skip page navigationOregon State University

Micronutrient Information Center

References: Calcium


1.  Weaver CM, Heaney RP. Calcium. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:141-155.

2.  Heaney RP. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2 Suppl):83S-99S.  (PubMed)

3.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Calcium. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1997:71-145.  (National Academy Press)

4.  Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

5.  Pearce SH, Thakker RV. The calcium-sensing receptor: insights into extracellular calcium homeostasis in health and disease. J Endocrinol. 1997;154(3):371-378.  (PubMed)

6.  Calvo MS. Dietary considerations to prevent loss of bone and renal function. Nutrition. 2000;16(7-8):564-566.  (PubMed)

7.  Devine A, Criddle RA, Dick IM, Kerr DA, Prince RL. A longitudinal study of the effect of sodium and calcium intakes on regional bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(4):740-745.  (PubMed)

8.  Carbone LD, Barrow KD, Bush AJ, et al. Effects of a low sodium diet on bone metabolism. J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23(6):506-513.  (PubMed)

9.  Wigertz K, Palacios C, Jackman LA, et al. Racial differences in calcium retention in response to dietary salt in adolescent girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(4):845-850.  (PubMed)

10.  Bonjour JP. Dietary protein: an essential nutrient for bone health. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005;24(6 Suppl):526S-536S.  (PubMed)

11.  Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Stegman MR. Effects of moderate caffeine intake on the calcium economy of premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52(4):722-725.  (PubMed)

12.  Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Caffeine and bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(4):573-578.  (PubMed)

13.  Lloyd T, Johnson-Rollings N, Eggli DF, Kieselhorst K, Mauger EA, Cusatis DC. Bone status among postmenopausal women with different habitual caffeine intakes: a longitudinal investigation. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2):256-261.  (PubMed)

14.  Bostick R. Diet and nutrition in the prevention of colon cancer. In: Bendich A, Deckelbaum RJ, eds. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press, Inc; 2001:57-95.

15.  Bonithon-Kopp C, Kronborg O, Giacosa A, Rath U, Faivre J. Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. European Cancer Prevention Organisation Study Group. Lancet. 2000;356(9238):1300-1306.  (PubMed)

16.  Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. Calcium supplements and colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Study Group. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;889:138-145.  (PubMed)

17.  Grau MV, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Prolonged effect of calcium supplementation on risk of colorectal adenomas in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(2):129-136.  (PubMed)

18.  Cho E, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, et al. Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(13):1015-1022.  (PubMed)

19.  Ma J, Giovannucci E, Pollak M, et al. Milk intake, circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, and risk of colorectal cancer in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93(17):1330-1336.  (PubMed)

20.  National Institutes of Health. Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. NIH Consensus Statement. 2000;17(1):1-36.  http://consensus.nih.gov/2000/2000Osteoporosis111html.htm

21.  Specker BL. Evidence for an interaction between calcium intake and physical activity on changes in bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res. 1996;11(10):1539-1544.  (PubMed)

22.  Heller HJ. The role of calcium in the prevention of kidney stones. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(5 Suppl):373S-378S.  (PubMed)

23.  Martini LA, Wood RJ. Should dietary calcium and protein be restricted in patients with nephrolithiasis? Nutr Rev. 2000;58(4):111-117.  (PubMed)

24.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(12):833-838.  (PubMed)

25.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ. Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(7):497-504.  (PubMed)

26.  Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15(12):3225-3232.  (PubMed)

27.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Knight EL, Stampfer MJ. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in younger women: Nurses' Health Study II. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(8):885-891.  (PubMed)

28.  Liebman M, Chai W. Effect of dietary calcium on urinary oxalate excretion after oxalate loads. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5):1453-1459.  (PubMed)

29.  Burtis WJ, Gay L, Insogna KL, Ellison A, Broadus AE. Dietary hypercalciuria in patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(3):424-429.  (PubMed)

30.  Martini LA, Cuppari L, Colugnati FA, et al. High sodium chloride intake is associated with low bone density in calcium stone-forming patients. Clin Nephrol. 2000;54(2):85-93.  (PubMed)

31.  Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(7):669-683.  (PubMed)

32.  Ritchie LD, King JC. Dietary calcium and pregnancy-induced hypertension: is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5 Suppl):1371S-1374S.  (PubMed)

33.  Kulier R, de Onis M, Gulmezoglu AM, Villar J. Nutritional interventions for the prevention of maternal morbidity. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998;63(3):231-246.  (PubMed)

34.  Levine RJ, Hauth JC, Curet LB, et al. Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(2):69-76.  (PubMed)

35.  Bruening K, Kemp FW, Simone N, Holding Y, Louria DB, Bogden JD. Dietary calcium intakes of urban children at risk of lead poisoning. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107(6):431-435.  (PubMed)

36.  Hertz-Picciotto I, Schramm M, Watt-Morse M, Chantala K, Anderson J, Osterloh J. Patterns and determinants of blood lead during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152(9):829-837.  (PubMed)

37.  Muldoon SB, Cauley JA, Kuller LH, Scott J, Rohay J. Lifestyle and sociodemographic factors as determinants of blood lead levels in elderly women. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139(6):599-608.  (PubMed)

38.  Birkett NJ. Comments on a meta-analysis of the relation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(3):223-228; discussion 232-223.  (PubMed)

39.  Griffith LE, Guyatt GH, Cook RJ, Bucher HC, Cook DJ. The influence of dietary and nondietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure: an updated metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Hypertens. 1999;12(1 Pt 1):84-92.  (PubMed)

40.  Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(16):1117-1124.  (PubMed)

41.  Conlin PR, Chow D, Miller ER, 3rd, et al. The effect of dietary patterns on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13(9):949-955.  (PubMed)

42.  Miller GD, DiRienzo DD, Reusser ME, McCarron DA. Benefits of dairy product consumption on blood pressure in humans: a summary of the biomedical literature. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2 Suppl):147S-164S.  (PubMed)

43.  Brown JE. Preconception Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions. In: Brown JE, ed. Nutrition through the Life Cycle. Belmont: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning; 2002:53-60.

44.  Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(1):3-12.  (PubMed)

45.  Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, Tian J. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179(2):444-452.  (PubMed)

46.  Thys-Jacobs S, Ceccarelli S, Bierman A, Weisman H, Cohen MA, Alvir J. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J Gen Intern Med. 1989;4(3):183-189.  (PubMed)

47.  Alvir JM, Thys-Jacobs S. Premenstrual and menstrual symptom clusters and response to calcium treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1991;27(2):145-148.  (PubMed)

48.  Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE, Bendich A, Johnson SR, Willett WC, Manson JE. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(11):1246-1252.  (PubMed)

49.  Weaver CM, Proulx WR, Heaney R. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3 Suppl):543S-548S.  (PubMed)

50.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

51.  Bourgoin BP, Evans DR, Cornett JR, Lingard SM, Quattrone AJ. Lead content in 70 brands of dietary calcium supplements. Am J Public Health. 1993;83(8):1155-1160.  (PubMed)

52.  Ross EA, Szabo NJ, Tebbett IR. Lead content of calcium supplements. JAMA. 2000;284(11):1425-1429.  (PubMed)

53.  Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, et al. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 1998;58(3):442-447.  (PubMed)

54.  Chan JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson SO, Yuen J, Adami HO, Wolk A. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control. 1998;9(6):559-566.  (PubMed)

55.  Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gann PH, Gaziano JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(4):549-554.  (PubMed)

56.  Mitrou PN, Albanes D, Weinstein SJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary calcium, dairy products and prostate cancer risk (Finland). Int J Cancer. 2007;120(11):2466-2473.  (PubMed)

57.  Chan JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev. 2001;23(1):87-92.

58.  Vlajinac HD, Marinkovic JM, Ilic MD, Kocev NI. Diet and prostate cancer: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer. 1997;33(1):101-107.  (PubMed)

59.  Gao X, LaValley MP, Tucker KL. Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(23):1768-1777.  (PubMed)

60.  Severi G, English DR, Hopper JL, Giles GG. Re: Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98(11):794-795; author reply 795.

61.  Vella A, Gerber TC, Hayes DL, Reeder GS. Digoxin, hypercalcaemia, and cardiac conduction. Postgrad Med J. 1999;75(887):554-556.  (PubMed)

62.  Moser LR, Smythe MA, Tisdale JE. The use of calcium salts in the prevention and management of verapamil-induced hypotension. Ann Pharmacother. 2000;34(5):622-629.  (PubMed)

63.  Bania TC, Blaufeux B, Hughes S, Almond GL, Homel P. Calcium and digoxin vs. calcium alone for severe verapamil toxicity. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(10):1089-1096.  (PubMed)

64.  Minerals. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:27-51.

65.  Wood RJ, Zheng JJ. High dietary calcium intakes reduce zinc absorption and balance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(6):1803-1809.  (PubMed)

66.  Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J. 2000;14(9):1132-1138.  (PubMed)

67.  Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(6):754-760.  (PubMed)

68.  Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Barger-Lux MJ, Rafferty K, Hinders S. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2000;85(12):4635-4638.  (PubMed)

69.  Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, et al. Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(4):751-756.  (PubMed)

70.  Eagan MS, Lyle RM, Gunther CW, Peacock M, Teegarden D. Effect of 1-year dairy product intervention on fat mass in young women: 6-month follow-up. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14(12):2242-2248.  (PubMed)