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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Chlorophyll and Chlorophyllin


1.  Matthews CK, van Holde KE. Biochemistry. 2nd ed. Menlo Park: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company; 1996.

2.  Sudakin DL. Dietary aflatoxin exposure and chemoprevention of cancer: a clinical review. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003;41(2):195-204.  (PubMed)

3.  Dashwood RH. The importance of using pure chemicals in (anti) mutagenicity studies: chlorophyllin as a case in point. Mutat Res. 1997;381(2):283-286.  (PubMed)

4.  Egner PA, Stansbury KH, Snyder EP, Rogers ME, Hintz PA, Kensler TW. Identification and characterization of chlorin e(4) ethyl ester in sera of individuals participating in the chlorophyllin chemoprevention trial. Chem Res Toxicol. 2000;13(9):900-906.  (PubMed)

5.  Tachino N, Guo D, Dashwood WM, Yamane S, Larsen R, Dashwood R. Mechanisms of the in vitro antimutagenic action of chlorophyllin against benzo[a]pyrene: studies of enzyme inhibition, molecular complex formation and degradation of the ultimate carcinogen. Mutat Res. 1994;308(2):191-203.  (PubMed)

6.  Dashwood R, Yamane S, Larsen R. Study of the forces of stabilizing complexes between chlorophylls and heterocyclic amine mutagens. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1996;27(3):211-218.  (PubMed)

7.  Breinholt V, Schimerlik M, Dashwood R, Bailey G. Mechanisms of chlorophyllin anticarcinogenesis against aflatoxin B1: complex formation with the carcinogen. Chem Res Toxicol. 1995;8(4):506-514.  (PubMed)

8.  Egner PA, Munoz A, Kensler TW. Chemoprevention with chlorophyllin in individuals exposed to dietary aflatoxin. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:209-216.  (PubMed)

9.  Kumar SS, Devasagayam TP, Bhushan B, Verma NC. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by chlorophyllin: an ESR study. Free Radic Res. 2001;35(5):563-574.  (PubMed)

10.  Kamat JP, Boloor KK, Devasagayam TP. Chlorophyllin as an effective antioxidant against membrane damage in vitro and ex vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1487(2-3):113-127.  (PubMed)

11.  Park KK, Park JH, Jung YJ, Chung WY. Inhibitory effects of chlorophyllin, hemin and tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin on oxidative DNA damage and mouse skin inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as a possible anti-tumor promoting mechanism. Mutat Res. 2003;542(1-2):89-97.  (PubMed)

12.  Kumar SS, Shankar B, Sainis KB. Effect of chlorophyllin against oxidative stress in splenic lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1672(2):100-111.  (PubMed)

13.  Yun CH, Jeong HG, Jhoun JW, Guengerich FP. Non-specific inhibition of cytochrome P450 activities by chlorophyllin in human and rat liver microsomes. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16(6):1437-1440.  (PubMed)

14.  Dingley KH, Ubick EA, Chiarappa-Zucca ML, et al. Effect of dietary constituents with chemopreventive potential on adduct formation of a low dose of the heterocyclic amines PhIP and IQ and phase II hepatic enzymes. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(2):212-221.  (PubMed)

15.  Chimploy K, Diaz GD, Li Q, et al. E2F4 and ribonucleotide reductase mediate S-phase arrest in colon cancer cells treated with chlorophyllin. Int J Cancer. 2009;125(9):2086-94.  (PubMed)

16.  Dashwood RH, Breinholt V, Bailey GS. Chemopreventive properties of chlorophyllin: inhibition of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-DNA binding in vivo and anti-mutagenic activity against AFB1 and two heterocyclic amines in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Carcinogenesis. 1991;12(5):939-942.  (PubMed)

17.  Kensler TW, Groopman JD, Roebuck BD. Use of aflatoxin adducts as intermediate endpoints to assess the efficacy of chemopreventive interventions in animals and man. Mutat Res. 1998;402(1-2):165-172.  (PubMed)

18.  Simonich MT, Egner PA, Roebuck BD, et al. Natural chlorophyll inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in the rat. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28(6):1294-1302.  (PubMed)

19.  Breinholt V, Hendricks J, Pereira C, Arbogast D, Bailey G. Dietary chlorophyllin is a potent inhibitor of aflatoxin B1 hepatocarcinogenesis in rainbow trout. Cancer Res. 1995;55(1):57-62.  (PubMed)

20.  Orner GA, Roebuck BD, Dashwood RH, Bailey GS. Post-initiation chlorophyllin exposure does not modulate aflatoxin-induced foci in the liver and colon of rats. J Carcinog. 2006;5:6.  (PubMed)

21.  Qian GS, Ross RK, Yu MC, et al. A follow-up study of urinary markers of aflatoxin exposure and liver cancer risk in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1994;3(1):3-10.  (PubMed)

22.  Egner PA, Wang JB, Zhu YR, et al. Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(25):14601-14606.  (PubMed)

23.  Chernomorsky SA, Segelman AB. Biological activities of chlorophyll derivatives. N J Med. 1988;85(8):669-673.  (PubMed)

24.  Siegel LH. The control of ileostomy and colostomy odors. Gastroenterology. 1960;38:634-636.   (PubMed)

25.  Weingarten M, Payson B. Deodorization of colostomies with chlorophyll. Rev Gastroenterol. 1951;18(8):602-604.

26.  Christiansen SB, Byel SR, Stromsted H, Stenderup JK, Eickhoff JH. [Can chlorophyll reduce fecal odor in colostomy patients?]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1989;151(27):1753-1754.   (PubMed)

27.  Young RW, Beregi JS, Jr. Use of chlorophyllin in the care of geriatric patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1980;28(1):46-47.  (PubMed)

28.  Yamazaki H, Fujieda M, Togashi M, et al. Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients. Life Sci. 2004;74(22):2739-2747.  (PubMed)

29.  Kephart JC. Chlorophyll derivatives - their chemistry, commercial preparation and uses. Econ Bot. 1955;9:3-38.

30.  Bowers WF. Chlorophyll in wound healing and suppurative disease. Am J Surg. 1947;73:37-50.

31.  Carpenter EB. Clinical experiences with chlorophyll preparations. Am J Surg. 1949;77:167-171.

32.  2004 Physicians' Desk Reference. 58th ed. Stamford: Thomson Health Care, Inc.; 2003.

33.  Smith RG. Enzymatic debriding agents: an evaluation of the medical literature. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2008;54(8):16-34.  (PubMed)

34.  Weir D, Farley KL. Relative delivery efficiency and convenience of spray and ointment formulations of papain/urea/chlorophyllin enzymatic wound therapies. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2006;33(5):482-490.  (PubMed)

35.  Bohn T, Walczyk S, Leisibach S, Hurrell RF. Chlorophyll-bound magnesium in commonly consumed vegetables and fruits: relevance to magnesium nutrition. J Food Sci. 2004;69(9):S347-S350.

36.  GPO Access. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations: Miscellaneous Internal Drug Products for Over the Counter Use. [Web page]. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=
6bb427d78a48e3983e0456d15a058c40&rgn=div6&view=text&node=
21:5.0.1.1.27.5&idno=21
. Accessed June 4, 2009.

37.  GPO Access. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations: Listing of Color Additives Exempt from Certification [Web page]. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=
090fc8b3dcd5f08075f3d2d0c2654073&rgn=div8&view=text&node=
21:1.0.1.1.26.3.31.7&idno=21
. Accessed June 4, 2009.

38.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Physicians' Desk Reference, Inc; 2008.

39.  Smith LW. The present status of topical chlorophyll therapy. N Y State J Med. 1955;55(14):2041-2050.  (PubMed)

40.  Gogel HK, Tandberg D, Strickland RG. Substances that interfere with guaiac card tests: implications for gastric aspirate testing. Am J Emerg Med. 1989;7(5):474-480.  (PubMed)