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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Molybdenum


1.  Wuebbens MM, Liu MT, Rajagopalan K, Schindelin H. Insights into molybdenum cofactor deficiency provided by the crystal structure of the molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MoaC. Structure Fold Des. 2000;8(7):709-718.  (PubMed)

2.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Molybdenum. In: Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:420-441. (National Academy Press)

3.  Eckhert C. Other trace elements In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2006:338-350.

4.  Wahl B, Reichmann D, Niks D, et al. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the human mitochondrial amidoxime reducing components hmARC-1 and hmARC-2 suggests the existence of a new molybdenum enzyme family in eukaryotes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(48):37847-37859. (PubMed)

5.  Plitzko B, Ott G, Reichmann D, et al. The Involvement of Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Components 1 and 2 and Mitochondrial Cytochrome b5 in N-reductive Metabolism in Human Cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288(28):20228-20237. (PubMed)

6.  Beedham C. Molybdenum hydroxylases as drug-metabolizing enzymes. Drug Metab Rev. 1985;16(1-2):119-156.  (PubMed)

7.  Zannolli R, Micheli V, Mazzei MA, et al. Hereditary xanthinuria type II associated with mental delay, autism, cortical renal cysts, nephrocalcinosis, osteopenia, and hair and teeth defects. J Med Genet. 2003;40(11):e121.  (PubMed)

8.  Fujiwara Y, Kawakami Y, Shinohara Y, Ichida K. A case of hereditary xanthinuria type 1 accompanied by bilateral renal calculi. Intern Med. 2012;51(14):1879-1884.  (PubMed)

9.  Turnlund JR, Keyes WR. Dietary molybdenum: Effect on copper absorption, excretion, and status in young men. In: Roussel AM, ed. Trace Elements in Man and Animals. Vol 10. New York: Kluwer Academic Press.; 2000:951-953.

10.  Suttle NF. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(5):666-674.  (PubMed)

11.  Helz GR, Erickson BE. Extraordinary stability of copper(I)-tetrathiomolybdate complexes: possible implications for aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30(1):97-102.  (PubMed)

12.  Alvarez HM, Xue Y, Robinson CD, et al. Tetrathiomolybdate inhibits copper trafficking proteins through metal cluster formation. Science. 2010;327(5963):331-334.  (PubMed)

13.  Brewer GJ, Askari F, Dick RB, et al. Treatment of Wilson's disease with tetrathiomolybdate: V. Control of free copper by tetrathiomolybdate and a comparison with trientine. Transl Res. 2009;154(2):70-77.  (PubMed)

14.  Redman BG, Esper P, Pan Q, et al. Phase II trial of tetrathiomolybdate in patients with advanced kidney cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(5):1666-1672.  (PubMed)

15.  Gartner EM, Griffith KA, Pan Q, et al. A pilot trial of the anti-angiogenic copper lowering agent tetrathiomolybdate in combination with irinotecan, 5-flurouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2009;27(2):159-165.  (PubMed)

16.  Jain S, Cohen J, Ward MM, et al. Tetrathiomolybdate-associated copper depletion decreases circulating endothelial progenitor cells in women with breast cancer at high risk of relapse. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(6):1491-1498.  (PubMed)

17.  Hou G, Abrams GD, Dick R, Brewer GJ. Efficacy of tetrathiomolybdate in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Transl Res. 2008;152(5):239-244.  (PubMed)

18.  Wei H, Zhang WJ, McMillen TS, Leboeuf RC, Frei B. Copper chelation by tetrathiomolybdate inhibits vascular inflammation and atherosclerotic lesion development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Atherosclerosis. 2012;223(2):306-313.  (PubMed)

19.  Askari F, Innis D, Dick RB, et al. Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis with tetrathiomolybdate: results of a double-blind trial. Transl Res. 2010;155(3):123-130.  (PubMed)

20.  Abumrad NN, Schneider AJ, Steel D, Rogers LS. Amino acid intolerance during prolonged total parenteral nutrition reversed by molybdate therapy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34(11):2551-2559.  (PubMed)

21.  Reiss J, Hahnewald R. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency: Mutations in GPHN, MOCS1, and MOCS2. Hum Mutat. 2011;32(1):10-18.  (PubMed)

22.  Tan WH, Eichler FS, Hoda S, et al. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency: a case report with a novel mutation and review of the literature. Pediatrics. 2005;116(3):757-766.  (PubMed)

23.  Shalata A, Mandel H, Dorche C, et al. Prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection for molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A in northern Israel using polymorphic DNA markers. Prenat Diagn. 2000;20(1):7-11.  (PubMed)

24.  Kikuchi K, Hamano S, Mochizuki H, Ichida K, Ida H. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency mimics cerebral palsy: differentiating factors for diagnosis. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;47(2):147-149.  (PubMed)

25.  Johnson JL. Prenatal diagnosis of molybdenum cofactor deficiency and isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency. Prenat Diagn. 2003;23(1):6-8.  (PubMed)

26.  Hughes EF, Fairbanks L, Simmonds HA, Robinson RO. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency-phenotypic variability in a family with a late-onset variant. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998;40(1):57-61.  (PubMed)

27.  Vijayakumar K, Gunny R, Grunewald S, et al. Clinical neuroimaging features and outcome in molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Pediatr Neurol. 2011;45(4):246-252.  (PubMed)

28.  Alkufri F, Harrower T, Rahman Y, et al. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency presenting with a parkinsonism-dystonia syndrome. Mov Disord. 2013;28(3):399-401.  (PubMed)

29.  Mills PB, Footitt EJ, Ceyhan S, et al. Urinary AASA excretion is elevated in patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency and isolated sulphite oxidase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2012;35(6):1031-1036.  (PubMed)

30.  Footitt EJ, Heales SJ, Mills PB, Allen GF, Oppenheim M, Clayton PT. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in cerebrospinal fluid; factors affecting concentration. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34(2):529-538.  (PubMed)

31.  Struys EA, Nota B, Bakkali A, Al Shahwan S, Salomons GS, Tabarki B. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy with elevated urinary alpha-amino adipic semialdehyde in molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Pediatrics. 2012;130(6):e1716-1719.  (PubMed)

32.  Johnson JL, Duran M. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency and isolated sulfite deficiency. In: Scriver RC, ed. Metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001:3163-3177.

33.  Veldman A, Santamaria-Araujo JA, Sollazzo S, et al. Successful treatment of molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A with cPMP. Pediatrics. 2010;125(5):e1249-1254.  (PubMed)

34.  Hitzert MM, Bos AF, Bergman KA, et al. Favorable outcome in a newborn with molybdenum cofactor type A deficiency treated with cPMP. Pediatrics. 2012;130(4):e1005-1010.  (PubMed)

35.  Turnlund JR, Keyes WR, Peiffer GL. Molybdenum absorption, excretion, and retention studied with stable isotopes in young men at five intakes of dietary molybdenum. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(4):790-796.  (PubMed)

36.  Turnlund JR, Keyes WR, Peiffer GL, Chiang G. Molybdenum absorption, excretion, and retention studied with stable isotopes in young men during depletion and repletion. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(5):1102-1109.  (PubMed)

37.  Nouri M, Chalian H, Bahman A, et al. Nail molybdenum and zinc contents in populations with low and moderate incidence of esophageal cancer. Arch Iran Med. 2008;11(4):392-396.  (PubMed)

38.  Ray SS, Das D, Ghosh T, Ghosh AK. The levels of zinc and molybdenum in hair and food grain in areas of high and low incidence of esophageal cancer: a comparative study. Glob J Health Sci. 2012;4(4):168-175.  (PubMed)

39.  Goodman M, Bostick RM, Kucuk O, Jones DP. Clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents: past, present, and future. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51(5):1068-1084.  (PubMed)

40.  Huang B, Zhao Y, Sun W, et al. Relationships between distributions of longevous population and trace elements in the agricultural ecosystem of Rugao County, Jiangsu, China. Environ Geochem Health. 2009;31(3):379-390.  (PubMed)

41.  Lv J, Wang W, Krafft T, Li Y, Zhang F, Yuan F. Effects of several environmental factors on longevity and health of the human population of Zhongxiang, Hubei, China. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;143(2):702-716.  (PubMed)

42.  Mills CF, Davis GK. Molybdenum. In: Mertz W, ed. Trace elements in human and animal nutrition. 5th ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1987:429-463.

43.  Molybdenum. In: Hendler S, Rorvik D, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Physicians' Desk Reference Inc.; 2008:425-429.

44.  Walravens PA, Moure-Eraso R, Solomons, CC, Chapell, R, Bentley G. Biochemical abnormalities in workers exposed to molybdenum dust. Arch Environ Health. 1979;34(5):302-308.  (PubMed)

45.  Vyskocil A, Viau C. Assessment of molybdenum toxicity in humans. J Appl Toxicol. 1999;19(3):185-192.  (PubMed)

46.  Momcilovic B. A case report of acute human molybdenum toxicity from a dietary molybdenum supplement--a new member of the "Lucor metallicum" family. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 1999;50(3):289-297.  (PubMed)

47.  Boles JW, Klaassen CD. Effects of molybdate and pentachlorophenol on the sulfation of acetaminophen. Toxicology. 2000;146(1):23-35. (PubMed)