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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Fluoride

1.  Cerklewski FL. Fluoride bioavailability--nutritional and clinical aspects. Nutr Res. 1997;17:907-929.

2.  Nielsen FH. Ultratrace minerals. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:283-303.

3.  Cerklewski FL. Fluoride--essential or just beneficial. Nutrition. 1998;14(5):475-476.

4.  Cerklewski FL. Fluorine. In: O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, eds. Handbook of nutritionally essential minerals. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1997:583-602.

5.  Press release. 2011. EPA and HHS Announce New Scientific Assessments and Actions on Fluoride / Agencies working together to maintain benefits of preventing tooth decay while preventing excessive exposure.

6. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Fluoride. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1997:288-313.  (National Academy Press)

7.  Centers for Disease Control. Achievements in public health, 1900-1999: fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. MMWR. 1999;48:933-940.

8.  Demmer RT, Squillaro A, Papapanou PN, et al. Periodontal infection, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance: results from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(11):2235-2242.  (PubMed)

9.  Demmer RT, Jacobs DR, Jr., Desvarieux M. Periodontal disease and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and its epidemiologic follow-up study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(7):1373-1379.  (PubMed)

10.  Desvarieux M, Demmer RT, Jacobs DR, Jr., et al. Periodontal bacteria and hypertension: the oral infections and vascular disease epidemiology study (INVEST). J Hypertens. 2010;28(7):1413-1421.  (PubMed)

11.  Demmer RT, Desvarieux M. Periodontal infections and cardiovascular disease: the heart of the matter. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137 Suppl:14S-20S; quiz 38S.  (PubMed)

12.  Zoellner H. Dental infection and vascular disease. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011;37(3):181-192.  (PubMed)

13.  DePaola DP. Nutrition in relation to dental medicine. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:1099-1124.

14.  Newbrun E. Effectiveness of water fluoridation. J Public Health Dent. 1989;49(5 Spec No):279-289.  (PubMed)

15.  Dye BA, Tan S, Smith V, Lewis BG, Barker LK, Thornton-Evans G. Trends in oral health status: United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 11(248), 2007. Available at: Accessed 1/15/14.

16.  Marinho VC, Worthington HV, Walsh T, Clarkson JE. Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;7:CD002279.  (PubMed)

17.  Walsh T, Worthington HV, Glenny AM, Appelbe P, Marinho VC, Shi X. Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(1):CD007868.  (PubMed)

18.  Magalhaes AC, Wiegand A, Rios D, Honorio HM, Buzalaf MA. Insights into preventive measures for dental erosion. J Appl Oral Sci. 2009;17(2):75-86.  (PubMed)

19.  Zini A, Krivoroutski Y, Vered Y. Primary prevention of dental erosion by calcium and fluoride: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2013; doi: 10.1111/idh.12049. [Epub ahead of print]  (PubMed)

20.  Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B. Osteoporosis. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:1353-1364. 

21.  Fabiani L, Leoni V, Vitali M. Bone-fracture incidence rate in two Italian regions with different fluoride concentration levels in drinking water. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;13(4):232-237.  (PubMed)

22.  Lehmann R, Wapniarz M, Hofmann B, Pieper B, Haubitz I, Allolio B. Drinking water fluoridation: bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence. Bone. 1998;22(3):273-278.  (PubMed)

23.  Sowers M, Whitford GM, Clark MK, Jannausch ML. Elevated serum fluoride concentrations in women are not related to fractures and bone mineral density. J Nutr. 2005;135(9):2247-2252.  (PubMed)

24.  Nasman P, Ekstrand J, Granath F, Ekbom A, Fored CM. Estimated drinking water fluoride exposure and risk of hip fracture: a cohort study. J Dent Res. 2013;92(11):1029-1034.  (PubMed)

25.  Cesar Libanati K-H. Fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. In: Marcus R, ed. Osteoporosis. San Diego: Academic Press; 1996:1259-1277.

26.  Haguenauer D, Welch V, Shea B, Tugwell P, Adachi JD, Wells G. Fluoride for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2000;11(9):727-738.  (PubMed)

27.  Riggs BL, Hodgson SF, O'Fallon WM, et al. Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1990;322(12):802-809.  (PubMed)

28.  Lundy MW, Stauffer M, Wergedal JE, et al. Histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies in placebo-treated versus fluoride-treated subjects. Osteoporos Int. 1995;5(2):115-129.  (PubMed)

29.  Fields AJ, Keaveny TM. Trabecular architecture and vertebral fragility in osteoporosis. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2012;10(2):132-140.  (PubMed)

30.  Balena R, Kleerekoper M, Foldes JA, et al. Effects of different regimens of sodium fluoride treatment for osteoporosis on the structure, remodeling and mineralization of bone. Osteoporos Int. 1998;8(5):428-435.  (PubMed)

31.  Vestergaard P, Jorgensen NR, Schwarz P, Mosekilde L. Effects of treatment with fluoride on bone mineral density and fracture risk--a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19(3):257-268.  (PubMed)

32.  Reid IR, Cundy T, Grey AB, et al. Addition of monofluorophosphate to estrogen therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(7):2446-2452.  (PubMed)

33.  Grey A, Garg S, Dray M, et al. Low-dose fluoride in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(6):2301-2307.  (PubMed)

34.  American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: the impact of fluoride on health. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101(1):126-132.  (PubMed)

35.  Murray TM, Ste-Marie LG. Prevention and management of osteoporosis: consensus statements from the Scientific Advisory Board of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada. 7. Fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. CMAJ.1996;155(7):949-954.  (PubMed)

36.  Alexandersen P, Riis BJ, Christiansen C. Monofluorophosphate combined with hormone replacement therapy induces a synergistic effect on bone mass by dissociating bone formation and resorption in postmenopausal women: a randomized study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(9):3013-3020.  (PubMed)

37.  National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Oral Health. Community water fluoridation: 2010 water fluoridation statistics.  Available at: Accessed 1/15/14.

38.  Cutrufelli R, Pehrsson P, Haytowitz D, Patterson K, Holden J. USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods, Release 2. Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 2005.  Available at: Accessed 1/15/14.

39.  Quock RL, Chan JT. Fluoride content of bottled water and its implications for the general dentist. Gen Dent. 2009;57(1):29-33.  (PubMed)

40.  Van Winkle S, Levy SM, Kiritsy MC, Heilman JR, Wefel JS, Marshall T. Water and formula fluoride concentrations: significance for infants fed formula. Pediatr Dent. 1995;17(4):305-310.  (PubMed)

41.  Tate WH, Chan JT. Fluoride concentrations in bottled and filtered waters. Gen Dent. 1994;42(4):362-366.

42.  McGuire S. Fluoride content of bottled water. N Engl J Med. 1989;321(12):836-837.

43.  Palmer CA, Gilbert JA, Academy of N, Dietetics. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the impact of fluoride on health. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(9):1443-1453.  (PubMed)

44.  Marshall TA, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Broffitt B, Eichenberger-Gilmore JM, Stumbo PJ. Associations between Intakes of fluoride from beverages during infancy and dental fluorosis of primary teeth. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(2):108-116.  (PubMed)

45.  Pendrys DG. Risk of enamel fluorosis in nonfluoridated and optimally fluoridated populations: considerations for the dental professional. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000;131(6):746-755.  (PubMed)

46.  Levy SM, Broffitt B, Marshall TA, Eichenberger-Gilmore JM, Warren JJ. Associations between fluorosis of permanent incisors and fluoride intake from infant formula, other dietary sources and dentifrice during early childhood. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141(10):1190-1201.  (PubMed)

47.  Levy SM, Kohout FJ, Guha-Chowdhury N, Kiritsy MC, Heilman JR, Wefel JS. Infants' fluoride intake from drinking water alone, and from water added to formula, beverages, and food. J Dent Res. 1995;74(7):1399-1407.  (PubMed)

48.  Siew C, Strock S, Ristic H, et al. Assessing a potential risk factor for enamel fluorosis: a preliminary evaluation of fluoride content in infant formulas. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140(10):1228-1236.  (PubMed)

49. Fein NJ, Cerklewski FL. Fluoride content of foods made with mechanically separated chicken. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(9):4284-4286.  (PubMed)

50.  Kiritsy MC, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Guha-Chowdhury N, Heilman JR, Marshall T. Assessing fluoride concentrations of juices and juice-flavored drinks. J Am Dent Assoc. 1996;127(7):895-902.  (PubMed)

51.  Rozier RG, Adair S, Graham F, et al. Evidence-based clinical recommendations on the prescription of dietary fluoride supplements for caries prevention: a report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141(12):1480-1489.  (PubMed)

52.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50(RR-14):1-42.  Available at:

53.  Section on Pediatric Dentistry and Oral Health. Preventive oral health intervention for pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2008;122(6):1387-1394.  (PubMed)

54.  American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. Fluoride toothpaste use for young children. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014;145(2):190-191.  (PubMed)

55.  Falcao A, Tenuta LM, Cury JA. Fluoride gastrointestinal absorption from Na2FPO3/CaCO3- and NaF/SiO2-based toothpastes. Caries Res. 2013;47(3):226-233.  (PubMed)

56.  Pollick HF. Salt fluoridation: a review. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2013;41(6):395-397, 400-394.  (PubMed)

57.  Marthaler TM, Petersen PE. Salt fluoridation--an alternative in automatic prevention of dental caries. Int Dent J. 2005;55(6):351-358.  (PubMed)

58.  Whitford GM. The metabolism and toxicity of fluoride. Vol 13. Basel: S. Karger AG; 1996.

59.  Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water NRC. 2006. Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA's Standards. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press.

60.  Choi AL, Sun G, Zhang Y, Grandjean P. Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120(10):1362-1368.  (PubMed)

61.  Whitford GM. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:66-80.  (PubMed)

62.  Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Barker L, Dye BA. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004. NCHS data brief, no 53. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010.  Available at:

63.  Agency. UEP. New fluoride risk assessment and relative source contribution documents. 2011. Available at:

64.  Hallanger Johnson JE, Kearns AE, Doran PM, Khoo TK, Wermers RA. Fluoride-related bone disease associated with habitual tea consumption. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82(6):719-724.  (PubMed)

65.  Whyte MP, Totty WG, Lim VT, Whitford GM. Skeletal fluorosis from instant tea. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(5):759-769.  (PubMed)

66.  Izuora K, Twombly JG, Whitford GM, Demertzis J, Pacifici R, Whyte MP. Skeletal fluorosis from brewed tea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(8):2318-2324.  (PubMed)

67.  Kakumanu N, Rao SD. Images in clinical medicine. Skeletal fluorosis due to excessive tea drinking. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(12):1140.  (PubMed)

68.  Minerals. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:27-51.