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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Nutrition and Inflammation

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2.  Calder PC: Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2006; 75(3): 197-202.  (PubMed)

3.  Scott A, Khan KM, Roberts CR, Cook JL, Duronio V: What do we mean by the term "inflammation"? A contemporary basic science update for sports medicine. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38(3): 372-80.  (PubMed)

4.  Soehnlein O: Direct and alternative antimicrobial mechanisms of neutrophil-derived granule proteins. J Mol Med 2009; 87(12): 1157-64.  (PubMed)

5.  Feghali CA, Wright TM: Cytokines in acute and chronic inflammation. Front Biosci 1997; 2: d12-26.  (PubMed)

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8.  Blake GJ, Ridker PM: Inflammatory bio-markers and cardiovascular risk prediction. J Intern Med 2002; 252(4): 283-94.  (PubMed)

9.  Kaysen GA: Biochemistry and biomarkers of inflamed patients: why look, what to assess. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4 Suppl 1: S56-63.  (PubMed)

10.  Lowe GD: Circulating inflammatory markers and risks of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. J Thromb Haemost 2005; 3(8): 1618-27.  (PubMed)

11.  Dietrich M, Jialal I: The effect of weight loss on a stable biomarker of inflammation, C-reactive protein. Nutr Rev 2005; 63(1): 22-8.  (PubMed)

12.  Horton ES: Effects of lifestyle changes to reduce risks of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risks: results from large scale efficacy trials. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17 Suppl 3: S43-8.  (PubMed)

13.  Mathieu P, Lemieux I, Despres JP: Obesity, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk. Clin Pharmacol Ther; 87(4): 407-16.  (PubMed)

14.  Sbarbati A, Osculati F, Silvagni D, et al.: Obesity and inflammation: evidence for an elementary lesion. Pediatrics 2006; 117(1): 220-3.  (PubMed)

15.  Lyon CJ, Law RE, Hsueh WA: Minireview: adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Endocrinology 2003; 144(6): 2195-200.  (PubMed)

16.  Basu A, Devaraj S, Jialal I: Dietary factors that promote or retard inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26(5): 995-1001.  (PubMed)

17.  Babio N, Bullo M, Salas-Salvado J: Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome: the evidence. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12(9A): 1607-17.  (PubMed)

18.  Giugliano D, Esposito K: Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases. Curr Opin Lipidol 2008; 19(1): 63-8.  (PubMed)

19.  Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Esposito K: The effects of diet on inflammation: emphasis on the metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48(4): 677-85.  (PubMed)

20.  Simopoulos AP: Evolutionary aspects of the dietary omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio: medical implications. World Rev Nutr Diet 2009; 100: 1-21.  (PubMed)

21.  Simopoulos AP: The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2008; 233(6): 674-88.  (PubMed)

22.  Tannock LR, O'Brien KD, Knopp RH, et al.: Cholesterol feeding increases C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A levels in lean insulin-sensitive subjects. Circulation 2005; 111(23): 3058-62.  (PubMed)

23.  Pirro M, Schillaci G, Savarese G, et al.: Attenuation of inflammation with short-term dietary intervention is associated with a reduction of arterial stiffness in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2004; 11(6): 497-502.  (PubMed)

24.  Esposito K, Nappo F, Marfella R, et al.: Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are acutely increased by hyperglycemia in humans: role of oxidative stress. Circulation 2002; 106(16): 2067-72.  (PubMed)

25.  Ludwig DS: The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 2002; 287(18): 2414-23.  (PubMed)

26.  Willett WC: Eat, drink, and be healthy: the harvard medical school guide to healthy eating. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

27.  Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, Rifai N, Ludwig DS: Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. JAMA 2004; 292(20): 2482-90.  (PubMed)

28.  King DE: Dietary fiber, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Mol Nutr Food Res 2005; 49(6): 594-600.  (PubMed)

29.  Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Connelly PW, et al.: Effects of high- and low-isoflavone (phytoestrogen) soy foods on inflammatory biomarkers and proinflammatory cytokines in middle-aged men and women. Metabolism 2002; 51(7): 919-24.  (PubMed)

30.  Blum A, Lang N, Peleg A, et al.: Effects of oral soy protein on markers of inflammation in postmenopausal women with mild hypercholesterolemia. Am Heart J 2003; 145(2): e7.  (PubMed)

31.  Greany KA, Nettleton JA, Wangen KE, Thomas W, Kurzer MS: Consumption of isoflavone-rich soy protein does not alter homocysteine or markers of inflammation in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008; 62(12): 1419-25.  (PubMed)

32.  Maskarinec G, Steude JS, Franke AA, Cooney RV: Inflammatory markers in a 2-year soy intervention among premenopausal women. J Inflamm (Lond) 2009; 6: 9.  (PubMed)

33.  Wells BJ, Mainous AG, 3rd, Everett CJ: Association between dietary arginine and C-reactive protein. Nutrition 2005; 21(2): 125-30.  (PubMed)

34.  Visek WJ: Arginine needs, physiological state and usual diets. A reevaluation. J Nutr 1986; 116(1): 36-46.  (PubMed)

35.  Salas-Salvado J, Casas-Agustench P, Murphy MM, Lopez-Uriarte P, Bullo M: The effect of nuts on inflammation. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008; 17 Suppl 1: 333-6.  (PubMed)

36.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22. 2009. Available at:

37.  King DE, Mainous AG, 3rd, Geesey ME, Woolson RF: Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Nutr 2005; 24(3): 166-71.  (PubMed)

38.  Friso S, Jacques PF, Wilson PW, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J: Low circulating vitamin B(6) is associated with elevation of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein independently of plasma homocysteine levels. Circulation 2001; 103(23): 2788-91.  (PubMed)

39.  Morris MS, Picciano MF, Jacques PF, Selhub J: Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87(5): 1446-54.  (PubMed)

40.  Shen J, Lai CQ, Mattei J, Ordovas JM, Tucker KL: Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91(2): 337-42.  (PubMed)

41.  Woolf K, Manore MM: Elevated plasma homocysteine and low vitamin B-6 status in nonsupplementing older women with rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Diet Assoc 2008; 108(3): 443-53; discussion 454.  (PubMed)

42.  Roubenoff R, Roubenoff RA, Selhub J, et al.: Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid cachexia. Association with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor alpha production and markers of inflammation. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38(1): 105-9.  (PubMed)

43.  Sanderson CR, Davis RE, Bayliss CE: Serum pyridoxal in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1976; 35(2): 177-80.  (PubMed)

44.  Chiang EP, Selhub J, Bagley PJ, Dallal G, Roubenoff R: Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2005; 7(6): R1404-11.  (PubMed)

45.  Seaman DR: The diet-induced proinflammatory state: a cause of chronic pain and other degenerative diseases? J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002; 25(3): 168-79.  (PubMed)

46.  Jialal I, Singh U: Is vitamin C an antiinflammatory agent? Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83(3): 525-6.  (PubMed)

47.  Wannamethee SG, Lowe GD, Rumley A, Bruckdorfer KR, Whincup PH: Associations of vitamin C status, fruit and vegetable intakes, and markers of inflammation and hemostasis. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83(3): 567-74; quiz 726-7.  (PubMed)

48.  Ford ES, Liu S, Mannino DM, Giles WH, Smith SJ: C-reactive protein concentration and concentrations of blood vitamins, carotenoids, and selenium among United States adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57(9): 1157-63.  (PubMed)

49.  Block G, Jensen CD, Dalvi TB, et al.: Vitamin C treatment reduces elevated C-reactive protein. Free Radic Biol Med 2009; 46(1): 70-7.  (PubMed)

50.  Wilson JX: Mechanism of action of vitamin C in sepsis: ascorbate modulates redox signaling in endothelium. Biofactors 2009; 35(1): 5-13.  (PubMed)

51.  Calder PC, Albers R, Antoine JM, et al.: Inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition. Br J Nutr 2009; 101 Suppl 1: S1-45.  (PubMed)

52.  Singh U, Devaraj S, Jialal I: Vitamin E, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Annu Rev Nutr 2005; 25: 151-74.  (PubMed)

53.  Jiang Q, Ames BN: Gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats. Faseb J 2003; 17(8): 816-22.  (PubMed)

54.  Jiang Q, Elson-Schwab I, Courtemanche C, Ames BN: gamma-tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to alpha-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97(21): 11494-9.  (PubMed)

55.  Pappa HM, Gordon CM, Saslowsky TM, et al.: Vitamin D status in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Pediatrics 2006; 118(5): 1950-61.  (PubMed)

56.  Pappa HM, Grand RJ, Gordon CM: Report on the vitamin D status of adult and pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease and its significance for bone health and disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2006; 12(12): 1162-74.  (PubMed)

57.  Harries AD, Brown R, Heatley RV, Williams LA, Woodhead S, Rhodes J: Vitamin D status in Crohn's disease: association with nutrition and disease activity. Gut 1985; 26(11): 1197-203.  (PubMed)

58.  Jahnsen J, Falch JA, Mowinckel P, Aadland E: Vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37(2): 192-9.  (PubMed)

59.  Gilman J, Shanahan F, Cashman KD: Determinants of vitamin D status in adult Crohn's disease patients, with particular emphasis on supplemental vitamin D use. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006; 60(7): 889-96.  (PubMed)

60.  Vagianos K, Bector S, McConnell J, Bernstein CN: Nutrition assessment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2007; 31(4): 311-9.  (PubMed)

61.  Froicu M, Weaver V, Wynn TA, McDowell MA, Welsh JE, Cantorna MT: A crucial role for the vitamin D receptor in experimental inflammatory bowel diseases. Mol Endocrinol 2003; 17(12): 2386-92.  (PubMed)

62.  Yu S, Bruce D, Froicu M, Weaver V, Cantorna MT: Failure of T cell homing, reduced CD4/CD8alphaalpha intraepithelial lymphocytes, and inflammation in the gut of vitamin D receptor KO mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008; 105(52): 20834-9.  (PubMed)

63.  Froicu M, Cantorna MT: Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor are critical for control of the innate immune response to colonic injury. BMC Immunol 2007; 8: 5.  (PubMed)

64.  Church TS, Earnest CP, Wood KA, Kampert JB: Reduction of C-reactive protein levels through use of a multivitamin. Am J Med 2003; 115(9): 702-7.  (PubMed)

65.  Moshfegh A, Goldman J, Cleveland L: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2001-2002: Usual nutrient intakes from food compared to dietary reference intakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2005.  Available at

66.  Bai SK, Lee SJ, Na HJ, et al.: beta-Carotene inhibits inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB activation. Exp Mol Med 2005; 37(4): 323-34.  (PubMed)

67.  De Stefano D, Maiuri MC, Simeon V, et al.: Lycopene, quercetin and tyrosol prevent macrophage activation induced by gliadin and IFN-gamma. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 566(1-3): 192-9.  (PubMed)

68.  Kim GY, Kim JH, Ahn SC, et al.: Lycopene suppresses the lipopolysaccharide-induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB. Immunology 2004; 113(2): 203-11.  (PubMed)

69.  Wang X, Willen R, Wadstrom T: Astaxanthin-rich algal meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44(9): 2452-7.  (PubMed)

70.  Lee SJ, Bai SK, Lee KS, et al.: Astaxanthin inhibits nitric oxide production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing I(kappa)B kinase-dependent NF-kappaB activation. Mol Cells 2003; 16(1): 97-105.  (PubMed)

71.  Bennedsen M, Wang X, Willen R, Wadstrom T, Andersen LP: Treatment of H. pylori infected mice with antioxidant astaxanthin reduces gastric inflammation, bacterial load and modulates cytokine release by splenocytes. Immunol Lett 1999; 70(3): 185-9.  (PubMed)

72.  Ohgami K, Shiratori K, Kotake S, et al.: Effects of astaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44(6): 2694-701.  (PubMed)

73.  Maiani G, Caston MJ, Catasta G, et al.: Carotenoids: actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009; 53 Suppl 2: S194-218.  (PubMed)

74.  van Herpen-Broekmans WM, Klopping-Ketelaars IA, Bots ML, et al.: Serum carotenoids and vitamins in relation to markers of endothelial function and inflammation. Eur J Epidemiol 2004; 19(10): 915-21.  (PubMed)

75.  Kritchevsky SB, Bush AJ, Pahor M, Gross MD: Serum carotenoids and markers of inflammation in nonsmokers. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152(11): 1065-71.  (PubMed)

76.  Watzl B, Kulling SE, Moseneder J, Barth SW, Bub A: A 4-wk intervention with high intake of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruit reduces plasma C-reactive protein in healthy, nonsmoking men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82(5): 1052-8.  (PubMed)

77.  Esmaillzadeh A, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y, Azadbakht L, Hu FB, Willett WC: Fruit and vegetable intakes, C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84(6): 1489-97.  (PubMed)

78.  Gao X, Bermudez OI, Tucker KL: Plasma C-reactive protein and homocysteine concentrations are related to frequent fruit and vegetable intake in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white elders. J Nutr 2004; 134(4): 913-8.  (PubMed)

79.  Hermsdorff HH, Zulet MA, Puchau B, Martinez JA: Fruit and vegetable consumption and proinflammatory gene expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in young adults: a translational study. Nutr Metab (Lond); 7: 42.  (PubMed)

80.  Jacob K, Periago MJ, Bohm V, Berruezo GR: Influence of lycopene and vitamin C from tomato juice on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Br J Nutr 2008; 99(1): 137-46.  (PubMed)

81.  Riso P, Visioli F, Grande S, et al.: Effect of a tomato-based drink on markers of inflammation, immunomodulation, and oxidative stress. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54(7): 2563-6.  (PubMed)

82.  Garcia-Lafuente A, Guillamon E, Villares A, Rostagno MA, Martinez JA: Flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: implications in cancer and cardiovascular disease. Inflamm Res 2009; 58(9): 537-52.  (PubMed)

83.  Chun OK, Chung SJ, Claycombe KJ, Song WO: Serum C-reactive protein concentrations are inversely associated with dietary flavonoid intake in U.S. adults. J Nutr 2008; 138(4): 753-60.  (PubMed)

84.  Song Y, Manson JE, Buring JE, Sesso HD, Liu S: Associations of dietary flavonoids with risk of type 2 diabetes, and markers of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in women: a prospective study and cross-sectional analysis. J Am Coll Nutr 2005; 24(5): 376-84.  (PubMed)

85.  Ghanim H, Sia CL, Abuaysheh S, et al.: An Antiinflammatory and Reactive Oxygen Species Suppressive Effects of an Extract of Polygonum Cuspidatum Containing Resveratrol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun 9. [Epub ahead of print]  (PubMed)

86.  Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, Alnaqeeb MA, Khan I, Ali M: The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002; 67(6): 475-8.  (PubMed)

87.  Shay KP, Moreau RF, Smith EJ, Smith AR, Hagen TM: Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009; 1790(10): 1149-60.  (PubMed)

88.  Sola S, Mir MQ, Cheema FA, et al.: Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: results of the Irbesartan and Lipoic Acid in Endothelial Dysfunction (ISLAND) study. Circulation 2005; 111(3): 343-8.  (PubMed)

89.  Woods JA, Vieira VJ, Keylock KT: Exercise, inflammation, and innate immunity. Neurol Clin 2006; 24(3): 585-99.  (PubMed)

90.  Bruunsgaard H: Physical activity and modulation of systemic low-level inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 2005; 78(4): 819-35.  (PubMed)

91.  Angeli A, Minetto M, Dovio A, Paccotti P: The overtraining syndrome in athletes: a stress-related disorder. J Endocrinol Invest 2004; 27(6): 603-12.  (PubMed)

92.  Lao XQ, Jiang CQ, Zhang WS, et al.: Smoking, smoking cessation and inflammatory markers in older Chinese men: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Atherosclerosis 2009; 203(1): 304-10.  (PubMed)

93.  Reichert V, Xue X, Bartscherer D, et al.: A pilot study to examine the effects of smoking cessation on serum markers of inflammation in women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Chest 2009; 136(1): 212-9.  (PubMed)