking patterns in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes among men. Diabetes. 2001;50(10):2390-2395.  (PubMed)

45. Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(11):790-797.  (PubMed)

46.  Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Perry IJ, Alberti KG. Alcohol consumption and the incidence of type II diabetes. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002;56(7):542-548.  (PubMed)

47.  Wannamethee SG, Camargo CA, Jr., Manson JE, Willett WC, Rimm EB. Alcohol drinking patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among younger women. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(11):1329-1336.  (PubMed)

48.  Wei M, Gibbons LW, Mitchell TL, Kampert JB, Blair SN. Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(1):18-22.  (PubMed)

49.  de Vegt F, Dekker JM, Groeneveld WJ, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower risk for incident diabetes and mortality: the Hoorn Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002;57(1):53-60.  (PubMed)

50.  Nakanishi N, Suzuki K, Tatara K. Alcohol consumption and risk for development of impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):48-54.  (PubMed)

51.  Meisinger C, Thorand B, Schneider A, Stieber J, Doring A, Lowel H. Sex differences in risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the MONICA Augsburg cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(1):82-89.  (PubMed)

52.  Kao WH, Puddey IB, Boland LL, Watson RL, Brancati FL. Alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(8):748-757.  (PubMed)

53.  Holbrook TL, Barrett-Connor E, Wingard DL. A prospective population-based study of alcohol use and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132(5):902-909.  (PubMed)

54.  Koppes LL, Dekker JM, Hendriks HF, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):719-725.  (PubMed)

55.  Meyer KA, Conigrave KM, Chu NF, et al. Alcohol consumption patterns and HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin concentrations in men. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22(3):185-194.  (PubMed)

56.  Kenkre PV, Lindeman RD, Lillian Yau C, Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ. Serum insulin concentrations in daily drinkers compared with abstainers in the New Mexico elder health survey. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(10):M960-963.  (PubMed)

57.  Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Jenkins AB, Kelly PJ, Spector TD, Campbell LV. Moderate alcohol consumption, estrogen replacement therapy, and physical activity are associated with increased insulin sensitivity: is abdominal adiposity the mediator? Diabetes Care. 2003;26(10):2734-2740.  (PubMed)

58.  Orgogozo JM, Dartigues JF, Lafont S, et al. Wine consumption and dementia in the elderly: a prospective community study in the Bordeaux area. Rev Neurol (Paris). 1997;153(3):185-192.  (PubMed)

59.  Broe GA, Creasey H, Jorm AF, et al. Health habits and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in old age: a prospective study on the effects of exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998;22(5):621-623.  (PubMed)

60.  Mukamal KJ, Kuller LH, Fitzpatrick AL, Longstreth WT, Jr., Mittleman MA, Siscovick DS. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of dementia in older adults. JAMA. 2003;289(11):1405-1413.  (PubMed)

61.  Ruitenberg A, van Swieten JC, Witteman JC, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet. 2002;359(9303):281-286.  (PubMed)

62.  Stampfer MJ, Kang JH, Chen J, Cherry R, Grodstein F. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function in women. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(3):245-253.  (PubMed)

63.  Mukamal KJ, Longstreth WT, Jr., Mittleman MA, Crum RM, Siscovick DS. Alcohol consumption and subclinical findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Stroke. 2001;32(9):1939-1946.  (PubMed)

64.  Ding J, Eigenbrodt ML, Mosley TH, Jr., et al. Alcohol Intake and Cerebral Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Community-Based Population of Middle-Aged Adults. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Stroke. 2004;35(1):16-21.  (PubMed)

65.  Kato I, Nomura A, Stemmermann GN, Chyou PH. Prospective study of clinical gallbladder disease and its association with obesity, physical activity, and other factors. Dig Dis Sci. 1992;37(5):784-790.  (PubMed)

66.  Misciagna G, Leoci C, Guerra V, et al. Epidemiology of cholelithiasis in southern Italy. Part II: Risk factors. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996;8(6):585-593.  (PubMed)

67.  Leitzmann MF, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, et al. Prospective study of alcohol consumption patterns in relation to symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1999;23(5):835-841.  (PubMed)

68.  Leitzmann MF, Tsai CJ, Stampfer MJ, et al. Alcohol consumption in relation to risk of cholecystectomy in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(2):339-347.  (PubMed)

69.  Maclure KM, Hayes KC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Weight, diet, and the risk of symptomatic gallstones in middle-aged women. N Engl J Med. 1989;321(9):563-569.  (PubMed)

70.  Tseng M, Everhart JE, Sandler RS. Dietary intake and gallbladder disease: a review. Public Health Nutr. 1999;2(2):161-172.  (PubMed)

71.  Scragg RK, McMichael AJ, Baghurst PA. Diet, alcohol, and relative weight in gall stone disease: a case-control study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984;288(6424):1113-1119.  (PubMed)

72.  Singletary KW, Gapstur SM. Alcohol and breast cancer: review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence and potential mechanisms. JAMA. 2001;286(17):2143-2151.  (PubMed)

73.  Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al. Alcohol and breast cancer in women: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA. 1998;279(7):535-540.  (PubMed)

74.  Hamajima N, Hirose K, Tajima K, et al. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer--collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer. 2002;87(11):1234-1245.  (PubMed)

75.  Key J, Hodgson S, Omar RZ, et al. Meta-analysis of studies of alcohol and breast cancer with consideration of the methodological issues. Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17(6):759-770.  (PubMed)

76.  Dorgan JF, Baer DJ, Albert PS, et al. Serum hormones and the alcohol-breast cancer association in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93(9):710-715.  (PubMed)

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78.  Baglietto L, English DR, Gertig DM, Hopper JL, Giles GG. Does dietary folate intake modify effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk? Prospective cohort study. Bmj. 2005;331(7520):807.  (PubMed)

79.  Rohan TE, Jain MG, Howe GR, Miller AB. Dietary folate consumption and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(3):266-269.  (PubMed)

80.  Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Cerhan JR, et al. Dietary folate intake, alcohol, and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology. 2001;12(4):420-428.  (PubMed)

81.  Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. A prospective study of folate intake and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA. 1999;281(17):1632-1637.  (PubMed)

82.  Feigelson HS, Jonas CR, Robertson AS, McCullough ML, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(2):161-164.  (PubMed)

83.  American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Substance Abuse and Committee on Children With Disabilities. Fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatrics. 2000;106(2 Pt 1):358-361.  (PubMed)

84.  Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW. Drinking moderately and pregnancy. Effects on child development. Alcohol Res Health. 1999;23(1):25-30.  (PubMed)

85.  Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on child development. Alcohol Res Health. 2002;26(4):282-286.  (PubMed)

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94.  Koskinen P, Kupari M, Leinonen H. Role of alcohol in recurrences of atrial fibrillation in persons less than 65 years of age. Am J Cardiol. 1990;66(12):954-958.  (PubMed)

95.  Ruigomez A, Johansson S, Wallander MA, Rodriguez LA. Incidence of chronic atrial fibrillation in general practice and its treatment pattern. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55(4):358-363.  (PubMed)

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