skip page navigationOregon State University

Micronutrient Information Center

References: Micronutrient Requirements of Adolescents Ages 14 to 18 Years


1.  Rice FP, Dolgin KG. Adolescents in social context. In: The adolescent: development, relationships, and culture. 10th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon; 2002:1-23.

2.  Hinton PS. Normal adolescent nutrition. In: Edelstein S, Sharlin J, eds. Life cycle nutrition: an evidence-based approach. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2009:107-125.

3.  Siantz ML, Dovydaitis T. Critical health issues during adolescence. In: Swanson DP, Edwards MC, Spencer MB, eds. Adolescence: development during a global era. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2010:341-363.

4.  Weaver CM. The role of nutrition on optimizing peak bone mass. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:135-137.  (PubMed)

5.  Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ, 3rd. Sex steroids and the construction and conservation of the adult skeleton. Endocr Rev. 2002;23(3):279-302.  (PubMed)

6.  Rice FP, Dolgin KG. Sexual maturation and physical growth. The adolescent: development, relationships, and culture. 10th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon; 2002:89-109.

7.  Brabin L, Brabin BJ. The cost of successful adolescent growth and development in girls in relation to iron and vitamin A status. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(5):955-958.  (PubMed)

8.  Moreno LA, Rodriguez G, Fleta J, Bueno-Lozano M, Lazaro A, Bueno G. Trends of dietary habits in adolescents. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;50(2):106-112.  (PubMed)

9.  Duffey KJ, Huybrechts I, Mouratidou T, et al. Beverage consumption among European adolescents in the HELENA study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(2):244-252.  (PubMed)

10.  Danyliw AD, Vatanparast H, Nikpartow N, Whiting SJ. Beverage intake patterns of Canadian children and adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(11):1961-1969.  (PubMed)

11.  Kimmons J, Gillespie C, Seymour J, Serdula M, Blanck HM. Fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents and adults in the United States: percentage meeting individualized recommendations. Medscape J Med. 2009;11(1):26.  (PubMed)

12.  Diethelm K, Jankovic N, Moreno LA, et al. Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(3):386-398.  (PubMed)

13.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Overview and methods. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:44-59.  (National Academy Press)

14.  Kleiber M. Body size and metabolic rate. Physiol Rev. 1947;27(4):511-541.  (PubMed)

15.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Introduction to dietary reference intakes. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:29-43.  (National Academy Press)

16.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin A. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:82-161.  (National Academy Press)

17.  UN Standing Committee on Nutrition: Nutrition for Improved Development Outcomes. 5th report on world nutrition situation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.  (United Nations System)

18.  Underwood BA, Arthur P. The contribution of vitamin A to public health. FASEB J. 1996;10(9):1040-1048.  (PubMed)

19.  Valtuena J, Breidenassel C, Folle J, Gonzalez-Gross M. Retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and vitamin D status in European adolescents; regional differences an variability: a review. Nutr Hosp. 2011;26(2):280-288.  (PubMed)

20.  Semba RD. Vitamin A and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Proc Nutr Soc. 1997;56(1B):459-469.  (PubMed)

21.  Serra-Majem L, Ribas-Barba L, Perez-Rodrigo C, Bartrina JA. Nutrient adequacy in Spanish children and adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2006;96 Suppl 1:S49-57.  (PubMed)

22.  Schenkel TC, Stockman NK, Brown JN, Duncan AM. Evaluation of energy, nutrient and dietary fiber intakes of adolescent males. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(3):264-271.  (PubMed)

23.  Decarli B, Cavadini C, Grin J, Blondel-Lubrano A, Narring F, Michaud P-A. Food and nutrient intakes in a group of 11 to 16 year old Swiss teenagers. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2000;70(3):139-147.  (PubMed)

24.  Michaelsson G, Vahlquist A, Juhlin L, Mellbin T, Bratt L. Zinc and vitamin A: serum concentrations of zinc and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in healthy adolescents. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1976;36(8):827-832.  (PubMed)

25.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin B6. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:150-195.  (National Academy Press)

26.  Driskell JA, Clark AJ, Bazzarre TL, et al. Vitamin B-6 status of southern adolescent girls. J Am Diet Assoc. 1985;85(1):46-49.  (PubMed)

27.  Driskell JA, Clark AJ, Moak SW. Longitudinal assessment of vitamin B-6 status in southern adolescent girls. J Am Diet Assoc. 1987;87(3):307-310.  (PubMed)

28.  Morris MS, Picciano MF, Jacques PF, Selhub J. Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1446-1454.  (PubMed)

29.  Al-Tahan J, Gonzalez-Gross M, Pietrzik K. B-vitamin status and intake in European adolescents. A review of the literature. Nutr Hosp. 2006;21(4):452-465.  (PubMed)

30.  Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd. Folate. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:278-301.

31.  Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd. Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr. 1999;129(4):779-782.  (PubMed)

32.  Nilsson TK, Yngve A, Bottiger AK, Hurtig-Wennlof A, Sjostrom M. High folate intake is related to better academic achievement in Swedish adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011;128(2):e358-365.  (PubMed)

33.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Folate. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic Acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:196-305.  (National Academy Press)

34.  Fulgoni VL, 3rd, Keast DR, Bailey RL, Dwyer J. Foods, fortificants, and supplements: Where do Americans get their nutrients? J Nutr. 2011;141(10):1847-1854.  (PubMed)

35.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food standards: amendments of standards of identity for enriched grain products to require addition of folic acid. Fed Regist 1996;61:8781-8797. Available at: http://openregs.com/regulations/view/89563/food_standards_amendment_
of_standards_of_identity_for_enriched_grain_products_to
. Accessed 7/24/12.

36.  Trends in wheat-flour fortification with folic acid and iron--worldwide, 2004 and 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(1):8-10.  (PubMed)

37.  Shane B. Folic acid. In: Stipanuk M, ed. Biochemical and physiological aspects on human nutrition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 2000:483-518.

38.  Healton EB, Savage DG, Brust JC, Garrett TJ, Lindenbaum J. Neurologic aspects of cobalamin deficiency. Medicine (Baltimore). 1991;70(4):229-245.  (PubMed)

39.  Stabler SP. Vitamin B12. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:302-313.

40.  Carter R, Aldridge S, Page M, Parker S. Brain anatomy. In: Frances P, ed. The human brain book. London: Dorling Kindersley; 2009:50-73.

41.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin B12. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:306-356.  (National Academy Press)

42.  Benes FM. Myelination of cortical-hippocampal relays during late adolescence. Schizophr Bull. 1989;15(4):585-593.  (PubMed)

43.  Lebel C, Walker L, Leemans A, Phillips L, Beaulieu C. Microstructural maturation of the human brain from childhood to adulthood. Neuroimage. 2008;40(3):1044-1055.  (PubMed)

44.  Brody T. Nutritional biochemistry. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

45.  Middleman AB, Emans SJ, Cox J. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency in an adolescent patient presenting with anemia, weight loss, and poor school performance. J Adolesc Health. 1996;19(1):76-79.  (PubMed)

46.  Ashkenazi S, Weitz R, Varsano I, Mimouni M. Vitamin B12 deficiency due to a strictly vegetarian diet in adolescence. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1987;26(12):662-663.  (PubMed)

47.  Maggini S, Wenzlaff S, Hornig D. Essential role of vitamin C and zinc in child immunity and health. J Int Med Res. 2010;38(2):386-414.  (PubMed)

48.  Johnston CS. Vitamin C. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:233-241.

49.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin C. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:95-185.  (National Academy Press)

50.  Schleicher RL, Carroll MD, Ford ES, Lacher DA. Serum vitamin C and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in the United States: 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(5):1252-1263.  (PubMed)

51.  Breidenassel C, Valtuena J, Gonzalez-Gross M, et al. Antioxidant vitamin status (A, E, C, and beta-carotene) in European adolescents - the HELENA Study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011;81(4):245-255.  (PubMed)

52.  Pedersen P, Michaelsen KF, Molgaard C. Children with nutritional rickets referred to hospitals in Copenhagen during a 10-year period. Acta Paediatr. 2003;92(1):87-90.  (PubMed)

53.  Narchi H, El Jamil M, Kulaylat N. Symptomatic rickets in adolescence. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84(6):501-503.  (PubMed)

54.  Kremer R, Campbell PP, Reinhardt T, Gilsanz V. Vitamin D status and its relationship to body fat, final height, and peak bone mass in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(1):67-73.  (PubMed)

55.  Valimaki VV, Alfthan H, Lehmuskallio E, et al. Vitamin D status as a determinant of peak bone mass in young Finnish men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(1):76-80.  (PubMed)

56.  Lehtonen-Veromaa MK, Mottonen TT, Nuotio IO, Irjala KM, Leino AE, Viikari JS. Vitamin D and attainment of peak bone mass among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(6):1446-1453.  (PubMed)

57.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Overview of vitamin D. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2011:75-124.  (The National Academies Press)

58.  Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(3):266-281.  (PubMed)

59.  Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, et al. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr. 2010;140(4):817-822.  (PubMed)

60.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for adequacy: calcium and vitamin D. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2011:345-402.  (The National Academies Press)

61.  Yetley EA. Assessing the vitamin D status of the US population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(2):558S-564S.  (PubMed)

62.  Guillemant J, Le HT, Maria A, Allemandou A, Peres G, Guillemant S. Wintertime vitamin D deficiency in male adolescents: effect on parathyroid function and response to vitamin D3 supplements. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12(10):875-879.  (PubMed)

63.  Dong Y, Pollock N, Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, et al. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in adolescents: race, season, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6):1104-1111.  (PubMed)

64.  Guillemant J, Taupin P, Le HT, et al. Vitamin D status during puberty in French healthy male adolescents. Osteoporos Int. 1999;10(3):222-225.  (PubMed)

65.  Hill TR, Cotter AA, Mitchell S, et al. Vitamin D status and its determinants in adolescents from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(5):1061-1067.  (PubMed)

66.  Rabbani A, Alavian SM, Motlagh ME, et al. Vitamin D insufficiency among children and adolescents living in Tehran, Iran. J Trop Pediatr. 2009;55(3):189-191.  (PubMed)

67.  Marwaha RK, Tandon N, Reddy DR, et al. Vitamin D and bone mineral density status of healthy schoolchildren in northern India. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(2):477-482.  (PubMed)

68.  Peters BS, dos Santos LC, Fisberg M, Wood RJ, Martini LA. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Brazilian adolescents. Ann Nutr Metab. 2009;54(1):15-21.  (PubMed)

69.  Maalouf J, Nabulsi M, Vieth R, et al. Short- and long-term safety of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in school children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(7):2693-2701.  (PubMed)

70.  El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Tamim H, et al. Effect of vitamin D replacement on musculoskeletal parameters in school children: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(2):405-412.  (PubMed)

71.  Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911-1930.  (PubMed)

72.  Wagner CL, Greer FR. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):1142-1152.  (PubMed)

73.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin E. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:186-283.  (National Academy Press)

74.  Ahuja JK, Goldman JD, Moshfegh AJ. Current status of vitamin E nutriture. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1031:387-390.  (PubMed)

75.  Junior EV, Cesar CL, Fisberg RM, Marchioni DM. Socio-economic variables influence the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake in Brazilian adolescents: results from a population-based survey. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(9):1533-1538.  (PubMed)

76.  Hercberg S, Preziosi P, Galan P, et al. Vitamin status of a healthy French population: dietary intakes and biochemical markers. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1994;64(3):220-232.  (PubMed)

77.  Kersting M, Alexy U, Sichert-Hellert W. Vitamin intake of 1- to 18-year-old German children and adolescents in the light of various recommendations. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2000;70(2):48-53.  (PubMed)

78.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Overview of calcium. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2011:35-74.  (The National Academies Press)

79.  Vatanparast H, Bailey DA, Baxter-Jones AD, Whiting SJ. Calcium requirements for bone growth in Canadian boys and girls during adolescence. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(4):575-580.  (PubMed)

80.  Mesias M, Seiquer I, Navarro MP. Calcium nutrition in adolescence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51(3):195-209.  (PubMed)

81.  Sebastian RS, Goldman JD, Wilkinson Enns C, LaComb RP. Fluid milk consumption in the United States: what we eat in America, NHANES 2005-2006. Food Surveys Research Group Dietary Data Brief No. 3. September 2010. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/
12355000/pdf/DBrief/3_milk_consumption_0506.pdf
. Accessed 7/24/12.

82.  Greer FR, Krebs NF. Optimizing bone health and calcium intakes of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2006;117(2):578-585.  (PubMed)

83.  Beard JL, Dawson HD. Iron. In: O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, eds. Handbook of nutritionally essential minerals. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1997:275-334.

84.  Ivan M, Kondo K, Yang H, et al. HIFalpha targeted for VHL-mediated destruction by proline hydroxylation: implications for O2 sensing. Science. 2001;292(5516):464-468.  (PubMed)

85.  Jaakkola P, Mole DR, Tian YM, et al. Targeting of HIF-alpha to the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex by O2-regulated prolyl hydroxylation. Science. 2001;292(5516):468-472.  (PubMed)

86.  Micronutrient deficiencies: iron deficiency anemia. 2012. Available at: http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/ida/en/index.html. Accessed 7/24/12.

87.  Bergstrom E, Hernell O, Lonnerdal B, Persson LA. Sex differences in iron stores of adolescents: what is normal? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;20(2):215-224.  (PubMed)

88.  Todorich B, Pasquini JM, Garcia CI, Paez PM, Connor JR. Oligodendrocytes and myelination: the role of iron. Glia. 2009;57(5):467-478.  (PubMed)

89.  Beard J. Iron. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:430-444.

90.  Bruner AB, Joffe A, Duggan AK, Casella JF, Brandt J. Randomised study of cognitive effects of iron supplementation in non-anaemic iron-deficient adolescent girls. Lancet. 1996;348(9033):992-996.  (PubMed)

91.  Groner JA, Holtzman NA, Charney E, Mellits ED. A randomized trial of oral iron on tests of short-term memory and attention span in young pregnant women. J Adolesc Health Care. 1986;7(1):44-48.  (PubMed)

92.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Iron. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:290-393.  (National Academy Press)

93.  Moshfegh A, Goldman J, Cleveland L. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2001-2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2005.  Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/
0102/usualintaketables2001-02.pdf

94.  Lynch SR. Interaction of iron with other nutrients. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(4):102-110.  (PubMed)

95.  Yip R, Dallman PR. Iron. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 1997:277-292.

96.  Fairbanks VF. Iron in medicine and nutrition. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:193-221.

97.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Magnesium. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1997:190-249.  (National Academy Press)

98.  Rude RK, Shils ME. Magnesium. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:223-247.

99.  U.S. Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24. 2011. Available at: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/. Accessed 7/24/12.

100.  Suitor CW, Gleason PM. Using Dietary Reference Intake-based methods to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102(4):530-536.  (PubMed)

101.  Affenito SG, Thompson DR, Franko DL, et al. Longitudinal assessment of micronutrient intake among African-American and white girls: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(7):1113-1123.  (PubMed)

102.  Johnson RK, Johnson DG, Wang MQ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Guthrie HA. Characterizing nutrient intakes of adolescents by sociodemographic factors. J Adolesc Health. 1994;15(2):149-154.  (PubMed)

103.  Murphy MM, Douglass JS, Johnson RK, Spence LA. Drinking flavored or plain milk is positively associated with nutrient intake and is not associated with adverse effects on weight status in US children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(4):631-639.  (PubMed)

104.  Videon TM, Manning CK. Influences on adolescent eating patterns: the importance of family meals. J Adolesc Health. 2003;32(5):365-373.  (PubMed)

105.  Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Lessons learned about adolescent nutrition from the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98(12):1449-1456.  (PubMed)

106.  Krebs-Smith SM, Cook A, Subar AF, Cleveland L, Friday J, Kahle LL. Fruit and vegetable intakes of children and adolescents in the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150(1):81-86.  (PubMed)

107.  Obarzanek E, Wu CO, Cutler JA, Kavey RE, Pearson GD, Daniels SR. Prevalence and incidence of hypertension in adolescent girls. J Pediatr. 2010;157(3):461-467, 467 e461-465.  (PubMed)

108.  Food and Nutrition Board, Instiute of Medicine. Sodium and chloride. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2005:269-423.  (National Academies Press)

109.  Hoy MK, Goldman JD, Murayi T, Rhodes DG, Moshfegh AJ. Sodium intake of the U.S. population: what we eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008. Food Surveys Research Group Dietary Data Brief No. 8. October 2011. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/sp2userfiles/place/12355000/pdf/dbrief/
sodium_intake_0708.pdf
. Accessed 7/24/12.

110.  Ellison RC, Capper AL, Stephenson WP, et al. Effects on blood pressure of a decrease in sodium use in institutional food preparation: the Exeter-Andover Project. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(3):201-208.  (PubMed)

111.  Sinaiko AR, Gomez-Marin O, Prineas RJ. Effect of low sodium diet or potassium supplementation on adolescent blood pressure. Hypertension. 1993;21(6 Pt 2):989-994.  (PubMed)

112.  Tuerk MJ, Fazel N. Zinc deficiency. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009;25(2):136-143.  (PubMed)

113.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Zinc. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:442-501.  (National Academy Press)

114.  Salgueiro MJ, Weill R, Zubillaga M, et al. Zinc deficiency and growth: current concepts in relationship to two important points: intellectual and sexual development. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004;99(1-3):49-69.  (PubMed)

115.  Marino DD, King JC. Nutritional concerns during adolescence. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1980;27(1):125-139.  (PubMed)

116.  Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1344S-1349S.  (PubMed)

117.  King JC, Cousins RJ. Zinc. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:271-285.

118.  Wallace JM, Luther JS, Milne JS, et al. Nutritional modulation of adolescent pregnancy outcome -- a review. Placenta. 2006;27 Suppl A:S61-68.  (PubMed)

119.  Klein JD. Adolescent pregnancy: current trends and issues. Pediatrics. 2005;116(1):281-286.  (PubMed)

120.  Beard JL. Iron deficiency: assessment during pregnancy and its importance in pregnant adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(2 Suppl):502S-508S discussion 508S-510S.  (PubMed)

121.  Moran VH. A systematic review of dietary assessments of pregnant adolescents in industrialised countries. Br J Nutr. 2007;97(3):411-425.  (PubMed)

122.  Cho GJ, Shin JH, Yi KW, et al. Adolescent pregnancy is associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2012;19(4):456-460.  (PubMed)

123.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Summary. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:1-28.  (National Academy Press)