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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Micronutrient Needs During Pregnancy and Lactation


1.  Katz DL. Diet, Pregnancy, and Lactation. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008:299-309.

2.  Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 1987;65(5):663-737.  (PubMed)

3.  Kramer MS. The epidemiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes: an overview. J Nutr. 2003;133(5 Suppl 2):1592S-1596S.  (PubMed)

4.  Kanaka-Gantenbein C. Fetal origins of adult diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1205:99-105.  (PubMed)

5.  Barker DJP. Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1998.

6.  Christian P. Micronutrients, birth weight, and survival. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010;30:83-104.  (PubMed)

7.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Folate. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:196-305.  (National Academy Press)

8.  Cornel MC, Erickson JD. Comparison of national policies on periconceptional use of folic acid to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly (SBA). Teratology. 1997;55(2):134-137.  (PubMed)

9.  Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):626-631.  (PubMed)

10.  Haider BA, Bhutta ZA. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD004905.  (PubMed)

11.  Fall CH, Fisher DJ, Osmond C, Margetts BM. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on birth size and length of gestation. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(4 Suppl):S533-546.  (PubMed)

12.  Margetts BM, Fall CH, Ronsmans C, Allen LH, Fisher DJ. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: review of methods and characteristics of studies included in the meta-analyses. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(4 Suppl):S517-526.  (PubMed)

13.  Ronsmans C, Fisher DJ, Osmond C, Margetts BM, Fall CH. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on stillbirths and on early and late neonatal mortality. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(4 Suppl):S547-555.  (PubMed)

14.  Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309071836

15.  Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press; 2003. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309088534

16.  Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Using Dietary Reference Intakes in Planning Diets for Individuals. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2003:35-54. (The National Academies Press)

17.  Chapman-Smith A, Cronan JE, Jr. Molecular biology of biotin attachment to proteins. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):477S-484S.  (PubMed)

18.  Zempleni J, Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000;223(1):14-21.  (PubMed)

19.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Biotin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press; 1998:374-389.  (National Academy Press)

20.  Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic in mice and perhaps humans: a review of biotin deficiency during human pregnancy and effects of biotin deficiency on gene expression and enzyme activities in mouse dam and fetus. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16(7):435-437.  (PubMed)

21.  Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is common in normal human pregnancy and is highly teratogenic in mice. J Nutr. 2009;139(1):154-157.  (PubMed)

22.  Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(2):295-299.  (PubMed)

23.  Mock DM, Stadler DD. Conflicting indicators of biotin status from a cross-sectional study of normal pregnancy. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16(3):252-257.  (PubMed)

24.  Mock DM, Stadler DD, Stratton SL, Mock NI. Biotin status assessed longitudinally in pregnant women. J Nutr. 1997;127(5):710-716.  (PubMed)

25.  Mock DM. Biotin. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:498-506.

26.  Pietrzik K, Bailey L, Shane B. Folic acid and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate: comparison of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 49(8):535-548.  (PubMed)

27.  Czeizel AE, Dobo M, Vargha P. Hungarian cohort-controlled trial of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation shows a reduction in certain congenital abnormalities. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(11):853-861.  (PubMed)

28.  Czeizel AE, Dudas I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(26):1832-1835.  (PubMed)

29.  De-Regil LM, Fernandez-Gaxiola AC, Dowswell T, Pena-Rosas JP. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(10):CD007950.  (PubMed)

30.  Eskes TK. Open or closed? A world of difference: a history of homocysteine research. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(8):236-244.  (PubMed)

31.  Czeizel AE. Periconceptional folic acid and multivitamin supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital abnormalities. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85(4):260-268.  (PubMed)

32.  McPartlin J, Halligan A, Scott JM, Darling M, Weir DG. Accelerated folate breakdown in pregnancy. Lancet. 1993;341(8838):148-149.  (PubMed)

33.  Czeizel AE, Dudas I, Metneki J. Pregnancy outcomes in a randomised controlled trial of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. Final report. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1994;255(3):131-139.  (PubMed)

34.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food standards: amendments of standards of identity for enriched grain products to require addition of folic acid. Fed Regist 1996;61:87818797.  Available at: http://openregs.com/regulations/view/89563/food_standards_amendment_
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35.  van Beynum IM, Kapusta L, Bakker MK, den Heijer M, Blom HJ, de Walle HE. Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects: a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands. Eur Heart J. 2010;31(4):464-471.  (PubMed)

36.  Shaw GM, O'Malley CD, Wasserman CR, Tolarova MM, Lammer EJ. Maternal periconceptional use of multivitamins and reduced risk for conotruncal heart defects and limb deficiencies among offspring. Am J Med Genet. 1995;59(4):536-545.  (PubMed)

37.  Botto LD, Mulinare J, Erickson JD. Occurrence of congenital heart defects in relation to maternal mulitivitamin use. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151(9):878-884.  (PubMed)

38.  Botto LD, Khoury MJ, Mulinare J, Erickson JD. Periconceptional multivitamin use and the occurrence of conotruncal heart defects: results from a population-based, case-control study. Pediatrics. 1996;98(5):911-917.  (PubMed)

39.  Correa A, Botto L, Liu Y, Mulinare J, Erickson JD. Do multivitamin supplements attenuate the risk for diabetes-associated birth defects? Pediatrics. 2003;111(5 Part 2):1146-1151.  (PubMed)

40.  Czeizel AE. Reduction of urinary tract and cardiovascular defects by periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. Am J Med Genet. 1996;62(2):179-183.  (PubMed)

41.  Goh YI, Bollano E, Einarson TR, Koren G. Prenatal multivitamin supplementation and rates of congenital anomalies: a meta-analysis. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2006;28(8):680-689.  (PubMed)

42.  Vollset SE, Refsum H, Irgens LM, et al. Plasma total homocysteine, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Hordaland Homocysteine study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(4):962-968.  (PubMed)

43.  Duley L. The global impact of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Semin Perinatol. 2009;33(3):130-137.  (PubMed)

44.  Crombleholme WR. Obstetrics In: Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, eds. Current Medical Treatment and Diagnosis. 37th ed. Stamford: Appleton and Lange; 1998:731-734.

45.  Wacker J, Fruhauf J, Schulz M, Chiwora FM, Volz J, Becker K. Riboflavin deficiency and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96(1):38-44.  (PubMed)

46.  Neugebauer J, Zanre Y, Wacker J. Riboflavin supplementation and preeclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;93(2):136-137.  (PubMed)

47.  Semba RD. Impact of vitamin A on immunity and infection in developing countries. In: Bendich A, Decklebaum RJ, eds. Preventive nutrition: the comprehensive guide for health professionals. . 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press Inc.; 2001:329-346.

48.  Solomons NW. Vitamin A and carotenoids. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2001:127-145.

49.  West KP, Jr., Katz J, Khatry SK, et al. Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. BMJ. 1999;318(7183):570-575.  (PubMed)

50.  Allen LH. Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(5):1206S-1212S.  (PubMed)

51.  Christian P, West KP, Jr., Khatry SK, et al. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. J Nutr. 2000;130(11):2675-2682.  (PubMed)

52.  Christian P, West KP, Jr., Khatry SK, et al. Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152(6):542-547.  (PubMed)

53.  Suharno D, West CE, Muhilal, Karyadi D, Hautvast JG. Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia. Lancet. 1993;342(8883):1325-1328.  (PubMed)

54.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin A. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:65-126.  (National Academy Press)

55.  Chan A, Hanna M, Abbott M, Keane RJ. Oral retinoids and pregnancy. Med J Aust. 1996;165(3):164-167.  (PubMed)

56.  Ross AC. Vitamin A and retinoids. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:305-327.

57.  Sahakian V, Rouse D, Sipes S, Rose N, Niebyl J. Vitamin B6 is effective therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;78(1):33-36.  (PubMed)

58.  Vutyavanich T, Wongtra-ngan S, Ruangsri R. Pyridoxine for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173(3 Pt 1):881-884.  (PubMed)

59.  Jewell D, Young G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD000145.  (PubMed)

60.  Matthews A, Dowswell T, Haas DM, Doyle M, O'Mathuna DP. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(9):CD007575.  (PubMed)

61.  Shrim A, Boskovic R, Maltepe C, Navios Y, Garcia-Bournissen F, Koren G. Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26(8):749-751.  (PubMed)

62.  Shane B. Folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6. In: Stipanuk M (ed). Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:693-732.

63.  Chmurzynska A. Fetal programming: link between early nutrition, DNA methylation, and complex diseases. Nutr Rev. 2010;68(2):87-98.  (PubMed)

64.  Kirke PN, Molloy AM, Daly LE, Burke H, Weir DG, Scott JM. Maternal plasma folate and vitamin B12 are independent risk factors for neural tube defects. Q J Med. 1993;86(11):703-708.  (PubMed)

65.  Molloy AM, Kirke PN, Troendle JF, et al. Maternal vitamin B12 status and risk of neural tube defects in a population with high neural tube defect prevalence and no folic acid fortification. Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):917-923.  (PubMed)

66.  Kaiser L, Allen LH. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(3):553-561.  (PubMed)

67.  Hubel CA, Roberts JM, Taylor RN, Musci TJ, Rogers GM, McLaughlin MK. Lipid peroxidation in pregnancy: new perspectives on preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161(4):1025-1034.  (PubMed)

68.  Chappell LC, Seed PT, Briley AL, et al. Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: a randomised trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9181):810-816.  (PubMed)

69.  Villar J, Purwar M, Merialdi M, et al. World Health Organisation multicentre randomised trial of supplementation with vitamins C and E among pregnant women at high risk for pre-eclampsia in populations of low nutritional status from developing countries. BJOG. 2009;116(6):780-788.  (PubMed)

70.  Roberts JM, Myatt L, Spong CY, et al. Vitamins C and E to prevent complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(14):1282-1291.  (PubMed)

71.  Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS. Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(17):1796-1806.  (PubMed)

72.  Spinnato JA, 2nd, Freire S, Pinto ESJL, et al. Antioxidant therapy to prevent preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(6):1311-1318.  (PubMed)

73.  Xu H, Perez-Cuevas R, Xiong X, et al. An international trial of antioxidants in the prevention of preeclampsia (INTAPP). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202(3):239 e231-239 e210.  (PubMed)

74.  Poston L, Briley AL, Seed PT, Kelly FJ, Shennan AH. Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;367(9517):1145-1154.  (PubMed)

75.  Moshfegh A, Goldman J, Cleveland L. 2005. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2001-2002: Usual nutrient intakes from food compared to dietary reference intakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=13793. Accessed 6/12/11.

76.  Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for adequacy: calcium and vitamin D. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2011:291-340.  (The National Academies Press)

77.  Grant WB. High vitamin D and calcium requirements during pregnancy and tooth loss. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(11):1931-1932.  (PubMed)

78.  Hollis BW. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D. J Nutr. 2005;135(2):317-322.  (PubMed)

79.  Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Nutritional vitamin D status during pregnancy: reasons for concern. CMAJ. 2006;174(9):1287-1290.  (PubMed)

80.  Heaney RP. Vitamin D: how much do we need, and how much is too much? Osteoporos Int. 2000;11(7):553-555.  (PubMed)

81.  Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(1):18-28.  (PubMed)

82.  Hamilton SA, McNeil R, Hollis BW, et al. Profound Vitamin D Deficiency in a Diverse Group of Women during Pregnancy Living in a Sun-Rich Environment at Latitude 32 degrees N. Int J Endocrinol. 2010;2010:917428.  (PubMed)

83.  Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Powers RW, Frank MP, Cooperstein E, Roberts JM. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr. 2007;137(2):447-452.  (PubMed)

84.  Lee JM, Smith JR, Philipp BL, Chen TC, Mathieu J, Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007;46(1):42-44.  (PubMed)

85.  van der Meer IM, Karamali NS, Boeke AJ, et al. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant non-Western women in The Hague, Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(2):350-353; quiz 468-359.  (PubMed)

86.  Mahon P, Harvey N, Crozier S, et al. Low maternal vitamin D status and fetal bone development: cohort study. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(1):14-19.  (PubMed)

87.  Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, et al. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2006;367(9504):36-43.  (PubMed)

88.  Yu CK, Sykes L, Sethi M, Teoh TG, Robinson S. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70(5):685-690.  (PubMed)

89.  Holmes VA, Barnes MS, Alexander HD, McFaul P, Wallace JM. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study. Br J Nutr. 2009;102(6):876-881.  (PubMed)

90.  Nesby-O'Dell S, Scanlon KS, Cogswell ME, et al. Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):187-192.  (PubMed)

91.  Thorp JA, Gaston L, Caspers DR, Pal ML. Current concepts and controversies in the use of vitamin K. Drugs. 1995;49(3):376-387.  (PubMed)

92.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Calcium. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1997:71-145.  (National Academy Press)

93.  Jarjou LM, Laskey MA, Sawo Y, Goldberg GR, Cole TJ, Prentice A. Effect of calcium supplementation in pregnancy on maternal bone outcomes in women with a low calcium intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(2):450-457.  (PubMed)

94.  Koo WW, Walters JC, Esterlitz J, Levine RJ, Bush AJ, Sibai B. Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94(4):577-582.  (PubMed)

95.  Ritchie LD, King JC. Dietary calcium and pregnancy-induced hypertension: is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5 Suppl):1371S-1374S.  (PubMed)

96.  Hofmeyr GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah AN, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(8):CD001059.  (PubMed)

97.  Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Effectiveness-Based Guidelines for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women--2011 Update: A Guideline From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(11):1243-62.  (PubMed)

98.  Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Williams D. Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9677):1773-1779.  (PubMed)

99.  Gunton JE, Hams G, Hitchman R, McElduff A. Serum chromium does not predict glucose tolerance in late pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(1):99-104.  (PubMed)

100.  Woods SE, Ghodsi V, Engel A, Miller J, James S. Serum chromium and gestational diabetes. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(2):153-157.  (PubMed)

101.  Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies which may predispose to glucose intolerance of pregnancy. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15(1):14-20.  (PubMed)

102.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Iodine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:258-289.  (National Academy Press)

103.  Levander OA, Whanger PD. Deliberations and evaluations of the approaches, endpoints and paradigms for selenium and iodine dietary recommendations. J Nutr. 1996;126(9 Suppl):2427S-2434S.  (PubMed)

104.  Melse-Boonstra A, Jaiswal N. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;24(1):29-38.  (PubMed)

105.  World Health Organization, UNICEF, ICCIDD. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers. 3rd ed.: World Health Organization, 2007.  Available at: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_
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106.  Becker DV, Braverman LE, Delange F, et al. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2006;16(10):949-951.  (PubMed)

107.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Iron Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:290-393.  (National Academy Press)

108.  Hytten F. Blood volume changes in normal pregnancy. Clin Haematol. 1985;14(3):601-612.  (PubMed)

109.  McLean E, Cogswell M, Egli I, Wojdyla D, de Benoist B. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993-2005. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(4):444-454.  (PubMed)

110.  Sanghvi TG, Harvey PW, Wainwright E. Maternal iron-folic acid supplementation programs: evidence of impact and implementation. Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31(2 Suppl):S100-107.  (PubMed)

111.  Allen LH. Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5 Suppl):1280S-1284S.  (PubMed)

112.  Rasmussen K. Is There a Causal Relationship between Iron Deficiency or Iron-Deficiency Anemia and Weight at Birth, Length of Gestation and Perinatal Mortality? J Nutr. 2001;131(2S-2):590S-601S; discussion 601S-603S.  (PubMed)

113.  Yip R. Significance of an abnormally low or high hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy: special consideration of iron nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(1 Suppl):272S-279S.  (PubMed)

114.  Allen LH. Pregnancy and lactation. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. 9th ed. Volume 2. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:529-543.

115.  Lynch SR. Interaction of iron with other nutrients. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(4):102-110.  (PubMed)

116.  Sandstrom B. Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability. Br J Nutr. 2001;85 Suppl 2:S181-185.  (PubMed)

117.  Durlach J. New data on the importance of gestational Mg deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(6):694S-700S.  (PubMed)

118.  Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ, Chou D. Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(10):CD000128.  (PubMed)

119.  Altman D, Carroli G, Duley L, et al. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9321):1877-1890.  (PubMed)

120.  Sibai BM. Diagnosis, prevention, and management of eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(2):402-410.  (PubMed)

121.  Belfort MA, Anthony J, Saade GR, Allen JC, Jr. A comparison of magnesium sulfate and nimodipine for the prevention of eclampsia. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(4):304-311.  (PubMed)

122.  Ema M, Gebrewold A, Altura BT, Altura BM. Magnesium sulfate prevents alcohol-induced spasms of cerebral blood vessels: an in situ study on the brain microcirculation from male versus female rats. Magnes Trace Elem. 1991;10(2-4):269-280.  (PubMed)

123.  Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Shankar AH, Merialdi M. Potential contribution of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy to maternal and child survival. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2 Suppl):499S-508S.  (PubMed)

124.  Shah D, Sachdev HP. Zinc deficiency in pregnancy and fetal outcome. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(1):15-30.  (PubMed)

125.  Hess SY, King JC. Effects of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy and lactation outcomes. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(1 Suppl):S60-78.  (PubMed)

126.  Mahomed K, Bhutta Z, Middleton P. Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD000230.  (PubMed)

127.  O'Brien KO, Zavaleta N, Caulfield LE, Wen J, Abrams SA. Prenatal iron supplements impair zinc absorption in pregnant Peruvian women. J Nutr. 2000;130(9):2251-2255.  (PubMed)

128.  Blusztajn JK. Choline, a vital amine. Science. 1998;281(5378):794-795.  (PubMed)

129.  Zeisel SH, Mar MH, Howe JC, Holden JM. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. J Nutr. 2003;133(5):1302-1307.  (PubMed)

130.  Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, Selvin S, Schaffer DM. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160(2):102-109.  (PubMed)

131.  Shaw GM, Finnell RH, Blom HJ, et al. Choline and risk of neural tube defects in a folate-fortified population. Epidemiology. 2009;20(5):714-719.  (PubMed)

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