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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Flavonoids


1. Beecher GR. Overview of dietary flavonoids: nomenclature, occurrence and intake. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3248S-3254S. (PubMed)

2. Williamson G. Common features in the pathways of absorption and metabolism of flavonoids. In: Meskin MS, R. BW, Davies AJ, Lewis DS, Randolph RK, eds. Phytochemicals: Mechanisms of Action. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004:21-33.

3. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):727-747. (PubMed)

4. Setchell KD, Brown NM, Lydeking-Olsen E. The clinical importance of the metabolite equol-a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. J Nutr. 2002;132(12):3577-3584. (PubMed)

5. Yuan JP, Wang JH, Liu X. Metabolism of dietary soy isoflavones to equol by human intestinal microflora--implications for health. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51(7):765-781. (PubMed)

6. Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A, Remesy C. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1 Suppl):230S-242S. (PubMed)

7. Williams RJ, Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C. Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36(7):838-849. (PubMed)

8. Kroon PA, Clifford MN, Crozier A, et al. How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(1):15-21. (PubMed)

9. Heijnen CG, Haenen GR, van Acker FA, van der Vijgh WJ, Bast A. Flavonoids as peroxynitrite scavengers: the role of the hydroxyl groups. Toxicol In Vitro. 2001;15(1):3-6. (PubMed)

10. Chun OK, Kim DO, Lee CY. Superoxide radical scavenging activity of the major polyphenols in fresh plums. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(27):8067-8072. (PubMed)

11. Frei B, Higdon JV. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3275S-3284S. (PubMed)

12. Lotito SB, Frei B. Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and increased plasma antioxidant capacity in humans: cause, consequence, or epiphenomenon? Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;41(12):1727-1746. (PubMed)

13. Mira L, Fernandez MT, Santos M, Rocha R, Florencio MH, Jennings KR. Interactions of flavonoids with iron and copper ions: a mechanism for their antioxidant activity. Free Radic Res. 2002;36(11):1199-1208. (PubMed)

14. Cheng IF, Breen K. On the ability of four flavonoids, baicilein, luteolin, naringenin, and quercetin, to suppress the Fenton reaction of the iron-ATP complex. Biometals. 2000;13(1):77-83. (PubMed)

15. Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C, Williams RJ. Modulation of pro-survival Akt/protein kinase B and ERK1/2 signaling cascades by quercetin and its in vivo metabolites underlie their action on neuronal viability. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(37):34783-34793. (PubMed)

16. Spencer JP, Schroeter H, Crossthwaithe AJ, Kuhnle G, Williams RJ, Rice-Evans C. Contrasting influences of glucuronidation and O-methylation of epicatechin on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in neurons and fibroblasts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31(9):1139-1146. (PubMed)

17. Hou Z, Lambert JD, Chin KV, Yang CS. Effects of tea polyphenols on signal transduction pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. Mutat Res. 2004;555(1-2):3-19. (PubMed)

18. Lambert JD, Yang CS. Mechanisms of cancer prevention by tea constituents. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3262S-3267S. (PubMed)

19. Kong AN, Owuor E, Yu R, et al. Induction of xenobiotic enzymes by the MAP kinase pathway and the antioxidant or electrophile response element (ARE/EpRE). Drug Metab Rev. 2001;33(3-4):255-271. (PubMed)

20. Walle UK, Walle T. Induction of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A1 by flavonoids-structural requirements. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002;30(5):564-569. (PubMed)

21. Chen JJ, Ye ZQ, Koo MW. Growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest effects of epigallocatechin gallate in the NBT-II bladder tumour cell line. BJU Int. 2004;93(7):1082-1086. (PubMed)

22. Wang W, VanAlstyne PC, Irons KA, Chen S, Stewart JW, Birt DF. Individual and interactive effects of apigenin analogs on G2/M cell-cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma cell lines. Nutr Cancer. 2004;48(1):106-114. (PubMed)

23. Stewart ZA, Westfall MD, Pietenpol JA. Cell-cycle dysregulation and anticancer therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003;24(3):139-145. (PubMed)

24. Sah JF, Balasubramanian S, Eckert RL, Rorke EA. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Evidence for direct inhibition of ERK1/2 and AKT kinases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(13):12755-12762. (PubMed)

25. Kavanagh KT, Hafer LJ, Kim DW, et al. Green tea extracts decrease carcinogen-induced mammary tumor burden in rats and rate of breast cancer cell proliferation in culture. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82(3):387-398. (PubMed)

26. Ramos S. Effects of dietary flavonoids on apoptotic pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18(7):427-442. (PubMed)

27. Bagli E, Stefaniotou M, Morbidelli L, et al. Luteolin inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis; inhibition of endothelial cell survival and proliferation by targeting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity. Cancer Res. 2004;64(21):7936-7946. (PubMed)

28. Kim MH. Flavonoids inhibit VEGF/bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro by inhibiting the matrix-degrading proteases. J Cell Biochem. 2003;89(3):529-538. (PubMed)

29. O'Leary KA, de Pascual-Tereasa S, Needs PW, Bao YP, O'Brien NM, Williamson G. Effect of flavonoids and vitamin E on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription. Mutat Res. 2004;551(1-2):245-254. (PubMed)

30. Sakata K, Hirose Y, Qiao Z, Tanaka T, Mori H. Inhibition of inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase by flavonoid hesperidin in mouse macrophage cell line. Cancer Lett. 2003;199(2):139-145. (PubMed)

31. Cho SY, Park SJ, Kwon MJ, et al. Quercetin suppresses proinflammatory cytokines production through MAP kinases andNF-kappaB pathway in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;243(1-2):153-160. (PubMed)

32. Steele VE, Hawk ET, Viner JL, Lubet RA. Mechanisms and applications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the chemoprevention of cancer. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:137-144. (PubMed)

33. Blake GJ, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein and other inflammatory risk markers in acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41(4 Suppl S):37S-42S. (PubMed)

34. Choi JS, Choi YJ, Park SH, Kang JS, Kang YH. Flavones mitigate tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced adhesion molecule upregulation in cultured human endothelial cells: role of nuclear factor-kappa B. J Nutr. 2004;134(5):1013-1019. (PubMed)

35. Ludwig A, Lorenz M, Grimbo N, et al. The tea flavonoid epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;316(3):659-665. (PubMed)

36. Stocker R, Keaney JF, Jr. Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. Physiol Rev. 2004;84(4):1381-1478. (PubMed)

37. Anter E, Thomas SR, Schulz E, Shapira OM, Vita JA, Keaney JF, Jr. Activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase by the p38 MAPK in response to black tea polyphenols. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(45):46637-46643. (PubMed)

38. Duffy SJ, Vita JA. Effects of phenolics on vascular endothelial function. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2003;14(1):21-27. (PubMed)

39. Deana R, Turetta L, Donella-Deana A, et al. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits platelet signalling pathways triggered by both proteolytic and non-proteolytic agonists. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89(5):866-874. (PubMed)

40. Bucki R, Pastore JJ, Giraud F, Sulpice JC, Janmey PA. Flavonoid inhibition of platelet procoagulant activity and phosphoinositide synthesis. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1(8):1820-1828. (PubMed)

41. Hubbard GP, Wolffram S, Lovegrove JA, Gibbins JM. The role of polyphenolic compounds in the diet as inhibitors of platelet function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62(2):469-478. (PubMed)

42. Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Van der Kuip DA, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(5):880-886. (PubMed)

43. Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Antioxidant flavonols and coronary heart disease risk. Lancet. 1997;349(9053):699. (PubMed)

44. Hirvonen T, Pietinen P, Virtanen M, et al. Intake of flavonols and flavones and risk of coronary heart disease in male smokers. Epidemiology. 2001;12(1):62-67. (PubMed)

45. Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Jarvinen R, et al. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(3):560-568. (PubMed)

46. Yochum L, Kushi LH, Meyer K, Folsom AR. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(10):943-949. (PubMed)

47. Hertog MG, Sweetnam PM, Fehily AM, Elwood PC, Kromhout D. Antioxidant flavonols and ischemic heart disease in a Welsh population of men: the Caerphilly Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5):1489-1494. (PubMed)

48. Rimm EB, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Relation between intake of flavonoids and risk for coronary heart disease in male health professionals. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125(5):384-389. (PubMed)

49. Sesso HD, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Buring JE. Flavonoid intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1400-1408. (PubMed)

50. Mink PJ, Scrafford CG, Barraj LM, et al. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(3):895-909. (PubMed)

51. Lin J, Rexrode KM, Hu F, et al. Dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones and coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(11):1305-1313. (PubMed)

52. Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(6):637-642. (PubMed)

53. Hirvonen T, Virtamo J, Korhonen P, Albanes D, Pietinen P. Intake of flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of stroke in male smokers. Stroke. 2000;31(10):2301-2306. (PubMed)

54. Knekt P, Isotupa S, Rissanen H, et al. Quercetin intake and the incidence of cerebrovascular disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(5):415-417. (PubMed)

55. Liu RH. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3 Suppl):517S-520S. (PubMed)

56. Vita JA. Tea consumption and cardiovascular disease: effects on endothelial function. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3293S-3297S. (PubMed)

57. Duffy SJ, Keaney JF, Jr., Holbrook M, et al. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2001;104(2):151-156. (PubMed)

58. Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, Watts GF, Beilin LJ. Regular ingestion of black tea improves brachial artery vasodilator function. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;102(2):195-201. (PubMed)

59. Stein JH, Keevil JG, Wiebe DA, Aeschlimann S, Folts JD. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1999;100(10):1050-1055. (PubMed)

60. Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, et al. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(3):197-204. (PubMed)

61. Wang-Polagruto JF, Villablanca AC, Polagruto JA, et al. Chronic consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47 Suppl 2:S177-186; discussion S206-179. (PubMed)

62. Balzer J, Rassaf T, Heiss C, et al. Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(22):2141-2149. (PubMed)

63. Schroeter H, Heiss C, Balzer J, et al. (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(4):1024-1029. (PubMed)

64. Taubert D, Roesen R, Lehmann C, Jung N, Schomig E. Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;298(1):49-60. (PubMed)

65. Freese R, Vaarala O, Turpeinen AM, Mutanen M. No difference in platelet activation or inflammation markers after diets rich or poor in vegetables, berries and apple in healthy subjects. Eur J Nutr. 2004;43(3):175-182. (PubMed)

66. Janssen K, Mensink RP, Cox FJ, et al. Effects of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin on hemostasis in healthy volunteers: results from an in vitro and a dietary supplement study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(2):255-262. (PubMed)

67. Duffy SJ, Vita JA, Holbrook M, Swerdloff PL, Keaney JF, Jr. Effect of acute and chronic tea consumption on platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21(6):1084-1089. (PubMed)

68. Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, Beilin LJ, Mori TA, Chan SY. Acute effects of ingestion of black tea on postprandial platelet aggregation in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2002;87(2):141-145. (PubMed)

69. Freedman JE, Parker C, 3rd, Li L, et al. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation. 2001;103(23):2792-2798. (PubMed)

70. Keevil JG, Osman HE, Reed JD, Folts JD. Grape juice, but not orange juice or grapefruit juice, inhibits human platelet aggregation. J Nutr. 2000;130(1):53-56. (PubMed)

71. Polagruto JA, Schramm DD, Wang-Polagruto JF, Lee L, Keen CL. Effects of flavonoid-rich beverages on prostacyclin synthesis in humans and human aortic endothelial cells: association with ex vivo platelet function. J Med Food. 2003;6(4):301-308. (PubMed)

72. Innes AJ, Kennedy G, McLaren M, Bancroft AJ, Belch JJ. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Platelets. 2003;14(5):325-327. (PubMed)

73. Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Pearson DA, et al. Cocoa and wine polyphenols modulate platelet activation and function. J Nutr. 2000;130(8S Suppl):2120S-2126S. (PubMed)

74. Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Wun T, et al. Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(1):30-35. (PubMed)

75. Murphy KJ, Chronopoulos AK, Singh I, et al. Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1466-1473. (PubMed)

76. Yang CS, Yang GY, Landau JM, Kim S, Liao J. Tea and tea polyphenols inhibit cell hyperproliferation, lung tumorigenesis, and tumor progression. Exp Lung Res. 1998;24(4):629-639. (PubMed)

77. Balasubramanian S, Govindasamy S. Inhibitory effect of dietary flavonol quercetin on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17(4):877-879. (PubMed)

78. Li ZG, Shimada Y, Sato F, et al. Inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in F344 rats. Int J Oncol. 2002;21(6):1275-1283. (PubMed)

79. Yamane T, Nakatani H, Kikuoka N, et al. Inhibitory effects and toxicity of green tea polyphenols for gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Cancer. 1996;77(8 Suppl):1662-1667. (PubMed)

80. Guo JY, Li X, Browning JD, Jr., et al. Dietary soy isoflavones and estrone protect ovariectomized ERalphaKO and wild-type mice from carcinogen-induced colon cancer. J Nutr. 2004;134(1):179-182. (PubMed)

81. Huang MT, Xie JG, Wang ZY, et al. Effects of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice: demonstration of caffeine as a biologically important constituent of tea. Cancer Res. 1997;57(13):2623-2629. (PubMed)

82. Gupta S, Hastak K, Ahmad N, Lewin JS, Mukhtar H. Inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice by oral infusion of green tea polyphenols. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(18):10350-10355. (PubMed)

83. Haddad AQ, Venkateswaran V, Viswanathan L, Teahan SJ, Fleshner NE, Klotz LH. Novel antiproliferative flavonoids induce cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006;9(1):68-76. (PubMed)

84. Yamagishi M, Natsume M, Osakabe N, et al. Effects of cacao liquor proanthocyanidins on PhIP-induced mutagenesis in vitro, and in vivo mammary and pancreatic tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cancer Lett. 2002;185(2):123-130. (PubMed)

85. Ross JA, Kasum CM. Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety. Annu Rev Nutr. 2002;22:19-34. (PubMed)

86. Goldbohm RA, Van den Brandt PA, Hertog MG, Brants HA, Van Poppel G. Flavonoid intake and risk of cancer: a prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;41:s61.

87. Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, Katan MB, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids and cancer risk in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Nutr Cancer. 1994;22(2):175-184. (PubMed)

88. Arts IC, Hollman PC, Bueno De Mesquita HB, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary catechins and epithelial cancer incidence: the Zutphen elderly study. Int J Cancer. 2001;92(2):298-302. (PubMed)

89. Goldbohm RA, Hertog MG, Brants HA, van Poppel G, van den Brandt PA. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88(2):93-100. (PubMed)

90. Arts IC, Jacobs DR, Jr., Gross M, Harnack LJ, Folsom AR. Dietary catechins and cancer incidence among postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13(4):373-382. (PubMed)

91. Higdon JV, Frei B. Tea catechins and polyphenols: health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2003;43(1):89-143. (PubMed)

92. De Stefani E, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M, Deneo-Pellegrini H. Diet and risk of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract--II. Nutrients. Oral Oncol. 1999;35(1):22-26. (PubMed)

93. Garcia-Closas R, Gonzalez CA, Agudo A, Riboli E. Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of gastric cancer in Spain. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(1):71-75. (PubMed)

94. Lagiou P, Samoli E, Lagiou A, et al. Flavonoids, vitamin C and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(1):67-72. (PubMed)

95. Peterson J, Lagiou P, Samoli E, et al. Flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk: a case--control study in Greece. Br J Cancer. 2003;89(7):1255-1259. (PubMed)

96. Garcia R, Gonzalez CA, Agudo A, Riboli E. High intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids does not reduce the risk of bladder cancer. Nutr Cancer. 1999;35(2):212-214. (PubMed)

97. Garcia-Closas R, Agudo A, Gonzalez CA, Riboli E. Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer in women in Barcelona, Spain. Nutr Cancer. 1998;32(3):154-158. (PubMed)

98. Ramassamy C. Emerging role of polyphenolic compounds in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: a review of their intracellular targets. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;545(1):51-64. (PubMed)

99. Youdim KA, Qaiser MZ, Begley DJ, Rice-Evans CA, Abbott NJ. Flavonoid permeability across an in situ model of the blood-brain barrier. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36(5):592-604. (PubMed)

100. Schmitt-Schillig S, Schaffer S, Weber CC, Eckert GP, Muller WE. Flavonoids and the aging brain. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56 Suppl 1:23-36. (PubMed)

101. Goyarzu P, Malin DH, Lau FC, et al. Blueberry supplemented diet: effects on object recognition memory and nuclear factor-kappa B levels in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci. 2004;7(2):75-83. (PubMed)

102. Joseph JA, Denisova NA, Arendash G, et al. Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model. Nutr Neurosci. 2003;6(3):153-162. (PubMed)

103. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci. 1999;19(18):8114-8121. (PubMed)

104. Patil CS, Singh VP, Satyanarayan PS, Jain NK, Singh A, Kulkarni SK. Protective effect of flavonoids against aging- and lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Pharmacology. 2003;69(2):59-67. (PubMed)

105. Laurin D, Masaki KH, Foley DJ, White LR, Launer LJ. Midlife dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of late-life incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(10):959-967. (PubMed)

106. White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, et al. Brain aging and midlife tofu consumption. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2):242-255. (PubMed)

107. de Rijk MC, Breteler MM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and Parkinson disease. The Rotterdam Study. Arch Neurol. 1997;54(6):762-765. (PubMed)

108. Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2002;287(24):3223-3229. (PubMed)

109. Commenges D, Scotet V, Renaud S, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Barberger-Gateau P, Dartigues JF. Intake of flavonoids and risk of dementia. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000;16(4):357-363. (PubMed)

110. Letenneur L, Proust-Lima C, Le Gouge A, Dartigues JF, Barberger-Gateau P. Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(12):1364-1371. (PubMed)

111. Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Grobbee DE, et al. Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(1):65-74. (PubMed)

112. Casini ML, Marelli G, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, D'Ambrosio F, Unfer V. Psychological assessment of the effects of treatment with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril. 2006;85(4):972-978. (PubMed)

113. Gu L, Kelm MA, Hammerstone JF, et al. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption. J Nutr. 2004;134(3):613-617. (PubMed)

114. Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

115. Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Shahed A, Rajfer J. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology. 1999;54(6):960-963. (PubMed)

116. Ferry DR, Smith A, Malkhandi J, et al. Phase I clinical trial of the flavonoid quercetin: pharmacokinetics and evidence for in vivo tyrosine kinase inhibition. Clin Cancer Res. 1996;2(4):659-668. (PubMed)

117. Bonkovsky HL. Hepatotoxicity associated with supplements containing Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis). Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(1):68-71. (PubMed)

118. Javaid A, Bonkovsky HL. Hepatotoxicity due to extracts of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis): a growing concern. J Hepatol. 2006;45(2):334-335; author reply 335-336. (PubMed)

119. Jatoi A, Ellison N, Burch PA, et al. A phase II trial of green tea in the treatment of patients with androgen independent metastatic prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97(6):1442-1446. (PubMed)

120. Pisters KM, Newman RA, Coldman B, et al. Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(6):1830-1838. (PubMed)

121. Chow HH, Cai Y, Hakim IA, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(9):3312-3319. (PubMed)

122. Bailey DG, Dresser GK. Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2004;4(5):281-297. (PubMed)

123. Dahan A, Altman H. Food-drug interaction: grapefruit juice augments drug bioavailability--mechanism, extent and relevance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(1):1-9. (PubMed)

124. Zhou S, Lim LY, Chowbay B. Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Rev. 2004;36(1):57-104. (PubMed)

125. Marzolini C, Paus E, Buclin T, Kim RB. Polymorphisms in human MDR1 (P-glycoprotein): recent advances and clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;75(1):13-33. (PubMed)

126. Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr. 1999;81(4):289-295. (PubMed)

127. Zijp IM, Korver O, Tijburg LB. Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2000;40(5):371-398. (PubMed)

128. Song J, Kwon O, Chen S, et al. Flavonoid inhibition of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) and glucose transporter isoform 2 (GLUT2), intestinal transporters for vitamin C and Glucose. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(18):15252-15260. (PubMed)

129. U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA database for the flavonoid content of selected foods. March 2003. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/Flav/flav.html. Accessed September 13, 2004.

130. U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA database for the proanthocyanidin content of selected foods. August, 2004. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/PA/PA.html. Accessed September 13, 2004.

131. Vrhovsek U, Rigo A, Tonon D, Mattivi F. Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(21):6532-6538. (PubMed)

132. Moyer RA, Hummer KE, Finn CE, Frei B, Wrolstad RE. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: vaccinium, rubus, and ribes. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(3):519-525. (PubMed)

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