skip page navigationOregon State University

Micronutrient Information Center

References: Multivitamin/mineral Supplements

1.  Yetley EA. Multivitamin and multimineral dietary supplements: definitions, characterization, bioavailability, and drug interactions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(1):269S-276S.  (PubMed)

2.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 14. Appendix F: Calculate the percent daily value for the appropriate nutrients. Available at:
. Accessed 8/23/11.

3.  Gahche J, Bailey R, Burt V, et al. Dietary Supplement Use Among U.S. Adults Has Increased Since NHANES III (1988-1994). NCHS Data Brief. 2011;(61):1-8.  (PubMed)

4.  Bailey RL, Gahche JJ, Lentino CV, et al. Dietary supplement use in the United States, 2003-2006. J Nutr. 2011;141(2):261-266.  (PubMed)

5.  Satia-Abouta J, Kristal AR, Patterson RE, Littman AJ, Stratton KL, White E. Dietary supplement use and medical conditions: the VITAL study. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24(1):43-51.  (PubMed)

6.  Archer SL, Stamler J, Moag-Stahlberg A, et al. Association of dietary supplement use with specific micronutrient intakes among middle-aged American men and women: the INTERMAP Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(7):1106-1114.  (PubMed)

7.  Sullivan KM, Ford ES, Azrak MF, Mokdad AH. Multivitamin use in pregnant and nonpregnant women: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Public Health Rep. 2009;124(3):384-390.  (PubMed)

8.  Park SY, Murphy SP, Martin CL, Kolonel LN. Nutrient intake from multivitamin/mineral supplements is similar among users from five ethnic groups: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(3):529-533.  (PubMed)

9.  Shelton RC, Puleo E, Syngal S, Emmons KM. Multivitamin use among multi-ethnic, low-income adults. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20(8):1271-1280.  (PubMed)

10.  Radimer K, Bindewald B, Hughes J, Ervin B, Swanson C, Picciano MF. Dietary supplement use by US adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160(4):339-349.  (PubMed)

11.  Rock CL. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements: who uses them? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(1):277S-279S.  (PubMed)

12.  Foote JA, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Hankin JH, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Factors associated with dietary supplement use among healthy adults of five ethnicities: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(10):888-897.  (PubMed)

13.  Moshfegh A, Goldman J, Cleveland L. 2005; What We Eat in America, NHANES 2001-2002: Usual nutrient intakes from food compared to dietary reference intakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Available at:

14.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Summary. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:1-28.  (National Academy Press)

15.  Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(3):266-281.  (PubMed)

16.  Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):235-241.  (PubMed)

17.  Kant AK. Consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods by adult Americans: nutritional and health implications. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(4):929-936.  (PubMed)

18.  Elmadfa I, Freisling H. Nutritional status in Europe: methods and results. Nutr Rev. 2009;67 Suppl 1:S130-134.  (PubMed)

19.  Taylor JP, Maclellan DL, van Til L, Sweet L. Widespread micronutrient inadequacies among adults in prince edward island. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2007;68(1):23-29.  (PubMed)

20.  Whatham A, Bartlett H, Eperjesi F, et al. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the developed world and their effect on the eye and vision. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008;28(1):1-12.  (PubMed)

21.  Muller O, Krawinkel M. Malnutrition and health in developing countries. CMAJ. 2005;173(3):279-286.  (PubMed)

22.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The state of food insecurity in the world 2004. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2004.  Available at:

23.  Malone M. Recommended nutritional supplements for bariatric surgery patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42(12):1851-1858.  (PubMed)

24.  Halsted CH. Nutrition and alcoholic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis. 2004;24(3):289-304.  (PubMed)

25.  Craig WJ. Health effects of vegan diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1627S-1633S.  (PubMed)

26.  Allen LH. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29(2 Suppl):S20-34; discussion S35-27.  (PubMed)

27.  Hollis BW. Vitamin D requirement during pregnancy and lactation. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22 Suppl 2:V39-44.  (PubMed)

28.  Nead KG, Halterman JS, Kaczorowski JM, Auinger P, Weitzman M. Overweight children and adolescents: a risk group for iron deficiency. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):104-108.  (PubMed)

29.  Parikh SJ, Edelman M, Uwaifo GI, et al. The relationship between obesity and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(3):1196-1199.  (PubMed)

30.  Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, et al. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med. 2000;247(2):260-268.  (PubMed)

31.  Garcia OP, Long KZ, Rosado JL. Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity. Nutr Rev. 2009;67(10):559-572.  (PubMed)

32.  Marra MV, Boyar AP. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrient supplementation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(12):2073-2085.  (PubMed)

33.  Ames BN. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(47):17589-17594.  (PubMed)

34.  Ames BN, Wakimoto P. Are vitamin and mineral deficiencies a major cancer risk? Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2(9):694-704.  (PubMed)

35.  Stickel F, Hoehn B, Schuppan D, Seitz HK. Review article: Nutritional therapy in alcoholic liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;18(4):357-373.  (PubMed)

36.  Yang YX, Metz DC. Safety of proton pump inhibitor exposure. Gastroenterology. 2010;139(4):1115-1127.  (PubMed)

37.  Basu TK. Vitamin C-aspirin interactions. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. 1982;23:83-90.  (PubMed)

38.  Raisz LG. Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects. J Clin Invest. 2005;115(12):3318-3325.  (PubMed)

39.  National Institutes of Health State-of-the-science conference statement: multivitamin/mineral supplements and chronic disease prevention. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(5):364-371.  (PubMed)

40.  Ames BN, McCann JC, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Evidence-based decision making on micronutrients and chronic disease: long-term randomized controlled trials are not enough. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(2):522-523; author reply 523-524.  (PubMed)

41.  Chan AL, Leung HW, Wang SF. Multivitamin supplement use and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45(4):476-484.  (PubMed)

42.  Stratton J, Godwin M. The effect of supplemental vitamins and minerals on the development of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2011;28(3):243-252.  (PubMed)

43.  Rautiainen S, Akesson A, Levitan EB, Morgenstern R, Mittleman MA, Wolk A. Multivitamin use and the risk of myocardial infarction: a population-based cohort of Swedish women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(5):1251-1256.  (PubMed)

44.  Pocobelli G, Peters U, Kristal AR, White E. Use of supplements of multivitamins, vitamin C, and vitamin E in relation to mortality. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170(4):472-483.  (PubMed)

45.  Neuhouser ML, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Thomson C, et al. Multivitamin use and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease in the Women's Health Initiative cohorts. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(3):294-304.  (PubMed)

46.  Heaney RP. Nutrients, endpoints, and the problem of proof. J Nutr. 2008;138(9):1591-1595.  (PubMed)

47.  Blumberg J, Heaney RP, Huncharek M, et al. Evidence-based criteria in the nutritional context. Nutr Rev. 2010;68(8):478-484.  (PubMed)

48.  Mulholland CA, Benford DJ. What is known about the safety of multivitamin-multimineral supplements for the generally healthy population? Theoretical basis for harm. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(1):318S-322S.  (PubMed)

49.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Dietary supplement current good manufacturing practices (CGMPs) and interim final rule (IFR) facts Available at:
. Accessed 8/23/11.

50.  Huskisson E, Maggini S, Ruf M. The role of vitamins and minerals in energy metabolism and well-being. J Int Med Res. 2007;35(3):277-289.  (PubMed)

51.  Ibs K-H, Rink L. Zinc. In: Hughes DA, Darlington LG, Bendich A,eds. Diet and human immune function. Totowa: Human Press Inc.; 2004:241-259.

52.  Bhaskaram P. Immunobiology of mild micronutrient deficiencies. Br J Nutr. 2001;85 Suppl 2:S75-80.  (PubMed)

53.  Eussen SJ, de Groot LC, Joosten LW, et al. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(2):361-370.  (PubMed)

54.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State indicator report on fruits and vegetables, 2009. Available at: Accessed 8/23/11.

55.  Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: scientific review. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3116-3126.  (PubMed)

56.  Fletcher RH, Fairfield KM. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: clinical applications. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3127-3129.  (PubMed)