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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Fiber


1.  Lupton JR. Microbial degradation products influence colon cancer risk: the butyrate controversy. J Nutr. 2004;134(2):479-482.  (PubMed)

2.  Ha MA, Jarvis MC, Mann JI. A definition for dietary fibre. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(12):861-864.  (PubMed)

3.  DeVries JW. On defining dietary fibre. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62(1):37-43.  (PubMed)

4.  Institute of Medicine. Dietary, Functional, and Total Fiber. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, D. C.: National Academies Press; 2002:265-334.  (National Academies Press)

5.  Trowell H. Dietary fibre, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Proc Nutr Soc. 1973;32(3):151-157.  (PubMed)

6.  Lupton JR, Turner ND. Dietary Fiber. In: Stipanuk MH, ed. Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 2000:143-154.

7.  Gallaher CM, Schneeman BO. Dietary Fiber. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2001:83-91.

8.  Niness KR. Inulin and oligofructose: what are they? J Nutr. 1999;129(7 Suppl):1402S-1406S.  (PubMed)

9.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR (eds). PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Physicians' Desk Reference Inc.; 2008.

10.  Marlett JA. Content and composition of dietary fiber in 117 frequently consumed foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 1992;92(2):175-186.  (PubMed)

11.  Bazzano LA, Thompson AM, Tees MT, Nguyen CH, Winham DM. Non-soy legume consumption lowers cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21:94-103.  (PubMed)

12.  Zhang Z, Lanza E, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. A high legume low glycemic index diet improves serum lipid profiles in men. Lipids. 2010;45:765-775.  (PubMed)

13  Anderson JW, Major AW. Pulses and lipaemia, short- and long-term effect: potential in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Br J Nutr. 2002;88 Suppl 3:S263-271.  (PubMed)

14.  Wolever TM, Tosh SM, Gibbs AL, et al. Physicochemical properties of oat beta-glucan influence its ability to reduce serum LDL cholesterol in humans: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:723-732.  (PubMed)

15.  Naumann E, van Rees AB, Onning G, Oste R, Wydra M, Mensink RP. Beta-glucan incorporated into a fruit drink effectively lowers serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(3):601-605.  (PubMed)

16.  Ripsin CM, Keenan JM, Jacobs DR, Jr., et al. Oat products and lipid lowering. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1992;267(24):3317-3325.  (PubMed)

17.  Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(1):30-42.  (PubMed)

18.  Queenan KM, Stewart ML, Smith KN, Thomas W, Fulcher RG, Slavin JL. Concentrated oat beta-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2007;6:6.  (PubMed)

19.  Reyna-Villasmil N, Bermudez-Pirela V, Mengual-Moreno E, et al. Oat-derived beta-glucan significantly improves HDLC and diminishes LDLC and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia. Am J Ther. 2007;14(2):203-212.  (PubMed)

20.  Food and Drug Administration. Food labeling: health claims; soluble dietary fiber from certain foods and coronary heart disease. Final rule. Fed Regist. 2003;68(144):44207-44209.

21.  Wei ZH, Wang H, Chen XY, et al. Time- and dose-dependent effect of psyllium on serum lipids in mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:821-827.  (PubMed)

22.  Pal S, Khossousi A, Binns C, Dhaliwal S, Ellis V. The effect of a fibre supplement compared to a healthy diet on body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin and other metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:90-100.  (PubMed)

23.  Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Lawrence A, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(2):472-479.  (PubMed)

24.  Butt MS, Shahzadi N, Sharif MK, Nasir M. Guar gum: a miracle therapy for hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and obesity. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(4):389-396.  (PubMed)

25.  Theuwissen E, Mensink RP. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. Physiol Behav. 2008;94(2):285-292.  (PubMed)

26.  Bazzano LA. Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008;10(6):473-477.  (PubMed)

27.  Schafer G, Schenk U, Ritzel U, Ramadori G, Leonhardt U. Comparison of the effects of dried peas with those of potatoes in mixed meals on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(1):99-103.  (PubMed)

28.  Kabir M, Oppert JM, Vidal H, et al. Four-week low-glycemic index breakfast with a modest amount of soluble fibers in type 2 diabetic men. Metabolism. 2002;51(7):819-826.  (PubMed)

29.  Brand-Miller JC, Atkinson FS, Gahler RJ, Kacinik V, Lyon MR, Wood S. Effects of PGX, a novel functional fibre, on acute and delayed postprandial glycaemia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:1488-1493.  (PubMed)

30.  Jenkins AL, Kacinik V, Lyon MR, Wolever TM. Reduction of postprandial glycemia by the novel viscous polysaccharide PGX, in a dose-dependent manner, independent of food form. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29:92-98.  (PubMed)

31  Williams JA, Lai CS, Corwin H, et al. Inclusion of guar gum and alginate into a crispy bar improves postprandial glycemia in humans. J Nutr. 2004;134(4):886-889.  (PubMed)

32.  Sierra M, Garcia JJ, Fernandez N, Diez MJ, Calle AP, Sahagun AM. Effects of ispaghula husk and guar gum on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(4):235-243.  (PubMed)

33.  Wolever TM, Jenkins DA. Effect of Dietary Fiber and Foods on Carbohydrate Metabolism. In: Spiller GA, ed. CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:321-360.

34.  Marlett JA, McBurney MI, Slavin JL. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102(7):993-1000.  (PubMed)

35.  Cummings JH. The effect of dietary fiber on fecal weight and composition. In: Spiller GA, ed. Fiber in Human Nutrition. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:183-252.

36.  Anti M, Pignataro G, Armuzzi A, et al. Water supplementation enhances the effect of high-fiber diet on stool frequency and laxative consumption in adult patients with functional constipation. Hepatogastroenterology. 1998;45(21):727-732.  (PubMed)

37.  American Academy of Family Physicians. Constipation: Keeping Your Bowels Moving Smoothly [Web page]. April 2000. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/ online/famdocen/home/common/digestive/basics/037.html. Accessed 9/14/04.

38.  Fraser GE, Sabate J, Beeson WL, Strahan TM. A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(7):1416-1424.  (PubMed)

39.  Humble CG, Malarcher AM, Tyroler HA. Dietary fiber and coronary heart disease in middle-aged hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Prev Med. 1993;9(4):197-202.  (PubMed)

40.  Jacobs DR, Jr., Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Folsom AR. Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2):248-257.  (PubMed)

41.  Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Dietary fiber and reduced ischemic heart disease mortality rates in men and women: a 12-year prospective study. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(6):1093-1102.  (PubMed)

42.  Pietinen P, Rimm EB, Korhonen P, et al. Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Circulation. 1996;94(11):2720-2727.  (PubMed)

43.  Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA. 1996;275(6):447-451.  (PubMed)

44.  Todd S, Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Bolton-Smith C. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and fiber in the etiology of cardiovascular disease and all-causes mortality: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(10):1073-1080.  (PubMed)

45.  Wolk A, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA. 1999;281(21):1998-2004.  (PubMed)

46.  Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria CM, Whelton PK. Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(16):1897-1904.  (PubMed)

47.  Mozaffarian D, Kumanyika SK, Lemaitre RN, Olson JL, Burke GL, Siscovick DS. Cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals. JAMA. 2003;289(13):1659-1666.  (PubMed)

48.  Streppel MT, Ocke MC, Boshuizen HC, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(4):1119-1125.  (PubMed)

49.  Eshak ES, Iso H, Date C, et al. Dietary fiber intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women. J Nutr. 2010;140:1445-1453.  (PubMed)

50.  Park Y, Subar AF, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:1061-1068.  (PubMed)

51.  Pereira MA, O'Reilly E, Augustsson K, et al. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(4):370-376.  (PubMed)

52.  Liu S, Willett WC. Dietary glycemic load and atherothrombotic risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2002;4(6):454-461.  (PubMed)

53.  Ford ES, Liu S. Glycemic index and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among U.S. adults. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(4):572-576.  (PubMed)

54.  Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(3):560-566.  (PubMed)

55.  Ascherio A, Hennekens C, Willett WC, et al. Prospective study of nutritional factors, blood pressure, and hypertension among US women. Hypertension. 1996;27(5):1065-1072.  (PubMed)

56.  Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, et al. A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US men. Circulation. 1992;86(5):1475-1484.  (PubMed)

57.  Streppel MT, Arends LR, van 't Veer P, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Dietary fiber and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(2):150-156.  (PubMed)

58.  Whelton SP, Hyre AD, Pedersen B, Yi Y, Whelton PK, He J. Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. J Hypertens. 2005;23(3):475-481.  (PubMed)

59.  King DE, Egan BM, Woolson RF, Mainous AG, 3rd, Al-Solaiman Y, Jesri A. Effect of a high-fiber diet vs a fiber-supplemented diet on C-reactive protein level. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(5):502-506.  (PubMed)

60.  Ma Y, Griffith JA, Chasan-Taber L, et al. Association between dietary fiber and serum C-reactive protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(4):760-766.  (PubMed)

61.  Patel VB, Robbins MA, Topol EJ. C-reactive protein: a 'golden marker' for inflammation and coronary artery disease. Cleve Clin J Med. 2001;68(6):521-524, 527-534.  (PubMed)

62.  Lupton JR, Turner ND. Dietary fiber and coronary disease: does the evidence support an association? Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003;5(6):500-505.  (PubMed)

63.  Gross LS, Li L, Ford ES, Liu S. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):774-779.  (PubMed)

64.  Wannamethee SG, Whincup PH, Thomas MC, Sattar N. Associations between dietary fiber and inflammation, hepatic function, and risk of type 2 diabetes in older men: potential mechanisms for the benefits of fiber on diabetes risk. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(10):1823-1825.  (PubMed)

65.  Hopping BN, Erber E, Grandinetti A, Verheus M, Kolonel LN, Maskarinec G. Dietary fiber, magnesium, and glycemic load alter risk of type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. J Nutr. 2010;140(1):68-74.  (PubMed)

66.  Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(4):545-550.  (PubMed)

67.  Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997;277(6):472-477.  (PubMed)

68.  Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Jr., Slavin J, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(4):921-930.  (PubMed)

69.  Stevens J, Ahn K, Juhaeri, Houston D, Steffan L, Couper D. Dietary fiber intake and glycemic index and incidence of diabetes in African-American and white adults: the ARIC study. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(10):1715-1721.  (PubMed)

70.  Montonen J, Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Aromaa A, Reunanen A. Whole-grain and fiber intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(3):622-629.  (PubMed)

71.  Schulze MB, Liu S, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(2):348-356.  (PubMed)

72.  Ventura E, Davis J, Byrd-Williams C, et al. Reduction in risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in response to a low-sugar, high-fiber dietary intervention in overweight Latino adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(4):320-327.  (PubMed)

73.  Krishnan S, Rosenberg L, Singer M, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(21):2304-2309.  (PubMed)

74.  Schulze MB, Schulz M, Heidemann C, Schienkiewitz A, Hoffmann K, Boeing H. Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(9):956-965.  (PubMed)

75.  Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(6):393-403.  (PubMed)

76.  Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(18):1343-1350.  (PubMed)

77.  Trock B, Lanza E, Greenwald P. Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiologic evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82(8):650-661.  (PubMed)

78.  Howe GR, Benito E, Castelleto R, et al. Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84(24):1887-1896.  (PubMed)

79.  Dahm CC, Keogh RH, Spencer EA, et al. Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: a nested case-control study using food diaries. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102(9):614-626.  (PubMed)

80.  Steinmetz KA, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, Folsom AR, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139(1):1-15.  (PubMed)

81.  Kato I, Akhmedkhanov A, Koenig K, Toniolo PG, Shore RE, Riboli E. Prospective study of diet and female colorectal cancer: the New York University Women's Health Study. Nutr Cancer. 1997;28(3):276-281.  (PubMed)

82.  Pietinen P, Malila N, Virtanen M, et al. Diet and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(5):387-396.  (PubMed)

83.  Terry P, Giovannucci E, Michels KB, et al. Fruit, vegetables, dietary fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93(7):525-533.  (PubMed)

84.  Mai V, Flood A, Peters U, Lacey JV, Jr., Schairer C, Schatzkin A. Dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) follow-up cohort. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32(2):234-239.  (PubMed)

85.  Lin J, Zhang SM, Cook NR, et al. Dietary intakes of fruit, vegetables, and fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of women (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16(3):225-233.  (PubMed)

86.  Michels KB, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci E, et al. Fiber intake and incidence of colorectal cancer among 76,947 women and 47,279 men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(4):842-849.  (PubMed)

87.  Shin A, Li H, Shu XO, Yang G, Gao YT, Zheng W. Dietary intake of calcium, fiber and other micronutrients in relation to colorectal cancer risk: Results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Int J Cancer. 2006;119(12):2938-2942.  (PubMed)

88.  Otani T, Iwasaki M, Ishihara J, Sasazuki S, Inoue M, Tsugane S. Dietary fiber intake and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Int J Cancer. 2006;119(6):1475-1480.  (PubMed)

89.  Schatzkin A, Mouw T, Park Y, et al. Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(5):1353-1360.  (PubMed)

90.  Park Y, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. JAMA. 2005;294(22):2849-2857.  (PubMed)

91.  Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R, et al. Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study. Lancet. 2003;361(9368):1496-1501.  (PubMed)

92.  Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Corle D, et al. Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(16):1149-1155.  (PubMed)

93.  Alberts DS, Martinez ME, Roe DJ, et al. Lack of effect of a high-fiber cereal supplement on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Phoenix Colon Cancer Prevention Physicians' Network. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(16):1156-1162.  (PubMed)

94.  Ishikawa H, Akedo I, Otani T, et al. Randomized trial of dietary fiber and Lactobacillus casei administration for prevention of colorectal tumors. Int J Cancer. 2005;116(5):762-767.  (PubMed)

95.  Bonithon-Kopp C, Kronborg O, Giacosa A, Rath U, Faivre J. Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. European Cancer Prevention Organisation Study Group. Lancet. 2000;356(9238):1300-1306.  (PubMed)

96.  Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Relationship of diet to risk of colorectal adenoma in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84(2):91-98.  (PubMed)

97.  Van 't Veer P, Kolb CM, Verhoef P, et al. Dietary fiber, beta-carotene and breast cancer: results from a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1990;45(5):825-828.

98.  Baghurst PA, Rohan TE. High-fiber diets and reduced risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 1994;56(2):173-176.  (PubMed)

99.  Yuan JM, Wang QS, Ross RK, Henderson BE, Yu MC. Diet and breast cancer in Shanghai and Tianjin, China. Br J Cancer. 1995;71(6):1353-1358.  (PubMed)

100.  Ronco A, De Stefani E, Boffetta P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Leborgne F. Vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer. 1999;35(2):111-119.  (PubMed)

101.  Belle FN, Kampman E, McTiernan A, et al. Dietary fiber, carbohydrates, glycemic index, and glycemic load in relation to breast cancer prognosis in the HEAL cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(5):890-899.  (PubMed)

102.  Graham S, Zielezny M, Marshall J, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of postmenopausal breast cancer in the New York State Cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;136(11):1327-1337.  (PubMed)

103.  Terry P, Jain M, Miller AB, Howe GR, Rohan TE. No association among total dietary fiber, fiber fractions, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(11):1507-1508.  (PubMed)

104.  Cho E, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Chen WY, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Premenopausal dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(11 Pt 1):1153-1158.  (PubMed)

105.  Holmes MD, Liu S, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Willett WC. Dietary carbohydrates, fiber, and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(8):732-739.  (PubMed)

106.  Lajous M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fabre A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Romieu I. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1384-1391.  (PubMed)

107.  Wen W, Shu XO, Li H, et al. Dietary carbohydrates, fiber, and breast cancer risk in Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):283-289.  (PubMed)

108.  Maruti SS, Lampe JW, Potter JD, Ready A, White E. A prospective study of bowel motility and related factors on breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(7):1746-1750.  (PubMed)

109.  Cade JE, Burley VJ, Greenwood DC. Dietary fibre and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36(2):431-438.  (PubMed)

110.  Mattisson I, Wirfalt E, Johansson U, Gullberg B, Olsson H, Berglund G. Intakes of plant foods, fibre and fat and risk of breast cancer--a prospective study in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Br J Cancer. 2004;90(1):122-127.  (PubMed)

111.  Park Y, Brinton LA, Subar AF, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(3):664-671.  (PubMed)

112.  Dong JY, He K, Wang P, Qin LQ. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(3):900-905.  (PubMed)

113.  Rock CL, Flatt SW, Thomson CA, et al. Effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention on serum concentrations of reproductive steroid hormones in women with a history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(12):2379-2387.  (PubMed)

114.  Kasim-Karakas SE, Almario RU, Gregory L, Todd H, Wong R, Lasley BL. Effects of prune consumption on the ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(6):1422-1427.  (PubMed)

115.  Korzenik JR. Case closed? Diverticulitis: epidemiology and fiber. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40 Suppl 3:S112-116.  (PubMed)

116.  Bogardus ST, Jr. What do we know about diverticular disease? A brief overview. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40 Suppl 3:S108-111. (PubMed)

117.  Peery AF, Barrett PR, Park D, et al. A high-fiber diet does not protect against asymptomatic diverticulosis. Gastroenterology. 2012; 142(2):266-272e1.  (PubMed)

118.  Farrell RJ, Farrell JJ, Morrin MM. Diverticular disease in the elderly. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2001;30(2):475-496.  (PubMed)

119.  Aldoori WH, Giovannucci EL, Rockett HR, Sampson L, Rimm EB, Willett WC. A prospective study of dietary fiber types and symptomatic diverticular disease in men. J Nutr. 1998;128(4):714-719.  (PubMed)

120.  Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev. 2001;59(5):129-139.  (PubMed)

121.  Du H, van der AD, Boshuizen HC, et al. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(2):329-336.  (PubMed)

122.  Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ. Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: the possible roles of animal fat, dietary fibre and alcohol. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(5):454-460.  (PubMed)

123.  Miller WC, Niederpruem MG, Wallace JP, Lindeman AK. Dietary fat, sugar, and fiber predict body fat content. J Am Diet Assoc. 1994;94(6):612-615.  (PubMed)

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