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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Magnesium


1.  Shils ME. Magnesium. In: O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, eds. Handbook of nutritionally essential minerals. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1997:117-152.

2.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Magnesium. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1997:190-249. (National Academy Press)

3.  Rude RK, Shils ME. Magnesium. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:223-247.

4.  Spencer H, Norris C, Williams D. Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13(5):479-484. (PubMed)

5.  Schwartz R, Walker G, Linz MD, MacKellar I. Metabolic responses of adolescent boys to two levels of dietary magnesium and protein. I. Magnesium and nitrogen retention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1973;26(5):510-518.

6.  Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, et al. A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US men. Circulation. 1992;86(5):1475-1484. (PubMed)

7.  Ascherio A, Hennekens C, Willett WC, et al. Prospective study of nutritional factors, blood pressure, and hypertension among US women. Hypertension. 1996;27(5):1065-1072. (PubMed)

8.  Peacock JM, Folsom AR, Arnett DK, Eckfeldt JH, Szklo M. Relationship of serum and dietary magnesium to incident hypertension: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Ann Epidemiol. 1999;9(3):159-165. (PubMed)

9.  Marx A, Neutra RR. Magnesium in drinking water and ischemic heart disease. Epidemiol Rev. 1997;19(2):258-272. (PubMed)

10.  Liao F, Folsom AR, Brancati FL. Is low magnesium concentration a risk factor for coronary heart disease? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J. 1998;136(3):480-490. (PubMed)

11.  Song Y, Manson JE, Cook NR, Albert CM, Buring JE, Liu S. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96(8):1135-1141. (PubMed)

12.  Sojka JE, Weaver CM. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr Rev. 1995;53(3):71-74. (PubMed)

13.  Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(4):727-736. (PubMed)

14.  Ryder KM, Shorr RI, Bush AJ, et al. Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(11):1875-1880. (PubMed)

15.  Stendig-Lindberg G, Tepper R, Leichter I. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnes Res. 1993;6(2):155-163. (PubMed)

16.  Abraham GE, Grewal H. A total dietary program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium. Effect on the mineral density of calcaneous bone in postmenopausal women on hormonal therapy. J Reprod Med. 1990;35(5):503-507. (PubMed)

17.  Kawano Y, Matsuoka H, Takishita S, Omae T. Effects of magnesium supplementation in hypertensive patients: assessment by office, home, and ambulatory blood pressures. Hypertension. 1998;32(2):260-265. (PubMed)

18.  Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Derkx FH, Bouillon R, de Bruijn AM, Hofman A. Reduction of blood pressure with oral magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(1):129-135. (PubMed)

19.  Whelton PK, Klag MJ. Magnesium and blood pressure: review of the epidemiologic and clinical trial experience. Am J Cardiol. 1989;63(14):26G-30G. (PubMed)

20.  Shils ME. Magnesium. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:256-264.

21.  Sontia B, Touyz RM. Role of magnesium in hypertension. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;458(1):33-39. (PubMed)

22.  Dickinson HO, Mason JM, Nicolson DJ, et al. Lifestyle interventions to reduce raised blood pressure: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. 2006;24(2):215-233 (PubMed)

23.  Crombleholme WR. Obstetrics. In: Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, eds. Current Medical Treatment and Diagnosis. 37th ed. Stamford: Appleton and Lange; 1998:731-734.

24.  Sibai BM. Diagnosis, prevention, and management of eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(2):402-410. (PubMed)

25.  Altman D, Carroli G, Duley L, et al. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9321):1877-1890. (PubMed)

26.  Ema M, Gebrewold A, Altura BT, Altura BM. Magnesium sulfate prevents alcohol-induced spasms of cerebral blood vessels: an in situ study on the brain microcirculation from male versus female rats. Magnes Trace Elem. 1991;10(2-4):269-280. (PubMed)

27.  Belfort MA, Anthony J, Saade GR, Allen JC, Jr. A comparison of magnesium sulfate and nimodipine for the prevention of eclampsia. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(4):304-311. (PubMed)

28.  Woods KL, Fletcher S, Roffe C, Haider Y. Intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: results of the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet. 1992;339(8809):1553-1558. (PubMed)

29.  Woods KL, Fletcher S. Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet. 1994;343(8901):816-819. (PubMed)

30.  ISIS-4 Collaborative. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet. 1995;345(8951):669-685. (PubMed)

31.  Ziegelstein RC, Hilbe JM, French WJ, Antman EM, Chandra-Strobos N. Magnesium use in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction in the United States (observations from the Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction). Am J Cardiol. 2001;87(1):7-10. (PubMed)

32.  Li J, Zhang Q, Zhang M, Egger M. Intravenous magnesium for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD002755. (PubMed)

33.  Shechter M, Sharir M, Labrador MJ, Forrester J, Silver B, Bairey Merz CN. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2000;102(19):2353-2358. (PubMed)

34.  Shechter M, Merz CN, Paul-Labrador M, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation inhibits platelet-dependent thrombosis in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 1999;84(2):152-156. (PubMed)

35.  Song Y, Li TY, van Dam RM, Manson JE, Hu FB. Magnesium intake and plasma concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(4):1068-1074. (PubMed)

36.  Maier JA, Malpuech-Brugere C, Zimowska W, Rayssiguier Y, Mazur A. Low magnesium promotes endothelial cell dysfunction: implications for atherosclerosis, inflammation and thrombosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1689(1):13-21. (PubMed)

37.  Tosiello L. Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus. A review of clinical implications. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(11):1143-1148. (PubMed)

38.  Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Gambardella A, et al. Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(6):1161-7. (PubMed)

39.  Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(4):1147-1152. (PubMed)

40.  Yokota K, Kato M, Lister F, et al. Clinical efficacy of magnesium supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(5):506S-509S. (PubMed)

41.  Song Y, He K, Levitan EB, Manson JE, Liu S. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials. Diabet Med. 2006;23(10):1050-1056. (PubMed)

42.  Mauskop A, Altura BM. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraines. Clin Neurosci. 1998;5(1):24-27. (PubMed)

43.  Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16(4):257-263. (PubMed)

44.  Pfaffenrath V, Wessely P, Meyer C, et al. Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine--a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16(6):436-440. (PubMed)

45.  Wang F, Van Den Eeden SK, Ackerson LM, Salk SE, Reince RH, Elin RJ. Oral magnesium oxide prophylaxis of frequent migrainous headache in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Headache. 2003;43(6):601-610. (PubMed)

46.  Skobeloff EM, Spivey WH, McNamara RM, Greenspon L. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of acute asthma in the emergency department. JAMA. 1989;262(9):1210-1213. (PubMed)

47.  Tiffany BR, Berk WA, Todd IK, White SR. Magnesium bolus or infusion fails to improve expiratory flow in acute asthma exacerbations. Chest. 1993;104(3):831-834. (PubMed)

48.  Rowe BH, Bretzlaff JA, Bourdon C, Bota GW, Camargo CA, Jr. Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001490. (PubMed)

49.  Cheuk DK, Chau TC, Lee SL. A meta-analysis on intravenous magnesium sulphate for treating acute asthma. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(1):74-77. (PubMed)

50.  Monteleone CA, Sherman AR. Nutrition and asthma. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(1):23-34. (PubMed)

51.  Beasley R, Aldington S. Magnesium in the treatment of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;7(1):107-110. (PubMed)

52.  Fogarty A, Lewis SA, Scrivener SL, et al. Oral magnesium and vitamin C supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33(10):1355-1359. (PubMed)

53.  Blitz M, Blitz S, Beasely R, et al. Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2007;19(4):CD003898. (PubMed)

54.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

55.  Minerals. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:27-51.