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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Nutrition and Immunity


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2.  Devereux G: The immune system: an overview. In: Calder PC, Field CJ, Gill HS, eds. Nutrition and immune function. New York: CABI Publishing, 2002; 1-20.

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19.  Thurnham DI, Northrop-Clewes CA: Effects of infection on nutritional and immune status. In: Hughes DA, Darlington LG, Bendich A, eds. Diet and human immune function. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 2004; 35-64.

20.  Jolly CA, Fernandes G: Protein-energy malnutrition and infectious disease. In: Gershwin ME, German JB, Keen CL, eds. Nutrition and immunology: principles and practice. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 2000; 195-202.

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23.  Chandra RK: Effect of post-natal protein malnutrition and intrauterine growth retardation on immunity and risk of infection. In: Calder PC, Field CJ, Gill HS, eds. Nutrition and immune function. New York: CABI Publishing, 2002; 41-56.

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26.  Institute of Medicine. Dietary fats: total fats and fatty acids. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty Acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, D.C: The National Academies Press, 2002; 422-541. Available at http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309085373.

27.  Cunnane SC: Problems with essential fatty acids: time for a new paradigm? Prog Lipid Res 2003; 42(6): 544-68.  (PubMed)

28.  Muskiet FA, Fokkema MR, Schaafsma A, Boersma ER, Crawford MA: Is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) essential? Lessons from DHA status regulation, our ancient diet, epidemiology and randomized controlled trials. J Nutr 2004; 134(1): 183-6.  (PubMed)

29.  Galli C, Calder PC: Effects of fat and fatty acid intake on inflammatory and immune responses: a critical review. Ann Nutr Metab 2009; 55(1-3): 123-39.  (PubMed)

30.  Calder PC: The relationship between the fatty acid composition of immune cells and their function. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2008; 79(3-5): 101-8.  (PubMed)

31.  Calder PC: Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2006; 75(3): 197-202.  (PubMed)

32.  Calder PC: Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc 2002; 61(3): 345-58.  (PubMed)

33.  Harbige LS: Fatty acids, the immune response, and autoimmunity: a question of n-6 essentiality and the balance between n-6 and n-3. Lipids 2003; 38(4): 323-41.  (PubMed)

34.  O'Shea M, Bassaganya-Riera J, Mohede IC: Immunomodulatory properties of conjugated linoleic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79(6 Suppl): 1199S-1206S.  (PubMed)

35.  Song HJ, Grant I, Rotondo D, et al.: Effect of CLA supplementation on immune function in young healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59(4): 508-17.  (PubMed)

36.  Akahoshi A, Goto Y, Murao K, et al.: Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fats and cytokine levels of mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002; 66(4): 916-20.  (PubMed)

37.  Sugano M, Tsujita A, Yamasaki M, Noguchi M, Yamada K: Conjugated linoleic acid modulates tissue levels of chemical mediators and immunoglobulins in rats. Lipids 1998; 33(5): 521-7.  (PubMed)

38.  Albers R, van der Wielen RP, Brink EJ, Hendriks HF, Dorovska-Taran VN, Mohede IC: Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57(4): 595-603.  (PubMed)

39.  Kelley DS, Simon VA, Taylor PC, et al.: Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid increased its concentration in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but did not alter their function. Lipids 2001; 36(7): 669-74.  (PubMed)

40.  Kelley DS, Taylor PC, Rudolph IL, et al.: Dietary conjugated linoleic acid did not alter immune status in young healthy women. Lipids 2000; 35(10): 1065-71.  (PubMed)

41.  Garcia OP, Long KZ, Rosado JL: Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity. Nutr Rev 2009; 67(10): 559-72.  (PubMed)

42.  Ames BN: Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103(47): 17589-94.  (PubMed)

43.  Moshfegh A, Goldman J, Cleveland L: 2005. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2001-2002: Usual nutrient intakes from food compared to dietary reference intakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=13793.

44.  Holick MF: Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007; 357(3): 266-81.  (PubMed)

45.  Semba RD: Vitamin A. In: Hughes DA, Darlington LG, Bendich A, eds. Diet and human immune function. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press Inc., 2004; 105-131.

46.  Chambon P: A decade of molecular biology of retinoic acid receptors. FASEB J 1996; 10(9): 940-54.  (PubMed)

47.  Balmer JE, Blomhoff R: Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid. J Lipid Res 2002; 43(11): 1773-808.  (PubMed)

48.  Bhaskaram P: Immunobiology of mild micronutrient deficiencies. Br J Nutr 2001; 85 Suppl 2: S75-80.  (PubMed)

49.  Stephensen CB: Vitamin A, infection, and immune function. Annu Rev Nutr 2001; 21: 167-92.  (PubMed)

50.  McDowell EM, Keenan KP, Huang M: Effects of vitamin A-deprivation on hamster tracheal epithelium. A quantitative morphologic study. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol 1984; 45(2): 197-219.  (PubMed)

51.  Hatchell DL, Sommer A: Detection of ocular surface abnormalities in experimental vitamin A deficiency. Arch Ophthalmol 1984; 102(9): 1389-93.  (PubMed)

52.  Barreto ML, Santos LM, Assis AM, et al.: Effect of vitamin A supplementation on diarrhoea and acute lower-respiratory-tract infections in young children in Brazil. Lancet 1994; 344(8917): 228-31.  (PubMed)

53.  Brown KH, Gaffar A, Alamgir SM: Xerophthalmia, protein-calorie malnutrition, and infections in children. J Pediatr 1979; 95(4): 651-6.  (PubMed)

54.  Twining SS, Zhou X, Schulte DP, Wilson PM, Fish B, Moulder J: Effect of vitamin A deficiency on the early response to experimental Pseudomonas keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996; 37(4): 511-22.  (PubMed)

55.  Sommer A, Katz J, Tarwotjo I: Increased risk of respiratory disease and diarrhea in children with preexisting mild vitamin A deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1984; 40(5): 1090-5.  (PubMed)

56.  Rojanapo W, Lamb AJ, Olson JA: The prevalence, metabolism and migration of goblet cells in rat intestine following the induction of rapid, synchronous vitamin A deficiency. J Nutr 1980; 110(1): 178-88.  (PubMed)

57.  Buck J, Derguini F, Levi E, Nakanishi K, Hammerling U: Intracellular signaling by 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol. Science 1991; 254(5038): 1654-6.  (PubMed)

58.  Blomhoff HK, Smeland EB, Erikstein B, et al.: Vitamin A is a key regulator for cell growth, cytokine production, and differentiation in normal B cells. J Biol Chem 1992; 267(33): 23988-92.  (PubMed)

59.  Pasatiempo AM, Bowman TA, Taylor CE, Ross AC: Vitamin A depletion and repletion: effects on antibody response to the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae, type III (SSS-III). Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 49(3): 501-10.  (PubMed)

60.  Wiedermann U, Hanson LA, Kahu H, Dahlgren UI: Aberrant T-cell function in vitro and impaired T-cell dependent antibody response in vivo in vitamin A-deficient rats. Immunology 1993; 80(4): 581-6.  (PubMed)

61.  Smith SM, Hayes CE: Contrasting impairments in IgM and IgG responses of vitamin A-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987; 84(16): 5878-82.  (PubMed)

62.  Garbe A, Buck J, Hammerling U: Retinoids are important cofactors in T cell activation. J Exp Med 1992; 176(1): 109-17.  (PubMed)

63.  Fawzi WW, Chalmers TC, Herrera MG, Mosteller F: Vitamin A supplementation and child mortality. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1993; 269(7): 898-903.  (PubMed)

64.  Villamor E, Fawzi WW: Vitamin A supplementation: implications for morbidity and mortality in children. J Infect Dis 2000; 182 Suppl 1: S122-33.  (PubMed)

65.  Aukrust P, Muller F, Ueland T, Svardal AM, Berge RK, Froland SS: Decreased vitamin A levels in common variable immunodeficiency: vitamin A supplementation in vivo enhances immunoglobulin production and downregulates inflammatory responses. Eur J Clin Invest 2000; 30(3): 252-9.  (PubMed)

66.  Stephensen CB, Franchi LM, Hernandez H, Campos M, Gilman RH, Alvarez JO: Adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A supplements in children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics 1998; 101(5): E3.  (PubMed)

67.  Potential interventions for the prevention of childhood pneumonia in developing countries: a meta-analysis of data from field trials to assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on pneumonia morbidity and mortality. The Vitamin A and Pneumonia Working Group. Bull World Health Organ 1995; 73(5): 609-19.  (PubMed)

68.  Sutton AL, MacDonald PN: Vitamin D: more than a "bone-a-fide" hormone. Mol Endocrinol 2003; 17(5): 777-91.  (PubMed)

69.  Brennan A, Katz DR, Nunn JD, et al.: Dendritic cells from human tissues express receptors for the immunoregulatory vitamin D3 metabolite, dihydroxycholecalciferol. Immunology 1987; 61(4): 457-61.  (PubMed)

70.  Provvedini DM, Tsoukas CD, Deftos LJ, Manolagas SC: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human leukocytes. Science 1983; 221(4616): 1181-3.  (PubMed)

71.  Veldman CM, Cantorna MT, DeLuca HF: Expression of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptor in the immune system. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000; 374(2): 334-8.  (PubMed)

72.  Bhalla AK, Amento EP, Clemens TL, Holick MF, Krane SM: Specific high-affinity receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: presence in monocytes and induction in T lymphocytes following activation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57(6): 1308-10.  (PubMed)

73.  Hewison M, Zehnder D, Chakraverty R, Adams JS: Vitamin D and barrier function: a novel role for extra-renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2004; 215(1-2): 31-8.  (PubMed)

74.  Zasloff M: Fighting infections with vitamin D. Nat Med 2006; 12(4): 388-90.  (PubMed)

75.  Gombart AF: The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection. Future Microbiol 2009; 4: 1151-65.  (PubMed)

76.  Weber G, Heilborn JD, Chamorro Jimenez CI, Hammarsjo A, Torma H, Stahle M: Vitamin D induces the antimicrobial protein hCAP18 in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 2005; 124(5): 1080-2.  (PubMed)

77.  Gombart AF, Borregaard N, Koeffler HP: Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. FASEB J 2005; 19(9): 1067-77.  (PubMed)

78.  Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, et al.: Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 2006; 311(5768): 1770-3.  (PubMed)

79.  Mora JR, Iwata M, von Andrian UH: Vitamin effects on the immune system: vitamins A and D take centre stage. Nat Rev Immunol 2008.  (PubMed)

80.  Chen WC, Vayuvegula B, Gupta S: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated inhibition of human B cell differentiation. Clin Exp Immunol 1987; 69(3): 639-46.  (PubMed)

81.  Muller K, Heilmann C, Poulsen LK, Barington T, Bendtzen K: The role of monocytes and T cells in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 mediated inhibition of B cell function in vitro. Immunopharmacology 1991; 21(2): 121-8.  (PubMed)

82.  Muller K, Odum N, Bendtzen K: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 selectively reduces interleukin-2 levels and proliferation of human T cell lines in vitro. Immunol Lett 1993; 35(2): 177-82.  (PubMed)

83.  Lemire JM, Archer DC, Beck L, Spiegelberg HL: Immunosuppressive actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: preferential inhibition of Th1 functions. J Nutr 1995; 125(6 Suppl): 1704S-1708S.  (PubMed)

84.  Mathieu C, Adorini L: The coming of age of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) analogs as immunomodulatory agents. Trends Mol Med 2002; 8(4): 174-9.  (PubMed)

85.  Boonstra A, Barrat FJ, Crain C, Heath VL, Savelkoul HF, O'Garra A: 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin d3 has a direct effect on naive CD4(+) T cells to enhance the development of Th2 cells. J Immunol 2001; 167(9): 4974-80.  (PubMed)

86.  Cantorna MT, Woodward WD, Hayes CE, DeLuca HF: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a positive regulator for the two anti-encephalitogenic cytokines TGF-beta 1 and IL-4. J Immunol 1998; 160(11): 5314-9.  (PubMed)

87.  Gregori S, Giarratana N, Smiroldo S, Uskokovic M, Adorini L: A 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) analog enhances regulatory T-cells and arrests autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Diabetes 2002; 51(5): 1367-74.  (PubMed)

88.  Barrat FJ, Cua DJ, Boonstra A, et al.: In vitro generation of interleukin 10-producing regulatory CD4(+) T cells is induced by immunosuppressive drugs and inhibited by T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-inducing cytokines. J Exp Med 2002; 195(5): 603-16.  (PubMed)

89.  Baeke F, Etten EV, Overbergh L, Mathieu C: Vitamin D3 and the immune system: maintaining the balance in health and disease. Nutr Res Rev 2007; 20(1): 106-18.  (PubMed)

90.  Deluca HF, Cantorna MT: Vitamin D: its role and uses in immunology. FASEB J 2001; 15(14): 2579-85.  (PubMed)

91.  Cantorna MT, Mahon BD: Mounting evidence for vitamin D as an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2004; 229(11): 1136-42.  (PubMed)

92.  Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, Jarvelin MR, Virtanen SM: Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet 2001; 358(9292): 1500-3.  (PubMed)

93.  Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, Howard NS, Ascherio A: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA 2006; 296(23): 2832-8.  (PubMed)

94.  Munger KL, Zhang SM, O'Reilly E, et al.: Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2004; 62(1): 60-5.  (PubMed)

95.  Ozgocmen S, Bulut S, Ilhan N, Gulkesen A, Ardicoglu O, Ozkan Y: Vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis: effect of ambulatory status and functional capacity. J Bone Miner Metab 2005; 23(4): 309-13.  (PubMed)

96.  van der Mei IA, Ponsonby AL, Dwyer T, et al.: Vitamin D levels in people with multiple sclerosis and community controls in Tasmania, Australia. J Neurol 2007; 254(5): 581-90.  (PubMed)

97.  Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, Cerhan JR, Criswell LA, Saag KG: Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50(1): 72-7.  (PubMed)

98.  Zipitis CS, Akobeng AK: Vitamin D supplementation in early childhood and risk of type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child 2008; 93(6): 512-7.  (PubMed)

99.  Prinz W, Bortz R, Bregin B, Hersch M: The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on some parameters of the human immunological defence system. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1977; 47(3): 248-57.  (PubMed)

100.  Vallance S: Relationships between ascorbic acid and serum proteins of the immune system. Br Med J 1977; 2(6084): 437-8.  (PubMed)

101.  Kennes B, Dumont I, Brohee D, Hubert C, Neve P: Effect of vitamin C supplements on cell-mediated immunity in old people. Gerontology 1983; 29(5): 305-10.  (PubMed)

102.  Panush RS, Delafuente JC, Katz P, Johnson J: Modulation of certain immunologic responses by vitamin C. III. Potentiation of in vitro and in vivo lymphocyte responses. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 1982; 23: 35-47.  (PubMed)

103.  Jariwalla RJ, Harakeh S: Antiviral and immunomodulatory activities of ascorbic acid. In: Harris JR, ed. Subcellular biochemistry. Ascorbic acid: biochemistry and biomedical cell biology, vol 25. New York: Plenum Press, 1996; 215-231.

104.  Anderson R, Oosthuizen R, Maritz R, Theron A, Van Rensburg AJ: The effects of increasing weekly doses of ascorbate on certain cellular and humoral immune functions in normal volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33(1): 71-6.  (PubMed)

105.  Levy R, Shriker O, Porath A, Riesenberg K, Schlaeffer F: Vitamin C for the treatment of recurrent furunculosis in patients with imparied neutrophil functions. J Infect Dis 1996; 173(6): 1502-5.  (PubMed)

106.  Anderson R: The immunostimulatory, antiinflammatory and anti-allergic properties of ascorbate. Adv Nutr Res 1984; 6: 19-45.  (PubMed)

107.  Feigen GA, Smith BH, Dix CE, et al.: Enhancement of antibody production and protection against systemic anaphylaxis by large doses of vitamin C. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1982; 38(2): 313-33.  (PubMed)

108.  Prinz W, Bloch J, Gilich G, Mitchell G: A systematic study of the effect of vitamin C supplementation on the humoral immune response in ascorbate-dependent mammals. I. The antibody response to sheep red blood cells (a T-dependent antigen) in guinea pigs. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1980; 50(3): 294-300.  (PubMed)

109.  Haskell BE, Johnston CS: Complement component C1q activity and ascorbic acid nutriture in guinea pigs. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54(6 Suppl): 1228S-1230S.  (PubMed)

110.  Johnston CS, Cartee GD, Haskell BE: Effect of ascorbic acid nutriture on protein-bound hydroxyproline in guinea pig plasma. J Nutr 1985; 115(8): 1089-93.  (PubMed)

111.  Johnston CS, Kolb WP, Haskell BE: The effect of vitamin C nutriture on complement component C1q concentrations in guinea pig plasma. J Nutr 1987; 117(4): 764-8.  (PubMed)

112.  Shilotri PG, Bhat KS: Effect of mega doses of vitamin C on bactericidal ativity of leukocytes. Am J Clin Nutr 1977; 30(7): 1077-81.  (PubMed)

113.  Vogel RI, Lamster IB, Wechsler SA, Macedo B, Hartley LJ, Macedo JA: The effects of megadoses of ascorbic acid on PMN chemotaxis and experimental gingivitis. J Periodontol 1986; 57(8): 472-9.  (PubMed)

114.  Ludvigsson J, Hansson LO, Stendahl O: The effect of large doses of vitamin C on leukocyte function and some laboratory parameters. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1979; 49(2): 160-5.  (PubMed)

115.  Delafuente JC, Prendergast JM, Modigh A: Immunologic modulation by vitamin C in the elderly. Int J Immunopharmacol 1986; 8(2): 205-11.  (PubMed)

116.  Bergsten P, Amitai G, Kehrl J, Dhariwal KR, Klein HG, Levine M: Millimolar concentrations of ascorbic acid in purified human mononuclear leukocytes. Depletion and reaccumulation. J Biol Chem 1990; 265(5): 2584-7.  (PubMed)

117.  Evans RM, Currie L, Campbell A: The distribution of ascorbic acid between various cellular components of blood, in normal individuals, and its relation to the plasma concentration. Br J Nutr 1982; 47(3): 473-82.  (PubMed)

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122.  Carr AC, Frei B: Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(6): 1086-107.  (PubMed)

123.  Traber MG, Atkinson J: Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more. Free Radic Biol Med 2007; 43(1): 4-15.  (PubMed)

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127.  Wang Y, Huang DS, Watson RR: Dietary vitamin E modulation of cytokine production by splenocytes and thymocytes from alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1994; 18(2): 355-62.  (PubMed)

128.  Wang Y, Watson RR: Vitamin E supplementation at various levels alters cytokine production by thymocytes during retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS. Thymus 1994; 22(3): 153-65.  (PubMed)

129.  Serafini M: Dietary vitamin E and T cell-mediated function in the elderly: effectiveness and mechanism of action. Int J Dev Neurosci 2000; 18(4-5): 401-10.  (PubMed)

130.  Meydani SN, Meydani M, Blumberg JB, et al.: Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1997; 277(17): 1380-6  (PubMed)

131.  Han SN, Meydani SN: Vitamin E and infectious diseases in the aged. Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58(3): 697-705.  (PubMed)

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133.  Harman D, Miller RA: Effect of vitamin E on the immune response to influenza virus vaccine and the incidence of infectious disease in man. Age 1986; 9: 21-23.

134.  Pallast EG, Schouten EG, de Waart FG, et al.: Effect of 50- and 100-mg vitamin E supplements on cellular immune function in noninstitutionalized elderly persons. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(6): 1273-81.  (PubMed)

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