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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Micronutrients for Older Adults


1.  Blumberg J. Nutritional needs of seniors. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16(6):517-523.  (PubMed)

2.  Russell RM, Suter PM. Vitamin requirements of elderly people: an update. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58(1):4-14.  (PubMed)

3.  Lopez-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM, Quintas ME, et al. The influence of vitamin B2 intake on the activation coefficient of erythrocyte glutation reductase in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6(1):60-62.  (PubMed)

4.  Ribaya-Mercado JD, Russell RM, Sahyoun N, Morrow FD, Gershoff SN. Vitamin B-6 requirements of elderly men and women. J Nutr. 1991;121(7):1062-1074.  (PubMed)

5.  Brubacher D, Moser U, Jordan P. Vitamin C concentrations in plasma as a function of intake: a meta-analysis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2000;70(5):226-237.  (PubMed)

6.  Michels AJ, Joisher N, Hagen TM. Age-related decline of sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transport in isolated rat hepatocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;410(1):112-120.  (PubMed)

7.  Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5):1201-1208.  (PubMed)

8.  Davies S, McLaren Howard J, Hunnisett A, Howard M. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients--implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 1997;46(5):469-473.  (PubMed)

9.  Wood RJ, Suter PM, Russell RM. Mineral requirements of elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(3):493-505.  (PubMed)

10.  Fleming DJ, Jacques PF, Tucker KL, et al. Iron status of the free-living, elderly Framingham Heart Study cohort: an iron-replete population with a high prevalence of elevated iron stores. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(3):638-646.  (PubMed)

11.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Molybdenum. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2001:420-441.  (National Academies Press)

12.  Burk RF, Levander OA. Selenium. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ,eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:482-497.

13.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Selenium. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2000:284-324.  (National Academies Press)

14.  Costell M, O'Connor JE, Grisolia S. Age-dependent decrease of carnitine content in muscle of mice and humans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;161(3):1135-1143.  (PubMed)

15.  Hagen TM, Ingersoll RT, Wehr CM, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine fed to old rats partially restores mitochondrial function and ambulatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(16):9562-9566.  (PubMed)

16.  Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, et al. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(4):1870-1875.  (PubMed)

17.  Liu J, Head E, Gharib AM, et al. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(4):2356-2361.  (PubMed)

18.  Sethumadhavan S, Chinnakannu P. L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid improve age-associated decline in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity of rat heart muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(7):650-659.  (PubMed)

19.  Sethumadhavan S, Chinnakannu P. Carnitine and lipoic acid alleviates protein oxidation in heart mitochondria during aging process. Biogerontology. 2006;7(2):101-109.  (PubMed)

20.  Savitha S, Panneerselvam C. Mitochondrial membrane damage during aging process in rat heart: potential efficacy of L-carnitine and DL alpha lipoic acid. Mech Ageing Dev. 2006;127(4):349-355.  (PubMed)

21.  Savitha S, Sivarajan K, Haripriya D, Kokilavani V, Panneerselvam C. Efficacy of levo carnitine and alpha lipoic acid in ameliorating the decline in mitochondrial enzymes during aging. Clin Nutr. 2005;24(5):794-800.  (PubMed)

22.  Sundaram K, Panneerselvam KS. Oxidative stress and DNA single strand breaks in skeletal muscle of aged rats: role of carnitine and lipoicacid. Biogerontology. 2006;7(2):111-118.  (PubMed)

23.  Kumaran S, Panneerselvam KS, Shila S, Sivarajan K, Panneerselvam C. Age-associated deficit of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle: role of carnitine and lipoic acid. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;280(1-2):83-89.  (PubMed)

24.  Kumaran S, Subathra M, Balu M, Panneerselvam C. Supplementation of L-carnitine improves mitochondrial enzymes in heart and skeletal muscle of aged rats. Exp Aging Res. 2005;31(1):55-67.  (PubMed)

25.  Muthuswamy AD, Vedagiri K, Ganesan M, Chinnakannu P. Oxidative stress-mediated macromolecular damage and dwindle in antioxidant status in aged rat brain regions: role of L-carnitine and DL-alpha-lipoic acid. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;368(1-2):84-92.  (PubMed)

26.  Alho H, Lonnrot K. Coenzyme Q supplementation and longevity. In: Kagan V, Quinn P, eds. Coenzyme Q: Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001.

27.  Beckman KB, Ames BN. Mitochondrial aging: open questions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;854:118-127.  (PubMed)

28.  Kalen A, Appelkvist EL, Dallner G. Age-related changes in the lipid compositions of rat and human tissues. Lipids. 1989;24(7):579-584.  (PubMed)

29.  Singh RB, Niaz MA, Kumar A, Sindberg CD, Moesgaard S, Littarru GP. Effect on absorption and oxidative stress of different oral Coenzyme Q10 dosages and intake strategy in healthy men. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):219-224.  (PubMed)

30.  Sohal RS, Kamzalov S, Sumien N, et al. Effect of coenzyme Q10 intake on endogenous coenzyme Q content, mitochondrial electron transport chain, antioxidative defenses, and life span of mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;40(3):480-487.  (PubMed)

31.  Quiles JL, Ochoa JJ, Battino M, et al. Life-long supplementation with a low dosage of coenzyme Q10 in the rat: effects on antioxidant status and DNA damage. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):73-86.  (PubMed)

32.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Fats: Total Fat and Fatty Acids. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2002:422-541.  (National Academies Press)

33.  European Commission Directorate General for Health and Consumer Protection. Eurodiet: Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. 2001. Available at: http://eurodiet.med.uoc.gr/.

34.  World Health Organization, Food And Agriculture Organization. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. 2002. Available at: http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf.

35.  Hamazaki T, Okuyama H. The Japan Society for Lipid Nutrition recommends to reduce the intake of linoleic acid. A review and critique of the scientific evidence. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2003;92:109-132.

36.  Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002;106(21):2747-2757.  (PubMed)

37.  Farr SA, Poon HF, Dogrukol-Ak D, et al. The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 mice. J Neurochem. 2003;84(5):1173-1183.  (PubMed)

38.  Milgram NW, Head E, Zicker SC, et al. Learning ability in aged beagle dogs is preserved by behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification: a two-year longitudinal study. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26(1):77-90.  (PubMed)

39.  Hager K, Marahrens A, Kenklies M, Riederer P, Munch G. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Azheimer type dementia. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2001;32(3):275-282.  (PubMed)

40.  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deprenyl and thioctic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment. Dana Consortium on the Therapy of HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders. Neurology. 1998;50(3):645-651.  (PubMed)

41.  Youdim KA, Qaiser MZ, Begley DJ, Rice-Evans CA, Abbott NJ. Flavonoid permeability across an in situ model of the blood-brain barrier. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36(5):592-604.  (PubMed)

42.  Patil CS, Singh VP, Satyanarayan PS, Jain NK, Singh A, Kulkarni SK. Protective effect of flavonoids against aging- and lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Pharmacology. 2003;69(2):59-67.  (PubMed)

43.  Joseph JA, Denisova NA, Arendash G, et al. Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model. Nutr Neurosci. 2003;6(3):153-162.  (PubMed)

44.  Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci. 1999;19(18):8114-8121.  (PubMed)

45.  Goyarzu P, Malin DH, Lau FC, et al. Blueberry supplemented diet: effects on object recognition memory and nuclear factor-kappa B levels in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci. 2004;7(2):75-83.  (PubMed)

46.  Commenges D, Scotet V, Renaud S, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Barberger-Gateau P, Dartigues JF. Intake of flavonoids and risk of dementia. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000;16(4):357-363.  (PubMed)

47.  Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2002;287(24):3223-3229.  (PubMed)

48.  de Rijk MC, Breteler MM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and Parkinson disease. The Rotterdam Study. Arch Neurol. 1997;54(6):762-765.  (PubMed)

49.  White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, et al. Brain aging and midlife tofu consumption. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2):242-255.  (PubMed)

50.  Laurin D, Masaki KH, Foley DJ, White LR, Launer LJ. Midlife dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of late-life incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(10):959-967.  (PubMed)

51. Letenneur L, Proust-Lima C, Le Gouge A, Dartigues JF, Barberger-Gateau P. Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(12):1364-1371. (PubMed)

52. Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Grobbee DE, et al. Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(1):65-74. (PubMed)

53. Casini ML, Marelli G, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, D'Ambrosio F, Unfer V. Psychological assessment of the effects of treatment with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril. 2006;85(4):972-978. (PubMed)

54.  Heilbronn LK, Ravussin E. Calorie restriction and aging: review of the literature and implications for studies in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3):361-369.  (PubMed)

55.  Wood JG, Rogina B, Lavu S, et al. Sirtuin activators mimic caloric restriction and delay ageing in metazoans. Nature. 2004;430(7000):686-689.  (PubMed)

56.  Howitz KT, Bitterman KJ, Cohen HY, et al. Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan. Nature. 2003;425(6954):191-196.  (PubMed)

57.  Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, et al. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature. 2006;444(7117):337-342.  (PubMed)