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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Selenium

1.  Rayman MP. The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet. 2000;356(9225):233-241.  (PubMed)

2.  Gladyshev VN. Selenoproteins and selenoproteomes. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in human health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:99-114.

3.  Ursini F, Heim S, Kiess M, et al. Dual function of the selenoprotein PHGPx during sperm maturation. Science. 1999;285(5432):1393-1396.  (PubMed)

4.  Mustacich D, Powis G. Thioredoxin reductase. Biochem J. 2000;346 Pt 1:1-8.  (PubMed)

5.  Bianco AC, Larsen PR. Selenium, deiodinases and endocrine function. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:207-219.

6.  Burk RF, Olson GE, Hill KE. Deletion of selenoprotein P gene in the mouse. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:111-122.

7.  Arteel GE, Briviba K, Sies H. Protection against peroxynitrite. FEBS Lett. 1999;445(2-3):226-230.  (PubMed)

8.  Kioussi C, Whanger PD. Selenoprotein W in development and oxidative stress. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:135-140.

9.  Gu QP, Beilstein MA, Vendeland SC, Lugade A, Ream W, Whanger PD. Conserved features of selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements in selenoprotein W cDNAs from five species. Gene. 1997;193(2):187-196.

10.  Sword JT, Pope AL, Hoekstra WG. Endotoxin and lipid peroxidation in vitro in selenium- and vitamin E-deficient and -adequate rat tissues. J Nutr. 1991;121(2):258-264.  (PubMed)

11.  Burk RF, Levander OA. Selenium. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:265-276.

12.  Foster LH, Sumar S. Selenium in health and disease: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1997;37(3):211-228.  (PubMed)

13.  Levander OA. Coxsackievirus as a model of viral evolution driven by dietary oxidative stress. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(2 Pt 2):S17-24.

14.  Beck MA, Esworthy RS, Ho YS, Chu FF. Glutathione peroxidase protects mice from viral-induced myocarditis. Faseb J. 1998;12(12):1143-1149.  (PubMed)

15.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Selenium. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:284-324.  (National Academy Press)

16.  McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ, Arthur JR. Effects of selenium on immunity and aging. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:311-323.

17.  Roy M, Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Wishe HI, Cohen MW, Stotzky G. Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. I. Effect on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 receptor expression. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994;41(1-2):103-114.  (PubMed)

18.  Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M, Wishe HI, Cohen MW, Stotzky G. Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. II. Effect on cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994;41(1-2):115-127.  (PubMed)

19.  Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M, Glickman R, et al. Selenium and immunocompetence in patients with head and neck cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000;73(2):97-111.  (PubMed)

20.  Baum MK, Miguez-Burbano MJ, Campa A, Shor-Posner G. Selenium and interleukins in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 2000;182 Suppl 1:S69-73.  (PubMed)

21.  Beck MA. Selenium and viral infections. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:287-298.

22.  Combs GF, Jr., Gray WP. Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacol Ther. 1998;79(3):179-192.  (PubMed)

23.  Ip C. Lessons from basic research in selenium and cancer prevention. J Nutr. 1998;128(11):1845-1854.  (PubMed)

24.  Whanger PD. Selenium and its relationship to cancer: an update. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(1):11-28.  (PubMed)

25.  Garland M, Morris JS, Stampfer MJ, et al. Prospective study of toenail selenium levels and cancer among women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87(7):497-505.  (PubMed)

26.  Yu MW, Horng IS, Hsu KH, Chiang YC, Liaw YF, Chen CJ. Plasma selenium levels and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among men with chronic hepatitis virus infection. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(4):367-374.  (PubMed)

27.  Knekt P, Marniemi J, Teppo L, Heliovaara M, Aromaa A. Is low selenium status a risk factor for lung cancer? Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(10):975-982.  (PubMed)

28.  Zhuo H, Smith AH, Steinmaus C. Selenium and lung cancer: a quantitative analysis of heterogeneity in the current epidemiological literature. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(5):771-778.  (PubMed)

29.  Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, et al. Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90(16):1219-1224.  (PubMed)

30.  Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Combs GF, Jr. Serum selenium and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(9):883-887.  (PubMed)

31.  Brooks JD, Metter EJ, Chan DW, et al. Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. J Urol. 2001;166(6):2034-2038.  (PubMed)

32.  Peters U, Foster CB, Chatterjee N, et al. Serum selenium and risk of prostate cancer-a nested case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(1):209-217.  (PubMed)

33.  Ghadirian P, Maisonneuve P, Perret C, et al. A case-control study of toenail selenium and cancer of the breast, colon, and prostate. Cancer Detect Prev. 2000;24(4):305-313.  (PubMed)

34.  Brinkman M, Reulen RC, Kellen E, Buntinx F, Zeegers MP. Are men with low selenium levels at increased risk of prostate cancer? Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(15):2463-2471.  (PubMed)

35.  Lawson KA, Wright ME, Subar A, et al. Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(10):754-764.  (PubMed)

36.  Yu SY, Zhu YJ, Li WG. Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997;56(1):117-124.  (PubMed)

37.  Duffield-Lillico AJ, Dalkin BL, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU Int. 2003;91(7):608-612.  (PubMed)

38.  Duffield-Lillico AJ, Slate EH, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation and secondary prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(19):1477-1481.  (PubMed)

39.  Reid ME, Duffield-Lillico AJ, Garland L, Turnbull BW, Clark LC, Marshall JR. Selenium supplementation and lung cancer incidence: an update of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(11):1285-1291.  (PubMed)

40.  Klein EA, Thompson IM, Lippman SM, et al. SELECT: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial: rationale and design. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2000;3(3):145-151.  (PubMed)

41.  Clark LC, Marshall JR. Randomized, controlled chemoprevention trials in populations at very high risk for prostate cancer: Elevated prostate-specific antigen and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Urology. 2001;57(4 Suppl 1):185-187.  (PubMed)

42.  National Cancer Institute. Review of Prostate Cancer Prevention Study Shows No Benefit for Use of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplements. [Web page]. Available at: Accessed 10/28/08.

43.  Salonen JT, Alfthan G, Huttunen JK, Pikkarainen J, Puska P. Association between cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction and serum selenium in a matched-pair longitudinal study. Lancet. 1982;2(8291):175-179.  (PubMed)

44.  Virtamo J, Valkeila E, Alfthan G, Punsar S, Huttunen JK, Karvonen MJ. Serum selenium and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122(2):276-282.  (PubMed)

45.  Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg F. Serum selenium concentration and risk of ischaemic heart disease in a prospective cohort study of 3000 males. Atherosclerosis. 1992;96(1):33-42.  (PubMed)

46.  Salvini S, Hennekens CH, Morris JS, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ. Plasma levels of the antioxidant selenium and risk of myocardial infarction among U.S. physicians. Am J Cardiol. 1995;76(17):1218-1221.  (PubMed)

47.  Kardinaal AF, Kok FJ, Kohlmeier L, et al. Association between toenail selenium and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men. The EURAMIC Study. European Antioxidant Myocardial Infarction and Breast Cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145(4):373-379.  (PubMed)

48.  Rajpathak S, Rimm E, Morris JS, Hu F. Toenail selenium and cardiovascular disease in men with diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005;24(4):250-256.  (PubMed)

49.  Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium and diabetes in U.S. adults. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(4):829-834.  (PubMed)

50.  Stranges S, Marshall JR, Natarajan R, et al. Effects of Long-Term Selenium Supplementation on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(4):217-223.  (PubMed)

51.  Baum MK, Campa A. Role of selenium in HIV/AIDS. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:299-310.

52.  Zhao L, Cox AG, Ruzicka JA, Bhat AA, Zhang W, Taylor EW. Molecular modeling and in vitro activity of an HIV-1-encoded glutathione peroxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(12):6356-6361.  (PubMed)

53.  Zhang W, Ramanathan CS, Nadimpalli RG, Bhat AA, Cox AG, Taylor EW. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase modules encoded by RNA viruses. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999;70(2):97-116.  (PubMed)

54.  Constans J, Conri C, Sergeant C. Selenium and HIV infection. Nutrition. 1999;15(9):719-720.

55.  Delmas-Beauvieux MC, Peuchant E, Couchouron A, et al. The enzymatic antioxidant system in blood and glutathione status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients: effects of supplementation with selenium or beta-carotene. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64(1):101-107.  (PubMed)

56.  Constans J, Delmas-Beauvieux MC, Sergeant C, et al. One-year antioxidant supplementation with beta-carotene or selenium for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a pilot study. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;23(3):654-656.

57.  Burbano X, Miguez-Burbano MJ, McCollister K, et al. Impact of a selenium chemoprevention clinical trial on hospital admissions of HIV-infected participants. HIV Clin Trials. 2002;3(6):483-491.  (PubMed)

58.  Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(2):148-154.  (PubMed)

59.  Chang JC. Selenium content of brazil nuts from two geographic locations in Brazil. Chemosphere. 1995;30:801-802.

60.  Schrauzer GN. Selenomethionine: a review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity. J Nutr. 2000;130(7):1653-1656.  (PubMed)

61.  Whanger PD, Ip C, Polan CE, Uden PC, Welbaum G. Tumorigenesis, metabolism, speciation, bioavailability, and tissue deposition of selenium in selenium-enriched ramps (Allium tricoccum). J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48(11):5723-5730.  (PubMed)

62.  Ip C, Birringer M, Block E, et al. Chemical speciation influences comparative activity of selenium-enriched garlic and yeast in mammary cancer prevention. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48(6):2062-2070.  (PubMed)

63.  Azrak RG, Cao S, Pendyala L, et al. Efficacy of increasing the therapeutic index of irinotecan, plasma and tissue selenium concentrations is methylselenocysteine dose dependent. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;73(9):1280-1287.  (PubMed)

64.  Flodin NW. Micronutrient supplements: toxicity and drug interactions. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1990;14(4):277-331.  (PubMed)

65.  Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(22):1583-1592.  (PubMed)

66.  Ip C, Ganther HE. Novel stategies in selenium cancer chemoprevention research. In: Burk RF, ed. Selenium in biology and human health. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1994:169-180.

67.  Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009;301(1):39-51.  (PubMed)