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References: Isothiocyanates


1.  Fahey JW, Zalcmann AT, Talalay P. The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry. 2001;56(1):5-51.  (PubMed)

2.  Zhang Y. Cancer-preventive isothiocyanates: measurement of human exposure and mechanism of action. Mutat Res. 2004;555(1-2):173-190.  (PubMed)

3.  Hecht SS. Chemoprevention by Isothiocyanates. In: Kelloff GJ, Hawk ET, Sigman CC, eds. Promising Cancer Chemopreventive Agents, Volume 1: Cancer Chemopreventive Agents. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2004:21-35.

4.  Holst B, Williamson G. A critical review of the bioavailability of glucosinolates and related compounds. Nat Prod Rep. 2004;21(3):425-447.  (PubMed)

5.  Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Talalay P. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(5):501-508.  (PubMed)

6.  Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Talalay P. Human metabolism and excretion of cancer chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of cruciferous vegetables. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7(12):1091-1100.  (PubMed)

7.  Conaway CC, Getahun SM, Liebes LL, et al. Disposition of glucosinolates and sulforaphane in humans after ingestion of steamed and fresh broccoli. Nutr Cancer. 2000;38(2):168-178.  (PubMed)

8.  Rouzaud G, Young SA, Duncan AJ. Hydrolysis of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates after ingestion of raw or microwaved cabbage by human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(1):125-131.  (PubMed)

9.  Seow A, Shi CY, Chung FL, et al. Urinary total isothiocyanate (ITC) in a population-based sample of middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore: relationship with dietary total ITC and glutathione S-transferase M1/T1/P1 genotypes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7(9):775-781.  (PubMed)

10.  Myzak MC, Karplus PA, Chung FL, Dashwood RH. A novel mechanism of chemoprotection by sulforaphane: inhibition of histone deacetylase. Cancer Res. 2004;64(16):5767-5774.  (PubMed)

11.  Lampe JW, Peterson S. Brassica, biotransformation and cancer risk: genetic polymorphisms alter the preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables. J Nutr. 2002;132(10):2991-2994.  (PubMed)

12.  Conaway CC, Yang YM, Chung FL. Isothiocyanates as cancer chemopreventive agents: their biological activities and metabolism in rodents and humans. Curr Drug Metab. 2002;3(3):233-255.  (PubMed)

13.  Hecht SS. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by isothiocyanates. Drug Metab Rev. 2000;32(3-4):395-411.  (PubMed)

14.  Fimognari C, Hrelia P. Sulforaphane as a promising molecule for fighting cancer. Mutat Res. 2007;635(2-3):90-104.  (PubMed)

15.  Hecht SS, Chung FL, Richie JP, Jr., et al. Effects of watercress consumption on metabolism of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995;4(8):877-884.  (PubMed)

16.  Kensler TW, Talalay P. Inducers of Enzymes That Protect Against Carcinogens and Oxidants: Drug- and Food-Based Approaches with Dithiolethiones and Sulforaphane. In: Kelloff GJ, Hawk ET, Sigman CC, eds. Promising Cancer Chemopreventive Agents, Volume 1: Cancer Chemopreventive Agents. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2004:3-20.

17.  Dinkova-Kostova AT, Holtzclaw WD, Cole RN, et al. Direct evidence that sulfhydryl groups of Keap1 are the sensors regulating induction of phase 2 enzymes that protect against carcinogens and oxidants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(18):11908-11913.  (PubMed)

18.  Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Murphy SE. Effects of watercress consumption on urinary metabolites of nicotine in smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8(10):907-913.  (PubMed)

19.  Nijhoff WA, Grubben MJ, Nagengast FM, et al. Effects of consumption of Brussels sprouts on intestinal and lymphocytic glutathione S-transferases in humans. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16(9):2125-2128.  (PubMed)

20.  Nijhoff WA, Mulder TP, Verhagen H, van Poppel G, Peters WH. Effects of consumption of brussels sprouts on plasma and urinary glutathione S-transferase class-alpha and -pi in humans. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16(4):955-957.  (PubMed)

21.  Stewart ZA, Westfall MD, Pietenpol JA. Cell-cycle dysregulation and anticancer therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003;24(3):139-145.  (PubMed)

22.  Nakamura Y, Miyoshi N. Cell death induction by isothiocyanates and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Biofactors. 2006;26(2):123-134.  (PubMed)

23.  Zhang Y, Yao S, Li J. Vegetable-derived isothiocyanates: anti-proliferative activity and mechanism of action. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006;65(1):68-75.  (PubMed)

24.  Mei S, Ho AD, Mahlknecht U. Role of histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of cancer (Review). Int J Oncol. 2004;25(6):1509-1519.  (PubMed)

25.  Marks PA, Richon VM, Miller T, Kelly WK. Histone deacetylase inhibitors. Adv Cancer Res. 2004;91:137-168.  (PubMed)

26.  Lea MA, Rasheed M, Randolph VM, Khan F, Shareef A, desBordes C. Induction of histone acetylation and inhibition of growth of mouse erythroleukemia cells by S-allylmercaptocysteine. Nutr Cancer. 2002;43(1):90-102.  (PubMed)

27.  Myzak MC, Hardin K, Wang R, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase activity in BPH-1, LnCaP and PC-3 prostate epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27(4):811-819.  (PubMed)

28.  Pledgie-Tracy A, Sobolewski MD, Davidson NE. Sulforaphane induces cell type-specific apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6(3):1013-1021.  (PubMed)

29.  Myzak MC, Tong P, Dashwood WM, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Sulforaphane retards the growth of human PC-3 xenografts and inhibits HDAC activity in human subjects. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232(2):227-234.  (PubMed)

30.  Steele VE, Hawk ET, Viner JL, Lubet RA. Mechanisms and applications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the chemoprevention of cancer. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:137-144.  (PubMed)

31.  Gerhauser C, Klimo K, Heiss E, et al. Mechanism-based in vitro screening of potential cancer chemopreventive agents. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:163-172.  (PubMed)

32.  Heiss E, Herhaus C, Klimo K, Bartsch H, Gerhauser C. Nuclear factor kappa B is a molecular target for sulforaphane-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(34):32008-32015.  (PubMed)

33.  Normark S, Nilsson C, Normark BH, Hornef MW. Persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori and the development of gastric cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2003;90:63-89.  (PubMed)

34.   Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(11):7610-7615.  (PubMed)

35.  Haristoy X, Angioi-Duprez K, Duprez A, Lozniewski A. Efficacy of sulforaphane in eradicating Helicobacter pylori in human gastric xenografts implanted in nude mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47(12):3982-3984.  (PubMed)

36.  Galan MV, Kishan AA, Silverman AL. Oral broccoli sprouts for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a preliminary report. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49(7-8):1088-1090.  (PubMed)

37.  Verhoeven DT, Goldbohm RA, van Poppel G, Verhagen H, van den Brandt PA. Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996;5(9):733-748.  (PubMed)

38.  Jiao D, Yu MC, Hankin JH, Low SH, Chung FL. Total isothiocyanate contents in cooked vegetables frequently consumed in Singapore. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;46(3):1055-1058.

39.  Zhao B, Seow A, Lee EJ, et al. Dietary isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase -M1, -T1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk among Chinese women in Singapore. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(10):1063-1067.  (PubMed)

40.  Spitz MR, Duphorne CM, Detry MA, et al. Dietary intake of isothiocyanates: evidence of a joint effect with glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(10):1017-1020.  (PubMed)

41.  Fowke JH, Hebert JR, Fahey JW. Urinary excretion of dithiocarbamates and self-reported Cruciferous vegetable intake: application of the 'method of triads' to a food-specific biomarker. Public Health Nutr. 2002;5(6):791-799.  (PubMed)

42.  Kristensen M, Krogholm KS, Frederiksen H, Bugel SH, Rasmussen SE. Urinary excretion of total isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables shows high dose-response relationship and may be a useful biomarker for isothiocyanate exposure. Eur J Nutr. 2007;46(7):377-382.  (PubMed)

43.  London SJ, Yuan JM, Chung FL, et al. Isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms, and lung-cancer risk: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China. Lancet. 2000;356(9231):724-729.  (PubMed)

44.  Fowke JH, Shu XO, Dai Q, et al. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion, brassica consumption, and gene polymorphisms among women living in Shanghai, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(12):1536-1539.  (PubMed)

45.  Coles BF, Kadlubar FF. Detoxification of electrophilic compounds by glutathione S-transferase catalysis: determinants of individual response to chemical carcinogens and chemotherapeutic drugs? Biofactors. 2003;17(1-4):115-130.  (PubMed)

46.  Lewis S, Brennan P, Nyberg F, et al. Re: Spitz, M. R., Duphorne, C. M., Detry, M. A., Pillow, P. C., Amos, C. I., Lei, L., de Andrade, M., Gu, X., Hong, W. K., and Wu, X. Dietary intake of isothiocyanates: evidence of a joint effect with glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(10):1105-1106.  (PubMed)

47.  Brennan P, Hsu CC, Moullan N, et al. Effect of cruciferous vegetables on lung cancer in patients stratified by genetic status: a mendelian randomisation approach. Lancet. 2005;366(9496):1558-1560.  (PubMed)

48.  Seow A, Yuan JM, Sun CL, Van Den Berg D, Lee HP, Yu MC. Dietary isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23(12):2055-2061.  (PubMed)

49.  Slattery ML, Kampman E, Samowitz W, Caan BJ, Potter JD. Interplay between dietary inducers of GST and the GSTM-1 genotype in colon cancer. Int J Cancer. 2000;87(5):728-733.  (PubMed)

50.  Turner F, Smith G, Sachse C, et al. Vegetable, fruit and meat consumption and potential risk modifying genes in relation to colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2004;112(2):259-264.  (PubMed)

51.  Fenwick GR, Heaney RK, Mullin WJ. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1983;18(2):123-201.  (PubMed)

52.  McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr. 2003;90(3):687-697.  (PubMed)

53.  Feskanich D, Ziegler RG, Michaud DS, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(22):1812-1823.  (PubMed)

54.  Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(12):1403-1409.  (PubMed)

55.  Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(7):605-613.  (PubMed)

56.  Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94(19):10367-10372.  (PubMed)

57.  Song L, Thornalley PJ. Effect of storage, processing and cooking on glucosinolate content of Brassica vegetables. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45(2):216-224.  (PubMed)

58.  Rungapamestry V, Duncan AJ, Fuller Z, Ratcliffe B. Changes in glucosinolate concentrations, myrosinase activity, and production of metabolites of glucosinolates in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Var. capitata) cooked for different durations. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(20):7628-7634.  (PubMed)

59.  Verkerk R, Dekker M. Glucosinolates and myrosinase activity in red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. Capitata f. rubra DC.) after various microwave treatments. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(24):7318-7323.  (PubMed)

60.  Okazaki K, Umemura T, Imazawa T, Nishikawa A, Masegi T, Hirose M. Enhancement of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by combined treatment with benzyl isothiocyanate and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in rats after initiation. Cancer Sci. 2003;94(11):948-952.  (PubMed)

61.  Sulforaphane. Natural Medicines Online Database. 2008. Available at: http://naturaldatabase.com. Accessed October 1, 2008.