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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Magnesium


1.  Shils ME. Magnesium. In: O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, eds. Handbook of nutritionally essential minerals. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1997:117-152.

2.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Magnesium. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1997:190-249.  (National Academy Press)

3.  Rude RK, Shils ME. Magnesium. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:223-247.

4.  Spencer H, Norris C, Williams D. Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13(5):479-484.  (PubMed)

5.  Schwartz R, Walker G, Linz MD, MacKellar I. Metabolic responses of adolescent boys to two levels of dietary magnesium and protein. I. Magnesium and nitrogen retention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1973;26(5):510-518.

6.  Navarro-Gonzalez JF, Mora-Fernandez C, Garcia-Perez J. Clinical implications of disordered magnesium homeostasis in chronic renal failure and dialysis. Semin Dial. 2009;22(1):37-44.  (PubMed)

7.  Sebastian RS, Cleveland LE, Goldman JD, Moshfegh AJ. Older adults who use vitamin/mineral supplements differ from nonusers in nutrient intake adequacy and dietary attitudes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(8):1322-1332.  (PubMed)

8.  Moshfegh, Alanna; Goldman, Joseph; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Rhodes, Donna; and LaComb, Randy. 2009. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2005-2006: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food and Water Compared to 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.

9.  Song Y, Ridker PM, Manson JE, Cook NR, Buring JE, Liu S. Magnesium intake, C-reactive protein, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U.S. women. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(6):1438-1444.  (PubMed)

10.  Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, et al. A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US men. Circulation. 1992;86(5):1475-1484.  (PubMed)

11.  Ascherio A, Hennekens C, Willett WC, et al. Prospective study of nutritional factors, blood pressure, and hypertension among US women. Hypertension. 1996;27(5):1065-1072.  (PubMed)

12.  Peacock JM, Folsom AR, Arnett DK, Eckfeldt JH, Szklo M. Relationship of serum and dietary magnesium to incident hypertension: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Ann Epidemiol. 1999;9(3):159-165.  (PubMed)

13.  Joosten MM, Gansevoort RT, Mukamal KJ, et al. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study. Hypertension. 2013;61(6):1161-1167.  (PubMed)

14.  Song Y, Sesso HD, Manson JE, Cook NR, Buring JE, Liu S. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of incident hypertension among middle-aged and older US women in a 10-year follow-up study. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98(12):1616-1621.  (PubMed)

15.  Schulze MB, Schulz M, Heidemann C, Schienkiewitz A, Hoffmann K, Boeing H. Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(9):956-965.  (PubMed)

16.  Larsson SC, Wolk A. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Intern Med. 2007;262(2):208-214.  (PubMed)

17.  Dong JY, Xun P, He K, Qin LQ. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(9):2116-2122.  (PubMed)

18.  Hruby A, Ngwa JS, Renstrom F, et al. Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin, with no evidence of interaction with select genetic loci, in a meta-analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies. J Nutr. 2013;143(3):345-353.  (PubMed)

19.  Simental-Mendia LE, Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. Failure of beta-cell function for compensate variation in insulin sensitivity in hypomagnesemic subjects. Magnes Res. 2009;22(3):151-156.  (PubMed)

20.  Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011;41(4):405-410.  (PubMed)

21.  Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez HE, Gonzalez-Gonzalez G, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Diabetes Metab. 2004;30(3):253-258.  (PubMed)

22.  Mooren FC, Kruger K, Volker K, Golf SW, Wadepuhl M, Kraus A. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011;13(3):281-284.  (PubMed)

23.  Marx A, Neutra RR. Magnesium in drinking water and ischemic heart disease. Epidemiol Rev. 1997;19(2):258-272.  (PubMed)

24.  Liao F, Folsom AR, Brancati FL. Is low magnesium concentration a risk factor for coronary heart disease? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J. 1998;136(3):480-490.  (PubMed)

25.  Del Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Wu JH, de Oliveira Otto MC, Chiuve SE, Mozaffarian D. Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(1):160-173.  (PubMed)

26.  Chiuve SE, Sun Q, Curhan GC, et al. Dietary and plasma magnesium and risk of coronary heart disease among women. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(2):e000114.  (PubMed)

27.  Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(2):362-366.  (PubMed)

28.  Nie ZL, Wang ZM, Zhou B, Tang ZP, Wang SK. Magnesium intake and incidence of stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23(3):169-176.  (PubMed)

29.  Qu X, Jin F, Hao Y, et al. Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57720.  (PubMed)

30.  Xu T, Sun Y, Xu T, Zhang Y. Magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167(6):3044-3047.  (PubMed)

31.  Reffelmann T, Ittermann T, Dorr M, et al. Low serum magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219(1):280-284.  (PubMed)

32.  van den Bergh WM, Algra A, van der Sprenkel JW, Tulleken CA, Rinkel GJ. Hypomagnesemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 2003;52(2):276-281; discussion 281-272.  (PubMed)

33.  Chen T, Carter BS. Role of magnesium sulfate in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage management: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Asian J Neurosurg. 2011;6(1):26-31.  (PubMed)

34.  Yarad EA, Hammond NE, Winner ABNRPsbE. Intravenous magnesium therapy in adult patients with an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Aust Crit Care. 2013;26(3):105-117.  (PubMed)

35.  Golan E, Vasquez DN, Ferguson ND, Adhikari NK, Scales DC. Prophylactic magnesium for improving neurologic outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Crit Care. 2013;28(2):173-181.  (PubMed)

36.  Arsenault KA, Yusuf AM, Crystal E, et al. Interventions for preventing post-operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing heart surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD003611.  (PubMed)

37.  Wu X, Wang C, Zhu J, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Gao Y. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on magnesium in addition to beta-blocker for prevention of postoperative atrial arrhythmias after coronary artery bypass grafting. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2013;13:5.  (PubMed)

38.  Sojka JE, Weaver CM. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr Rev. 1995;53(3):71-74.  (PubMed)

39.  Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(4):727-736.  (PubMed)

40.  Ryder KM, Shorr RI, Bush AJ, et al. Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(11):1875-1880.  (PubMed)

41.  Dahl C, Sogaard AJ, Tell GS, et al. Nationwide data on municipal drinking water and hip fracture: Could calcium and magnesium be protective? A NOREPOS study. Bone. 2013;57(1):84-91.  (PubMed)

42.  Stendig-Lindberg G, Tepper R, Leichter I. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnes Res. 1993;6(2):155-163.  (PubMed)

43.  Abraham GE, Grewal H. A total dietary program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium. Effect on the mineral density of calcaneous bone in postmenopausal women on hormonal therapy. J Reprod Med. 1990;35(5):503-507.  (PubMed)

44.  Castiglioni S, Cazzaniga A, Albisetti W, Maier JA. Magnesium and osteoporosis: current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients. 2013;5(8):3022-3033.  (PubMed)

45.  Crombleholme WR. Obstetrics. In: Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, eds. Current Medical Treatment and Diagnosis. 37th ed. Stamford: Appleton and Lange; 1998:731-734.

46.  Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ, Chou D. Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(10):CD000128.  (PubMed)

47.  Sibai BM. Diagnosis, prevention, and management of eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(2):402-410.  (PubMed)

48.  Altman D, Carroli G, Duley L, et al. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9321):1877-1890.  (PubMed)

49.  McDonald SD, Lutsiv O, Dzaja N, Duley L. A systematic review of maternal and infant outcomes following magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in real-world use. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;118(2):90-96.  (PubMed)

50.  Committee opinion no. 573: magnesium sulfate use in obstetrics. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(3):727-728.  (PubMed)

51.  Wolf HT, Hegaard HK, Greisen G, Huusom L, Hedegaard M. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;32(2):135-140.  (PubMed)

52.  Doyle LW, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Marret S, Rouse D. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009(1):CD004661.  (PubMed)

53.  Tagin M, Shah PS, Lee KS. Magnesium for newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Perinatol. 2013;33(9):663-669.  (PubMed)

54.  Kass L, Weekes J, Carpenter L. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(4):411-418.  (PubMed)

55.  Rosanoff A. Magnesium supplements may enhance the effect of antihypertensive medications in stage 1 hypertensive subjects. Magnes Res. 2010;23(1):27-40.  (PubMed)

56.  Shils ME. Magnesium. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:256-264.

57.  Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(16):1117-1124.  (PubMed)

58.  Woods KL, Fletcher S, Roffe C, Haider Y. Intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: results of the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet. 1992;339(8809):1553-1558.  (PubMed)

59.  Woods KL, Fletcher S. Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet. 1994;343(8901):816-819.  (PubMed)

60.  ISIS-4 Collaborative. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet. 1995;345(8951):669-685.  (PubMed)

61.  Ziegelstein RC, Hilbe JM, French WJ, Antman EM, Chandra-Strobos N. Magnesium use in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction in the United States (observations from the Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction). Am J Cardiol. 2001;87(1):7-10.  (PubMed)

62.  Li J, Zhang Q, Zhang M, Egger M. Intravenous magnesium for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD002755.  (PubMed)

63.  Maier JA. Endothelial cells and magnesium: implications in atherosclerosis. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;122(9):397-407.  (PubMed)

64.  Shechter M, Sharir M, Labrador MJ, Forrester J, Silver B, Bairey Merz CN. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2000;102(19):2353-2358.  (PubMed)

65.  Shechter M, Merz CN, Paul-Labrador M, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation inhibits platelet-dependent thrombosis in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 1999;84(2):152-156.  (PubMed)

66.  Song Y, Li TY, van Dam RM, Manson JE, Hu FB. Magnesium intake and plasma concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(4):1068-1074.  (PubMed)

67.  Kupetsky-Rincon EA, Uitto J. Magnesium: novel applications in cardiovascular disease--a review of the literature. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;61(2):102-110.  (PubMed)

68.  Kanbay M, Goldsmith D, Uyar ME, Turgut F, Covic A. Magnesium in chronic kidney disease: challenges and opportunities. Blood Purif. 2010;29(3):280-292.  (PubMed)

69.  Pham PC, Pham PM, Pham SV, Miller JM, Pham PT. Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(2):366-373.  (PubMed)

70.  Takaya J, Higashino H, Kobayashi Y. Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance. Magnes Res. 2004;17(2):126-136.  (PubMed)

71.  Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Gambardella A, et al. Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(6):1161-7.  (PubMed)

72.  Yokota K, Kato M, Lister F, et al. Clinical efficacy of magnesium supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(5):506S-509S.  (PubMed)

73.  Song Y, He K, Levitan EB, Manson JE, Liu S. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials. Diabet Med. 2006;23(10):1050-1056.  (PubMed)

74.  Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(4):1147-1152.  (PubMed)

75.  Mauskop A, Altura BM. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraines. Clin Neurosci. 1998;5(1):24-27.  (PubMed)

76.  Mauskop A, Altura BT, Altura BM. Serum ionized magnesium levels and serum ionized calcium/ionized magnesium ratios in women with menstrual migraine. Headache. 2002;42(4):242-248.  (PubMed)

77.  Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16(4):257-263.  (PubMed)

78.  Wang F, Van Den Eeden SK, Ackerson LM, Salk SE, Reince RH, Elin RJ. Oral magnesium oxide prophylaxis of frequent migrainous headache in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Headache. 2003;43(6):601-610.  (PubMed)

79.  Pfaffenrath V, Wessely P, Meyer C, et al. Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine--a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16(6):436-440.  (PubMed)

80.  Demirkaya S, Vural O, Dora B, Topcuoglu MA. Efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Headache. 2001;41(2):171-177.  (PubMed)

81.  Bigal ME, Bordini CA, Tepper SJ, Speciali JG. Intravenous magnesium sulphate in the acute treatment of migraine without aura and migraine with aura. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 2002;22(5):345-353.  (PubMed)

82.  Corbo J, Esses D, Bijur PE, Iannaccone R, Gallagher EJ. Randomized clinical trial of intravenous magnesium sulfate as an adjunctive medication for emergency department treatment of migraine headache. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;38(6):621-627.  (PubMed)

83.  Cete Y, Dora B, Ertan C, Ozdemir C, Oktay C. A randomized prospective placebo-controlled study of intravenous magnesium sulphate vs. metoclopramide in the management of acute migraine attacks in the Emergency Department. Cephalalgia. 2005;25(3):199-204.  (PubMed)

84.  Choi H, Parmar N. The use of intravenous magnesium sulphate for acute migraine: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Emerg Med. 2014;21(1):2-9.  (PubMed)

85.  Mauskop A, Varughese J. Why all migraine patients should be treated with magnesium. J Neural Transm. 2012;119(5):575-579.  (PubMed)

86.  Hashimoto Y, Nishimura Y, Maeda H, Yokoyama M. Assessment of magnesium status in patients with bronchial asthma. J Asthma. 2000;37(6):489-496.  (PubMed)

87.  Skobeloff EM, Spivey WH, McNamara RM, Greenspon L. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of acute asthma in the emergency department. JAMA. 1989;262(9):1210-1213.  (PubMed)

88.  Tiffany BR, Berk WA, Todd IK, White SR. Magnesium bolus or infusion fails to improve expiratory flow in acute asthma exacerbations. Chest. 1993;104(3):831-834.  (PubMed)

89.  Rowe BH, Bretzlaff JA, Bourdon C, Bota GW, Camargo CA, Jr. Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001490.  (PubMed)

90.  Cheuk DK, Chau TC, Lee SL. A meta-analysis on intravenous magnesium sulphate for treating acute asthma. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(1):74-77.  (PubMed)

91.  Shan Z, Rong Y, Yang W, et al. Intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for treating acute asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Med. 2013;107(3):321-330.  (PubMed)

92.  Monteleone CA, Sherman AR. Nutrition and asthma. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(1):23-34.  (PubMed)

93.  Beasley R, Aldington S. Magnesium in the treatment of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;7(1):107-110.  (PubMed)

94.  Fogarty A, Lewis SA, Scrivener SL, et al. Oral magnesium and vitamin C supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33(10):1355-1359.  (PubMed)

95.  Powell C, Dwan K, Milan SJ, et al. Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD003898.  (PubMed)

96.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

97.  Minerals. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:27-51.

98.  Wilhelm SM, Rjater RG, Kale-Pradhan PB. Perils and pitfalls of long-term effects of proton pump inhibitors. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2013;6(4):443-451.  (PubMed)

99.  US Food and Drug Administration. Proton Pump Inhibitor drugs (PPIs): Drug Safety Communication - Low Magnesium Levels Can Be Associated With Long-Term Use; 2011.