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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Soy Isoflavones


1.  Lampe JW. Isoflavonoid and lignan phytoestrogens as dietary biomarkers. J Nutr. 2003;133 Suppl 3:956S-964S.  (PubMed)

2.  Rowland I, Faughnan M, Hoey L, Wahala K, Williamson G, Cassidy A. Bioavailability of phyto-oestrogens. Br J Nutr. 2003;89 Suppl 1:S45-58.  (PubMed)

3.  Setchell KD, Brown NM, Lydeking-Olsen E. The clinical importance of the metabolite equol-a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. J Nutr. 2002;132(12):3577-3584.  (PubMed)

4.  National Cancer Institute. Understanding Estrogen Receptors/SERMs. National Cancer Institute. January, 2005. Available at:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/
estrogenreceptors
.

5.  Wang LQ. Mammalian phytoestrogens: enterodiol and enterolactone. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002;777(1-2):289-309.  (PubMed)

6.  Barnes S, Boersma B, Patel R, et al. Isoflavonoids and chronic disease: mechanisms of action. Biofactors. 2000;12(1-4):209-215.  (PubMed)

7.  Kao YC, Zhou C, Sherman M, Laughton CA, Chen S. Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106(2):85-92.  (PubMed)

8.  Whitehead SA, Cross JE, Burden C, Lacey M. Acute and chronic effects of genistein, tyrphostin and lavendustin A on steroid synthesis in luteinized human granulosa cells. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(3):589-594.  (PubMed)

9.  Holzbeierlein JM, McIntosh J, Thrasher JB. The role of soy phytoestrogens in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2005;15(1):17-22.  (PubMed)

10.  Akiyama T, Ishida J, Nakagawa S, et al. Genistein, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine-specific protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 1987;262(12):5592-5595.  (PubMed)

11.  Ruiz-Larrea MB, Mohan AR, Paganga G, Miller NJ, Bolwell GP, Rice-Evans CA. Antioxidant activity of phytoestrogenic isoflavones. Free Radic Res. 1997;26(1):63-70.  (PubMed)

12.  Wiseman H, O'Reilly JD, Adlercreutz H, et al. Isoflavone phytoestrogens consumed in soy decrease F(2)-isoprostane concentrations and increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2):395-400.  (PubMed)

13.  Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Croft KD, Mori TA, Rivera J, Beilin LJ. Isoflavonoids do not inhibit in vivo lipid peroxidation in subjects with high-normal blood pressure. Atherosclerosis. 1999;145(1):167-172.  (PubMed)

14.  Djuric Z, Chen G, Doerge DR, Heilbrun LK, Kucuk O. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on markers of oxidative stress in men and women. Cancer Lett. 2001;172(1):1-6.  (PubMed)

15.  Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(5):276-282.  (PubMed)

16.  Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M. Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association Science Advisory for professionals from the Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 2006;113(7):1034-1044.  (PubMed)

17.  Zhan S, Ho SC. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on the lipid profile. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(2):397-408.  (PubMed)

18.  Zhuo XG, Melby MK, Watanabe S. Soy isoflavone intake lowers serum LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of 8 randomized controlled trials in humans. J Nutr. 2004;134(9):2395-2400.  (PubMed)

19.  Lichtenstein AH, Jalbert SM, Adlercreutz H, et al. Lipoprotein response to diets high in soy or animal protein with and without isoflavones in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22(11):1852-1858.  (PubMed)

20.  Weggemans RM, Trautwein EA. Relation between soy-associated isoflavones and LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations in humans: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(8):940-946.  (PubMed)

21.  Dewell A, Hollenbeck PL, Hollenbeck CB. Clinical review: a critical evaluation of the role of soy protein and isoflavone supplementation in the control of plasma cholesterol concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(3):772-780.  (PubMed)

22.  Landmesser U, Hornig B, Drexler H. Endothelial function: a critical determinant in atherosclerosis? Circulation. 2004;109(21 Suppl 1):II27-33.  (PubMed)

23.  Squadrito F, Altavilla D, Crisafulli A, et al. Effect of genistein on endothelial function in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Am J Med. 2003;114(6):470-476.  (PubMed)

24.  Simons LA, von Konigsmark M, Simons J, Celermajer DS. Phytoestrogens do not influence lipoprotein levels or endothelial function in healthy, postmenopausal women. Am J Cardiol. 2000;85(11):1297-1301.  (PubMed)

25.  Katz DL, Evans MA, Njike VY, et al. Raloxifene, soy phytoestrogens and endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2007;10(6):500-507.  (PubMed)

26.  Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Bots ML, Grobbee DE, Lampe JW, van der Schouw YT. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on vascular function in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1):189-195.  (PubMed)

27.  Steinberg FM, Guthrie NL, Villablanca AC, Kumar K, Murray MJ. Soy protein with isoflavones has favorable effects on endothelial function that are independent of lipid and antioxidant effects in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(1):123-130.  (PubMed)

28.  Blum A, Lang N, Vigder F, et al. Effects of soy protein on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and lipid profile in postmenopausal women with mild hypercholesterolemia. Clin Invest Med. 2003;26(1):20-26.  (PubMed)

29.  Teede HJ, Dalais FS, Kotsopoulos D, Liang YL, Davis S, McGrath BP. Dietary soy has both beneficial and potentially adverse cardiovascular effects: a placebo-controlled study in men and postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(7):3053-3060.  (PubMed)

30.  Evans M, Njike VY, Hoxley M, Pearson M, Katz DL. Effect of soy isoflavone protein and soy lecithin on endothelial function in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2007;14(1):141-149.  (PubMed)

31.  van Popele NM, Grobbee DE, Bots ML, et al. Association between arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Stroke. 2001;32(2):454-460.  (PubMed)

32.  Nestel PJ, Yamashita T, Sasahara T, et al. Soy isoflavones improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal and perimenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17(12):3392-3398.  (PubMed)

33.  Teede HJ, Giannopoulos D, Dalais FS, Hodgson J, McGrath BP. Randomised, controlled, cross-over trial of soy protein with isoflavones on blood pressure and arterial function in hypertensive subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25(6):533-540.  (PubMed)

34.  Messina M, Nagata C, Wu AH. Estimated Asian adult soy protein and isoflavone intakes. Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(1):1-12.  (PubMed)

35.  van Erp-Baart MA, Brants HA, Kiely M, et al. Isoflavone intake in four different European countries: the VENUS approach. Br J Nutr. 2003;89 Suppl 1:S25-30.  (PubMed)

36.  de Kleijn MJ, van der Schouw YT, Wilson PW, et al. Intake of dietary phytoestrogens is low in postmenopausal women in the United States: the Framingham study(1-4). J Nutr. 2001;131(6):1826-1832.  (PubMed)

37.  Shu XO, Jin F, Dai Q, et al. Soyfood intake during adolescence and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(5):483-488.  (PubMed)

38.  Wu AH, Wan P, Hankin J, Tseng CC, Yu MC, Pike MC. Adolescent and adult soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23(9):1491-1496.  (PubMed)

39.  Horn-Ross PL, John EM, Canchola AJ, Stewart SL, Lee MM. Phytoestrogen intake and endometrial cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(15):1158-1164.  (PubMed)

40.  Goodman MT, Wilkens LR, Hankin JH, Lyu LC, Wu AH, Kolonel LN. Association of soy and fiber consumption with the risk of endometrial cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146(4):294-306.  (PubMed)

41.  Xu WH, Zheng W, Xiang YB, et al. Soya food intake and risk of endometrial cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai: population based case-control study. BMJ. 2004;328(7451):1285.  (PubMed)

42.  Murray MJ, Meyer WR, Lessey BA, Oi RH, DeWire RE, Fritz MA. Soy protein isolate with isoflavones does not prevent estradiol-induced endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women: a pilot trial. Menopause. 2003;10(5):456-464.  (PubMed)

43.  Messina MJ. Emerging evidence on the role of soy in reducing prostate cancer risk. Nutr Rev. 2003;61(4):117-131.  (PubMed)

44.   Steiner C, Arnould S, Scalbert A, Manach C. Isoflavones and the prevention of breast and prostate cancer: new perspectives opened by nutrigenomics. Br J Nutr. 2008;99 E Suppl 1:ES78-108. (PubMed)

45.  Adams KF, Chen C, Newton KM, Potter JD, Lampe JW. Soy isoflavones do not modulate prostate-specific antigen concentrations in older men in a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(4):644-648.  (PubMed)

46.  Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, D'Costa MA, et al. Soy consumption and phytoestrogens: effect on serum prostate specific antigen when blood lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein are reduced in hyperlipidemic men. J Urol. 2003;169(2):507-511.  (PubMed)

47.  Urban D, Irwin W, Kirk M, et al. The effect of isolated soy protein on plasma biomarkers in elderly men with elevated serum prostate specific antigen. J Urol. 2001;165(1):294-300.  (PubMed)

48.  Fischer L, Mahoney C, Jeffcoat AR, et al. Clinical characteristics and pharmacokinetics of purified soy isoflavones: multiple-dose administration to men with prostate neoplasia. Nutr Cancer. 2004;48(2):160-170.  (PubMed)

49.  Hussain M, Banerjee M, Sarkar FH, et al. Soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2003;47(2):111-117.  (PubMed)

50.  Dalais FS, Meliala A, Wattanapenpaiboon N, et al. Effects of a diet rich in phytoestrogens on prostate-specific antigen and sex hormones in men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Urology. 2004;64(3):510-515.  (PubMed)

51.  Pendleton JM, Tan WW, Anai S, et al. Phase II trial of isoflavone in prostate-specific antigen recurrent prostate cancer after previous local therapy. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:132.  (PubMed)

52.  Messina M, Kucuk O, Lampe JW. An overview of the health effects of isoflavones with an emphasis on prostate cancer risk and prostate-specific antigen levels. J AOAC Int. 2006;89(4):1121-1134.  (PubMed)

53.   Yan L, Spitznagel EL. Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(4):1155-1163. (PubMed)

54.  Goetzl MA, Van Veldhuizen PJ, Thrasher JB. Effects of soy phytoestrogens on the prostate. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2007;10(3):216-223.  (PubMed)

55.  Setchell KD, Lydeking-Olsen E. Dietary phytoestrogens and their effect on bone: evidence from in vitro and in vivo, human observational, and dietary intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3 Suppl):593S-609S.  (PubMed)

56.  Chiechi LM, Secreto G, D'Amore M, et al. Efficacy of a soy rich diet in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis: the Menfis randomized trial. Maturitas. 2002;42(4):295-300.  (PubMed)

57.  Scheiber MD, Liu JH, Subbiah MT, Rebar RW, Setchell KD. Dietary inclusion of whole soy foods results in significant reductions in clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in normal postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2001;8(5):384-392.  (PubMed)

58.  Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA, Smith BJ, et al. Soy protein has a greater effect on bone in postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, as evidenced by reducing bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(3):1048-1054.  (PubMed)

59.  Harkness LS, Fiedler K, Sehgal AR, Oravec D, Lerner E. Decreased bone resorption with soy isoflavone supplementation in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004;13(9):1000-1007.  (PubMed)

60.  Ye YB, Tang XY, Verbruggen MA, Su YX. Soy isoflavones attenuate bone loss in early postmenopausal Chinese women : a single-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2006;45(6):327-334.  (PubMed)

61.  Wangen KE, Duncan AM, Merz-Demlow BE, et al. Effects of soy isoflavones on markers of bone turnover in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(9):3043-3048.  (PubMed)

62.  Alekel DL, Germain AS, Peterson CT, Hanson KB, Stewart JW, Toda T. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(3):844-852.  (PubMed)

63.  Dalais FS, Ebeling PR, Kotsopoulos D, McGrath BP, Teede HJ. The effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on lipids and indices of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;58(6):704-709.  (PubMed)

64.  Cheong JM, Martin BR, Jackson GS, et al. Soy isoflavones do not affect bone resorption in postmenopausal women: a dose-response study using a novel approach with 41Ca. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(2):577-582.  (PubMed)

65.  Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, Stillman RJ, Shay NF, Erdman JW, Jr. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(6 Suppl):1375S-1379S.  (PubMed)

66.  Arjmandi BH, Lucas EA, Khalil DA, et al. One year soy protein supplementation has positive effects on bone formation markers but not bone density in postmenopausal women. Nutr J. 2005;4(1):8.  (PubMed)

67.  Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Grobbee DE, et al. Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(1):65-74.  (PubMed)

68.  Lydeking-Olsen E, Beck-Jensen JE, Setchell KD, Holm-Jensen T. Soymilk or progesterone for prevention of bone loss--a 2 year randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2004;43(4):246-257.  (PubMed)

69.  Gallagher JC, Satpathy R, Rafferty K, Haynatzka V. The effect of soy protein isolate on bone metabolism. Menopause. 2004;11(3):290-298.  (PubMed)

70.  Vitolins M, Anthony M, Lenschik L, Bland DR, Burke GL. Does soy protein and its isoflavones prevent bone loss in peri- and post-menopausal women? Results of a two year randomized clinical trial. J Nutr. 2002;132:582S (abstract).

71.  Newton KM, LaCroix AZ, Levy L, et al. Soy protein and bone mineral density in older men and women: a randomized trial. Maturitas. 2006;55(3):270-277.  (PubMed)

72.  Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS, Ho SS, Woo JL. Beneficial effect of soy isoflavones on bone mineral content was modified by years since menopause, body weight, and calcium intake: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Menopause. 2004;11(3):246-254.  (PubMed)

73.  Huang HY, Yang HP, Yang HT, Yang TC, Shieh MJ, Huang SY. One-year soy isoflavone supplementation prevents early postmenopausal bone loss but without a dose-dependent effect. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17(8):509-517.  (PubMed)

74.  Brink E, Coxam V, Robins S, Wahala K, Cassidy A, Branca F. Long-term consumption of isoflavone-enriched foods does not affect bone mineral density, bone metabolism, or hormonal status in early postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):761-770.  (PubMed)

75.  Kenny AM, Mangano KM, Abourizk RH, et al. Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):234-242.  (PubMed)

76.  Ma DF, Qin LQ, Wang PY, Katoh R. Soy isoflavone intake inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(2):155-161.  (PubMed)

77.  Wu J, Oka J, Ezaki J, et al. Possible role of equol status in the effects of isoflavone on bone and fat mass in postmenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Menopause. 2007;14(5):866-874.  (PubMed)

78.  Vatanparast H, Chilibeck PD. Does the effect of soy phytoestrogens on bone in postmenopausal women depend on the equol-producing phenotype? Nutr Rev. 2007;65(6 Pt 1):294-299.  (PubMed)

79.  Ishimi Y. Soybean isoflavones in bone health. Forum Nutr. 2009;61:104-116.  (PubMed)

80.  Frankenfeld CL, McTiernan A, Thomas WK, et al. Postmenopausal bone mineral density in relation to soy isoflavone-metabolizing phenotypes. Maturitas. 2006;53(3):315-324.  (PubMed)

81.  White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, et al. Brain aging and midlife tofu consumption. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2):242-255.  (PubMed)

82.  Hogervorst E, Sadjimim T, Yesufu A, Kreager P, Rahardjo TB. High tofu intake is associated with worse memory in elderly Indonesian men and women. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26(1):50-57.  (PubMed)

83.  Duffy R, Wiseman H, File SE. Improved cognitive function in postmenopausal women after 12 weeks of consumption of a soya extract containing isoflavones. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75(3):721-729.  (PubMed)

84.  File SE, Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, Duffy R, Wiseman H. Cognitive improvement after 6 weeks of soy supplements in postmenopausal women is limited to frontal lobe function. Menopause. 2005;12(2):193-201.  (PubMed)

85.  Kritz-Silverstein D, Von Muhlen D, Barrett-Connor E, Bressel MA. Isoflavones and cognitive function in older women: the SOy and Postmenopausal Health In Aging (SOPHIA) Study. Menopause. 2003;10(3):196-202.  (PubMed)

86.  Casini ML, Marelli G, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, D'Ambrosio F, Unfer V. Psychological assessment of the effects of treatment with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril. 2006;85(4):972-978.  (PubMed)

87.  Ho SC, Chan AS, Ho YP, et al. Effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on cognitive function in Chinese postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Menopause. 2007;14(3 Pt 1):489-499.  (PubMed)

88.  Zhao L, Brinton RD. WHI and WHIMS follow-up and human studies of soy isoflavones on cognition. Expert Rev Neurother. 2007;7(11):1549-1564.  (PubMed)

89.  Tice JA, Ettinger B, Ensrud K, Wallace R, Blackwell T, Cummings SR. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: the Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290(2):207-214.  (PubMed)

90.  Nelson HD, Humphrey LL, Nygren P, Teutsch SM, Allan JD. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: scientific review. JAMA. 2002;288(7):872-881.  (PubMed)

91.  Farquhar C, Marjoribanks J, Lethaby A, Suckling JA, Lamberts Q. Long term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD004143.  (PubMed)

92.  Nelson HD, Vesco KK, Haney E, et al. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2006;295(17):2057-2071.  (PubMed)

93.  Kronenberg F, Fugh-Berman A. Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(10):805-813.  (PubMed)

94.  Howes LG, Howes JB, Knight DC. Isoflavone therapy for menopausal flushes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas. 2006;55(3):203-211.  (PubMed)

95.  Huntley AL, Ernst E. Soy for the treatment of perimenopausal symptoms--a systematic review. Maturitas. 2004;47(1):1-9.  (PubMed)

96.  Krebs EE, Ensrud KE, MacDonald R, Wilt TJ. Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104(4):824-836.  (PubMed)

97.  Williamson-Hughes PS, Flickinger BD, Messina MJ, Empie MW. Isoflavone supplements containing predominantly genistein reduce hot flash symptoms: a critical review of published studies. Menopause. 2006;13(5):831-839.  (PubMed)

98.  Jou HJ, Wu SC, Chang FW, Ling PY, Chu KS, Wu WH. Effect of intestinal production of equol on menopausal symptoms in women treated with soy isoflavones. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;102(1):44-49.  (PubMed)

99.  Duffy C, Cyr M. Phytoestrogens: potential benefits and implications for breast cancer survivors. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003;12(7):617-631.  (PubMed)

100.  MacGregor CA, Canney PA, Patterson G, McDonald R, Paul J. A randomised double-blind controlled trial of oral soy supplements versus placebo for treatment of menopausal symptoms in patients with early breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(5):708-714.  (PubMed)

101.  Nikander E, Kilkkinen A, Metsa-Heikkila M, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial with phytoestrogens in treatment of menopause in breast cancer patients. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(6):1213-1220.  (PubMed)

102.  Van Patten CL, Olivotto IA, Chambers GK, et al. Effect of soy phytoestrogens on hot flashes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(6):1449-1455.  (PubMed)

103.  Quella SK, Loprinzi CL, Barton DL, et al. Evaluation of soy phytoestrogens for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(5):1068-1074.  (PubMed)

104.  Fletcher RJ. Food sources of phyto-oestrogens and their precursors in Europe. Br J Nutr. 2003;89 Suppl 1:S39-43.  (PubMed)

105.  Munro IC, Harwood M, Hlywka JJ, et al. Soy isoflavones: a safety review. Nutr Rev. 2003;61(1):1-33.  (PubMed)

106.  Setchell KD, Cole SJ. Variations in isoflavone levels in soy foods and soy protein isolates and issues related to isoflavone databases and food labeling. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(14):4146-4155.  (PubMed)

107.  USDA-Iowa State University Isoflavones Database. United States Department of Agriculture [Web page]. March 15, 2002. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/isoflav/isoflav.html. Accessed April 14, 2004.

108.  Chua R, Anderson K, Chen J, Hu M. Quality, labeling accuracy, and cost comparison of purified soy isoflavonoid products. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(6):1053-1060.  (PubMed)

109.  Setchell KD, Brown NM, Desai P, et al. Bioavailability of pure isoflavones in healthy humans and analysis of commercial soy isoflavone supplements. J Nutr. 2001;131(4 Suppl):1362S-1375S.  (PubMed)

110.  Setchell KD, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Cai J, Heubi JE. Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these phytoestrogens in early life. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(6 Suppl):1453S-1461S.  (PubMed)

111.  Chen Z, Zheng W, Custer LJ, et al. Usual dietary consumption of soy foods and its correlation with the excretion rate of isoflavonoids in overnight urine samples among Chinese women in Shanghai. Nutr Cancer. 1999;33(1):82-87.  (PubMed)

112.  Gleason CE, Carlsson CM, Barnet JH, et al. A preliminary study of the safety, feasibility and cognitive efficacy of soy isoflavone supplements in older men and women. Age Ageing. 2009;38(1):86-93.  (PubMed)

113.  Messina MJ, Loprinzi CL. Soy for breast cancer survivors: a critical review of the literature. J Nutr. 2001;131(11 Suppl):3095S-3108S.  (PubMed)

114.  Allred CD, Allred KF, Ju YH, Virant SM, Helferich WG. Soy diets containing varying amounts of genistein stimulate growth of estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Cancer Res. 2001;61(13):5045-5050.  (PubMed)

115.  Ju YH, Allred CD, Allred KF, Karko KL, Doerge DR, Helferich WG. Physiological concentrations of dietary genistein dose-dependently stimulate growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumors implanted in athymic nude mice. J Nutr. 2001;131(11):2957-2962.  (PubMed)

116.  Ju YH, Doerge DR, Allred KF, Allred CD, Helferich WG. Dietary genistein negates the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells implanted in athymic mice. Cancer Res. 2002;62(9):2474-2477.  (PubMed)

117.  Shu XO, Zheng Y, Cai H, et al. Soy food intake and breast cancer survival. JAMA. 2009;302(22):2437-2443.

118.  Petrakis NL, Barnes S, King EB, et al. Stimulatory influence of soy protein isolate on breast secretion in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996;5(10):785-794.  (PubMed)

119.  Hargreaves DF, Potten CS, Harding C, et al. Two-week dietary soy supplementation has an estrogenic effect on normal premenopausal breast. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(11):4017-4024.  (PubMed)

120.  Sartippour MR, Rao JY, Apple S, et al. A pilot clinical study of short-term isoflavone supplements in breast cancer patients. Nutr Cancer. 2004;49(1):59-65.  (PubMed)

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