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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Nuts


1.  Hu FB, Stampfer MJ. Nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 1999;1(3):204-209.  (PubMed)

2.  Kris-Etherton PM, Yu-Poth S, Sabate J, Ratcliffe HE, Zhao G, Etherton TD. Nuts and their bioactive constituents: effects on serum lipids and other factors that affect disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3 Suppl):504S-511S.  (PubMed)

3.  Kris-Etherton PM, Zhao G, Binkoski AE, Coval SM, Etherton TD. The effects of nuts on coronary heart disease risk. Nutr Rev. 2001;59(4):103-111.  (PubMed)

4.  Fraser GE, Sabate J, Beeson WL, Strahan TM. A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(7):1416-1424.  (PubMed)

5.  Fraser GE, Shavlik DJ. Risk factors for all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in the oldest-old. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(19):2249-2258.  (PubMed)

6.  Fraser GE, Sumbureru D, Pribis P, Neil RL, Frankson MA. Association among health habits, risk factors, and all-cause mortality in a black California population. Epidemiology. 1997;8(2):168-174.  (PubMed)

7.  Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 1998;317(7169):1341-1345.  (PubMed)

8.  Albert CM, Gaziano JM, Willett WC, Manson JE. Nut consumption and decreased risk of sudden cardiac death in the Physicians' Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(12):1382-1387.  (PubMed)

9.  Djousse L, Rudich T, Gaziano JM. Nut consumption and risk of heart failure in the Physicians' Health Study I. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(4):930-933.  (PubMed)

10.  Ellsworth JL, Kushi LH, Folsom AR. Frequent nut intake and risk of death from coronary heart disease and all causes in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2001;11(6):372-377.  (PubMed)

11.  Kris-Etherton PM, Hu FB, Ros E, Sabate J. The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: multiple potential mechanisms. J Nutr. 2008;138(9):1746S-1751S.  (PubMed)

12.  Hyson DA, Schneeman BO, Davis PA. Almonds and almond oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2002;132(4):703-707.  (PubMed)

13.  Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, et al. Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Circulation. 2002;106(11):1327-1332.  (PubMed)

14.  Sabate J, Haddad E, Tanzman JS, Jambazian P, Rajaram S. Serum lipid response to the graduated enrichment of a Step I diet with almonds: a randomized feeding trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1379-1384.  (PubMed)

15.  Spiller GA, Jenkins DA, Bosello O, Gates JE, Cragen LN, Bruce B. Nuts and plasma lipids: an almond-based diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17(3):285-290.  (PubMed)

16.  Durak I, Koksal I, Kacmaz M, Buyukkocak S, Cimen BM, Ozturk HS. Hazelnut supplementation enhances plasma antioxidant potential and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. Clin Chim Acta. 1999;284(1):113-115.

17.  Curb JD, Wergowske G, Dobbs JC, Abbott RD, Huang B. Serum lipid effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(8):1154-1158.  (PubMed)

18.  Garg ML, Blake RJ, Wills RB. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men. J Nutr. 2003;133(4):1060-1063.  (PubMed)

19.  Griel AE, Cao Y, Bagshaw DD, Cifelli AM, Holub B, Kris-Etherton PM. A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr. 2008;138(4):761-767.  (PubMed)

20.  Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, et al. High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(6):1009-1015.  (PubMed)

21.  O'Byrne DJ, Knauft DA, Shireman RB. Low fat-monounsaturated rich diets containing high-oleic peanuts improve serum lipoprotein profiles. Lipids. 1997;32(7):687-695.  (PubMed)

22.  Morgan WA, Clayshulte BJ. Pecans lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with normal lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100(3):312-318.  (PubMed)

23.  Edwards K, Kwaw I, Matud J, Kurtz I. Effect of pistachio nuts on serum lipid levels in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(3):229-232.  (PubMed)

24. Sheridan MJ, Cooper JN, Erario M, Cheifetz CE. Pistachio nut consumption and serum lipid levels. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(2):141-148.  (PubMed)

25.  Abbey M, Noakes M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(5):995-999.  (PubMed)

26.  Almario RU, Vonghavaravat V, Wong R, Kasim-Karakas SE. Effects of walnut consumption on plasma fatty acids and lipoproteins in combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(1):72-79.  (PubMed)

27.  Chisholm A, Mann J, Skeaff M, et al. A diet rich in walnuts favourably influences plasma fatty acid profile in moderately hyperlipidaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52(1):12-16.  (PubMed)

28.  Morgan JM, Horton K, Reese D, Carey C, Walker K, Capuzzi DM. Effects of walnut consumption as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on serum cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002;72(5):341-347.  (PubMed)

29.  Sabate J, Fraser GE, Burke K, Knutsen SF, Bennett H, Lindsted KD. Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(9):603-607.  (PubMed)

30.  Zambon D, Sabate J, Munoz S, et al. Substituting walnuts for monounsaturated fat improves the serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic men and women. A randomized crossover trial. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(7):538-546.  (PubMed)

31.  Jiang R, Jacobs DR, Jr., Mayer-Davis E, et al. Nut and Seed Consumption and Inflammatory Markers in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;163(3):222-31.  (PubMed)

32.  Coulston AM. Do Nuts Have a Place in a Healthful Diet? Nutr Today. 2003;38(3):95-99.  (PubMed)

33.  Segura R, Javierre C, Lizarraga MA, Ros E. Other relevant components of nuts: phytosterols, folate and minerals. Br J Nutr. 2006;96 Suppl 2:S36-44.  (PubMed)

34.  Willett WC. Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2001.

35.  Coates AM, Howe PR. Edible nuts and metabolic health. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007;18(1):25-30.  (PubMed)

36.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Nutrition. Summary of Qualified Health Claims Subject to Enforcement Discretion. 2003. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/LabelClaims/QualifiedHealthClaims/ucm073992.htm#nuts.

37.  Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Hu FB. Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA. 2002;288(20):2554-2560.  (PubMed)

38.  Bes-Rastrollo M, Sabate J, Gomez-Gracia E, Alonso A, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Nut consumption and weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15(1):107-116.  (PubMed)

39.  Bes-Rastrollo M, Wedick NM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Li TY, Sampson L, Hu FB. Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(6):1913-1919.  (PubMed)

40.  Sicherer SH, Munoz-Furlong A, Burks AW, Sampson HA. Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the US determined by a random digit dial telephone survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103(4):559-562.  (PubMed)

41.  Al-Muhsen S, Clarke AE, Kagan RS. Peanut allergy: an overview. CMAJ. 2003;168(10):1279-1285.  (PubMed)

42.  Chang JC. Selenium content of brazil nuts from two geographic locations in Brazil. Chemosphere. 1995;30:801-802.  (PubMed)