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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Calcium


1.  Weaver CM. Calcium. In: Erdman JJ, Macdonald I, Zeisel S, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.

2.  Wesseling-Perry K, Wang H, Elashoff R, Gales B, Juppner H, Salusky IB. Lack of FGF23 response to acute changes in serum calcium and PTH in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014:99(10):E1951-E1956.  (PubMed)

3.  Clapham DE. Calcium signaling. Cell. 2007;131(6):1047-1058.  (PubMed)

4.  Wigertz K, Palacios C, Jackman LA, et al. Racial differences in calcium retention in response to dietary salt in adolescent girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(4):845-850.  (PubMed)

5.  Frassetto LA, Morris RC, Jr., Sellmeyer DE, Sebastian A. Adverse effects of sodium chloride on bone in the aging human population resulting from habitual consumption of typical American diets. J Nutr. 2008;138(2):419S-422S.  (PubMed)

6.  Devine A, Criddle RA, Dick IM, Kerr DA, Prince RL. A longitudinal study of the effect of sodium and calcium intakes on regional bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(4):740-745.  (PubMed)

7.  Carbone LD, Barrow KD, Bush AJ, et al. Effects of a low sodium diet on bone metabolism. J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23(6):506-513.  (PubMed)

8.  Sellmeyer DE, Schloetter M, Sebastian A. Potassium citrate prevents increased urine calcium excretion and bone resorption induced by a high sodium chloride diet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(5):2008-2012.  (PubMed)

9.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Calcium. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2011.  (The National Academies Press)

10.  Fulgoni VL, 3rd. Current protein intake in America: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1554S-1557S.  (PubMed)

11.  Ince BA, Anderson EJ, Neer RM. Lowering dietary protein to U.S. Recommended dietary allowance levels reduces urinary calcium excretion and bone resorption in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(8):3801-3807.  (PubMed)

12.  Calvez J, Poupin N, Chesneau C, Lassale C, Tome D. Protein intake, calcium balance and health consequences. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(3):281-295.  (PubMed)

13.  Kerstetter JE, O'Brien KO, Caseria DM, Wall DE, Insogna KL. The impact of dietary protein on calcium absorption and kinetic measures of bone turnover in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(1):26-31.  (PubMed)

14.  Darling AL, Millward DJ, Torgerson DJ, Hewitt CE, Lanham-New SA. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(6):1674-1692.  (PubMed)

15.  Grimm M, Muller A, Hein G, Funfstuck R, Jahreis G. High phosphorus intake only slightly affects serum minerals, urinary pyridinium crosslinks and renal function in young women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(3):153-161.  (PubMed)

16.  Kemi VE, Karkkainen MU, Rita HJ, Laaksonen MM, Outila TA, Lamberg-Allardt CJ. Low calcium:phosphorus ratio in habitual diets affects serum parathyroid hormone concentration and calcium metabolism in healthy women with adequate calcium intake. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(4):561-568.  (PubMed)

17.  Heaney RP. Phosphorus. In: Erdman JJ, Macdonald I, Zeisel S, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012: 447-458.

18.  Calvo MS, Moshfegh AJ, Tucker KL. Assessing the health impact of phosphorus in the food supply: issues and considerations. Adv Nutr. 2014;5(1):104-113.  (PubMed)

19.  Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Stegman MR. Effects of moderate caffeine intake on the calcium economy of premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52(4):722-725.  (PubMed)

20.  Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Caffeine and bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(4):573-578.  (PubMed)

21.  Lloyd T, Johnson-Rollings N, Eggli DF, Kieselhorst K, Mauger EA, Cusatis DC. Bone status among postmenopausal women with different habitual caffeine intakes: a longitudinal investigation. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2):256-261.  (PubMed)

22.  Heaney RP. Bone mass, nutrition, and other lifestyle factors. Nutr Rev. 1996;54(4 Pt 2):S3-S10.  (PubMed)

23.  Haleem S, Lutchman L, Mayahi R, Grice JE, Parker MJ. Mortality following hip fracture: trends and geographical variations over the last 40 years. Injury. 2008;39(10):1157-1163.  (PubMed)

24.  Kaufman JM, Reginster JY, Boonen S, et al. Treatment of osteoporosis in men. Bone. 2013;53(1):134-144.  (PubMed)

25.  Heaney RP. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2 Suppl):83S-99S.  (PubMed)

26.  Crandall CJ, Newberry SJ, Diamant A, et al. Treatment To Prevent Fractures in Men and Women With Low Bone Density or Osteoporosis: Update of a 2007 Report. Rockville (MD); 2012; Mar. Report No.: 12-EHC023-EF.  (PubMed)

27.  Rizzoli R, Bianchi ML, Garabedian M, McKay HA, Moreno LA. Maximizing bone mineral mass gain during growth for the prevention of fractures in the adolescents and the elderly. Bone. 2010;46(2):294-305.  (PubMed)

28.  Borer KT. Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Sports Med. 2005;35(9):779-830.  (PubMed)

29.  Natural Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Washington, D.C. 2014. Available at: http://nof.org/files/nof/public/content/file/2791/upload/919.pdf

30.  Levis S, Theodore G. Summary of AHRQ's comparative effectiveness review of treatment to prevent fractures in men and women with low bone density or osteoporosis: update of the 2007 report. J Manag Care Pharm. 2012;18(4 Suppl B):S1-15; discussion S13.  (PubMed)

31.  Tang BM, Eslick GD, Nowson C, Smith C, Bensoussan A. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370(9588):657-666.  (PubMed)

32.  Prince RL, Devine A, Dhaliwal SS, Dick IM. Effects of calcium supplementation on clinical fracture and bone structure: results of a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in elderly women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(8):869-875.  (PubMed)

33.  Chung M, Lee J, Terasawa T, Lau J, Trikalinos TA. Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(12):827-838.  (PubMed)

34.  Lips P, van Schoor NM. The effect of vitamin D on bone and osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;25(4):585-591.  (PubMed)

35.  Gallagher JC, Yalamanchili V, Smith LM. The effect of vitamin D on calcium absorption in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(10):3550-3556.  (PubMed)

36.  Zhu K, Bruce D, Austin N, Devine A, Ebeling PR, Prince RL. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of calcium with or without vitamin D on bone structure and bone-related chemistry in elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(8):1343-1348.  (PubMed)

37.  DIPART (Vitamin D Individual Patient Analysis of Randomized Trials) Group. Patient level pooled analysis of 68 500 patients from seven major vitamin D fracture trials in US and Europe. BMJ. 2010;340:b5463.  (PubMed)

38.  Avenell A, Mak JC, O'Connell D. Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post-menopausal women and older men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;4:CD000227.  (PubMed)

39.  Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Orav EJ, et al. A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(1):40-49.  (PubMed)

40.  Aspray TJ, Francis RM. Fracture prevention in care home residents: is vitamin D supplementation enough? Age Ageing. 2006;35(5):455-456.  (PubMed)

41.  Murad MH, Elamin KB, Abu Elnour NO, et al. Clinical review: The effect of vitamin D on falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(10):2997-3006.  (PubMed)

42.  Lerolle N, Lantz B, Paillard F, et al. Risk factors for nephrolithiasis in patients with familial idiopathic hypercalciuria. Am J Med. 2002;113(2):99-103.  (PubMed)

43.  Sorensen MD, Eisner BH, Stone KL, et al. Impact of calcium intake and intestinal calcium absorption on kidney stones in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Urol. 2012;187(4):1287-1292.  (PubMed)

44.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Knight EL, Stampfer MJ. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in younger women: Nurses' Health Study II. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(8):885-891.  (PubMed)

45.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(12):833-838.  (PubMed)

46.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ. Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(7):497-504.  (PubMed)

47.  Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15(12):3225-3232.  (PubMed)

48.  Taylor EN, Curhan GC. Dietary calcium from dairy and nondairy sources, and risk of symptomatic kidney stones. J Urol. 2013;190(4):1255-1259.  (PubMed)

49.  Borghi L, Schianchi T, Meschi T, et al. Comparison of two diets for the prevention of recurrent stones in idiopathic hypercalciuria. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(2):77-84.  (PubMed)

50.  Hess B, Jost C, Zipperle L, Takkinen R, Jaeger P. High-calcium intake abolishes hyperoxaluria and reduces urinary crystallization during a 20-fold normal oxalate load in humans. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13(9):2241-2247.  (PubMed)

51.  Liebman M, Chai W. Effect of dietary calcium on urinary oxalate excretion after oxalate loads. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5):1453-1459.  (PubMed)

52.  Lange JN, Wood KD, Mufarrij PW, et al. The impact of dietary calcium and oxalate ratios on stone risk. Urology. 2012;79(6):1226-1229.  (PubMed)

53.  Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(7):669-683.  (PubMed)

54.  Heaney RP. Calcium supplementation and incident kidney stone risk: a systematic review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27(5):519-527.  (PubMed)

55.  Candelas G, Martinez-Lopez JA, Rosario MP, Carmona L, Loza E. Calcium supplementation and kidney stone risk in osteoporosis: a systematic literature review. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30(6):954-961.  (PubMed)

56.  Escribano J, Balaguer A, Roque i Figuls M, Feliu A, Ferre N. Dietary interventions for preventing complications in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2:CD006022.  (PubMed)

57.  Heilberg IP, Goldfarb DS. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2013;20(2):165-174.  (PubMed)

58.  Duley L. The global impact of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Semin Perinatol. 2009;33(3):130-137.  (PubMed)

59.  Steegers EA, von Dadelszen P, Duvekot JJ, Pijnenborg R. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet. 2010;376(9741):631-644.  (PubMed)

60.  Hofmeyr GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah AN, Duley L, Torloni MR. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;6:CD001059.  (PubMed)

61.  Scholl TO, Chen X, Stein TP. Vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and preeclampsia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(3):787-793.  (PubMed)

62.  Scholl TO, Chen X, Stein TP. Maternal calcium metabolic stress and fetal growth. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(4):918-925.  (PubMed)

63.  Hofmeyr GJ, Belizan JM, von Dadelszen P, Calcium, Pre-eclampsia Study G. Low-dose calcium supplementation for preventing pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and commentary. BJOG. 2014;121(8):951-957.  (PubMed)

64.  World Health Organization. Calcium supplementation in pregnant women; 2013.  Available at: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/
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65.  Hofmeyr GJ, Mlokoti Z, Nikodem VC, et al. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders is not associated with changes in platelet count, urate, and urinary protein: a randomized control trial. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2008;27(3):299-304.  (PubMed)

66.  Villar J, Abdel-Aleem H, Merialdi M, et al. World Health Organization randomized trial of calcium supplementation among low calcium intake pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194(3):639-649.  (PubMed)

67.  Hofmeyr GJ, Novikova N, Singata M, et al. Protocol 11PRT/4028: Long term calcium supplementation in women at high risk of pre-eclampsia: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial (PACTR201105000267371). The Lancet; 2011.  Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/protocol-reviews/11PRT-4028.

68.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Colorectal cancer statistics. [Web page] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/statistics/. Accessed 11/13/14.

69.  Whitfield JF. Calcium, calcium-sensing receptor and colon cancer. Cancer Lett. 2009;275(1):9-16.  (PubMed)

70.  Murphy N, Norat T, Ferrari P, et al. Consumption of dairy products and colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e72715.  (PubMed)

71.  Massa J, Cho E, Orav EJ, Willett WC, Wu K, Giovannucci EL. Total calcium intake and colorectal adenoma in young women. Cancer Causes Control. 2014;25(4):451-460.  (PubMed)

72.  Keum N, Aune D, Greenwood DC, Ju W, Giovannucci EL. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: Dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Int J Cancer. 2014;135(8):1940-1948.  (PubMed)

73.  Bristow SM, Bolland MJ, MacLennan GS, et al. Calcium supplements and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(8):1384-1393.  (PubMed)

74.  Bolland MJ, Grey A, Gamble GD, Reid IR. Calcium and vitamin D supplements and health outcomes: a reanalysis of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) limited-access data set. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(4):1144-1149.  (PubMed)

75.  Carroll C, Cooper K, Papaioannou D, Hind D, Pilgrim H, Tappenden P. Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Ther. 2010;32(5):789-803.  (PubMed)

76.  Mielke HW, Gonzales C, Powell E, Mielke PW. Evolving from reactive to proactive medicine: community lead (Pb) and clinical disparities in pre- and post-Katrina New Orleans. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(7):7482-7491.  (PubMed)

77.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. New blood lead level information. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/acclpp/blood_lead_
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78.  Bruening K, Kemp FW, Simone N, Holding Y, Louria DB, Bogden JD. Dietary calcium intakes of urban children at risk of lead poisoning. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107(6):431-435.  (PubMed)

79.  Hertz-Picciotto I, Schramm M, Watt-Morse M, Chantala K, Anderson J, Osterloh J. Patterns and determinants of blood lead during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152(9):829-837.  (PubMed)

80.  Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on blood lead levels in pregnancy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117(1):26-31.  (PubMed)

81.  Ettinger AS, Tellez-Rojo MM, Amarasiriwardena C, et al. Influence of maternal bone lead burden and calcium intake on levels of lead in breast milk over the course of lactation. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163(1):48-56.  (PubMed)

82.  Hernandez-Avila M, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Hernandez-Avila JE, et al. Dietary calcium supplements to lower blood lead levels in lactating women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Epidemiology. 2003;14(2):206-212.  (PubMed)

83.  Muldoon SB, Cauley JA, Kuller LH, Scott J, Rohay J. Lifestyle and sociodemographic factors as determinants of blood lead levels in elderly women. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139(6):599-608.  (PubMed)

84.  Dougkas A, Reynolds CK, Givens ID, Elwood PC, Minihane AM. Associations between dairy consumption and body weight: a review of the evidence and underlying mechanisms. Nutr Res Rev. 2011;24(1):72-95.  (PubMed)

85.  Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004;12(4):582-590.  (PubMed)

86.  Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J. 2000;14(9):1132-1138.  (PubMed)

87.  Gonzalez JT, Rumbold PL, Stevenson EJ. Effect of calcium intake on fat oxidation in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2012;13(10):848-857.  (PubMed)

88.  Bortolotti M, Rudelle S, Schneiter P, et al. Dairy calcium supplementation in overweight or obese persons: its effect on markers of fat metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(4):877-885.  (PubMed)

89.  Gallagher JC, Yalamanchili V, Smith LM. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25(OH)D in thin and obese women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:195-200.  (PubMed)

90.  Pathak K, Soares MJ, Calton EK, Zhao Y, Hallett J. Vitamin D supplementation and body weight status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2014;15(6):528-537.  (PubMed)

91.  Christensen R, Lorenzen JK, Svith CR, et al. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2009;10(4):475-486.  (PubMed)

92.  Tordoff MG. Calcium: taste, intake, and appetite. Physiol Rev. 2001;81(4):1567-1597.  (PubMed)

93.  Chen M, Pan A, Malik VS, Hu FB. Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(4):735-747.  (PubMed)

94.  Soares MJ, Pathak K, Calton EK. Calcium and vitamin D in the regulation of energy balance: where do we stand? Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15(3):4938-4945.  (PubMed)

95.  Freeman EW. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: definitions and diagnosis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003;28 Suppl 3:25-37.  (PubMed)

96.  Pearlstein T, Steiner M. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: burden of illness and treatment update. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2008;33(4):291-301.  (PubMed)

97.  Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(1):3-12.  (PubMed)

98.  Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, Tian J. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179(2):444-452.  (PubMed)

99.  Thys-Jacobs S, Ceccarelli S, Bierman A, Weisman H, Cohen MA, Alvir J. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J Gen Intern Med. 1989;4(3):183-189.  (PubMed)

100.  Alvir JM, Thys-Jacobs S. Premenstrual and menstrual symptom clusters and response to calcium treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1991;27(2):145-148.  (PubMed)

101.  Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE, Bendich A, Johnson SR, Willett WC, Manson JE. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(11):1246-1252.  (PubMed)

102.  Whelan AM, Jurgens TM, Naylor H. Herbs, vitamins and minerals in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;16(3):e407-429.  (PubMed)

103.  Cappuccio FP, Elliott P, Allender PS, Pryer J, Follman DA, Cutler JA. Epidemiologic association between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of published data. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142(9):935-945.  (PubMed)

104.  Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(16):1117-1124.  (PubMed)

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106.  Miller GD, DiRienzo DD, Reusser ME, McCarron DA. Benefits of dairy product consumption on blood pressure in humans: a summary of the biomedical literature. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2 Suppl):147S-164S.  (PubMed)

107.  Allender PS, Cutler JA, Follmann D, Cappuccio FP, Pryer J, Elliott P. Dietary calcium and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124(9):825-831.  (PubMed)

108.  Bucher HC, Cook RJ, Guyatt GH, et al. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 1996;275(13):1016-1022.  (PubMed)

109.  Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Cook JV, et al. Calcium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006(2):CD004639.  (PubMed)

110.  Challoumas D, Cobbold C, Dimitrakakis G. Effects of calcium intake on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women. Atherosclerosis. 2013;231(1):1-7.  (PubMed)

111.  Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, et al. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr. 2010;140(4):817-822.  (PubMed)

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122.  Patel AM, Goldfarb S. Got calcium? Welcome to the calcium-alkali syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(9):1440-1443.  (PubMed)

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125.  Raimondi S, Mabrouk JB, Shatenstein B, Maisonneuve P, Ghadirian P. Diet and prostate cancer risk with specific focus on dairy products and dietary calcium: a case-control study. Prostate. 2010;70(10):1054-1065.  (PubMed)

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127.  Torfadottir JE, Steingrimsdottir L, Mucci L, et al. Milk intake in early life and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175(2):144-153.  (PubMed)

128.  Song Y, Chavarro JE, Cao Y, et al. Whole milk intake is associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality among U.S. male physicians. J Nutr. 2013;143(2):189-196.  (PubMed)

129.  Pettersson A, Kasperzyk JL, Kenfield SA, et al. Milk and dairy consumption among men with prostate cancer and risk of metastases and prostate cancer death. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21(3):428-436.  (PubMed)

130.  Qin LQ, He K, Xu JY. Milk consumption and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I level: a systematic literature review. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 7:330-340.  (PubMed)

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132.  Allen NE, Key TJ, Appleby PN, et al. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Br J Cancer. 2008;98(9):1574-1581.  (PubMed)

133.  Moreno J, Krishnan AV, Peehl DM, Feldman D. Mechanisms of vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition in prostate cancer cells: inhibition of the prostaglandin pathway. Anticancer Res. 2006;26(4A):2525-2530.  (PubMed)

134.  Mandair D, Rossi RE, Pericleous M, Whyand T, Caplin ME. Prostate cancer and the influence of dietary factors and supplements: a systematic review. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014;11:30.  (PubMed)

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