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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Tea


1.  Graham HN. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Prev Med. 1992;21(3):334-350.  (PubMed)

2.  Balentine DA, Paetau-Robinson I. Tea as a source of dietary antioxidants with a potential role in prevention of chronic diseases. In: Mazza G, Oomah BD, eds. Herbs, Botanicals, & Teas. Lancaster: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc.; 2000:265-287.

3.  Santana-Rios G, Orner GA, Amantana A, Provost C, Wu SY, Dashwood RH. Potent antimutagenic activity of white tea in comparison with green tea in the Salmonella assay. Mutat Res. 2001;495(1-2):61-74.  (PubMed)

4.  Lakenbrink C, Lapczynski S, Maiwald B, Engelhardt UH. Flavonoids and other polyphenols in consumer brews of tea and other caffeinated beverages. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48(7):2848-2852.  (PubMed)

5.  Astill C, Birch MR, Dacombe C, Humphrey PG, Martin PT. Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(11):5340-5347.  (PubMed)

6.  Lin JK, Lin CL, Liang YC, Lin-Shiau SY, Juan IM. Survey of catechins, gallic acid, and methylxanthines in green, oolong, pu-erh, and black teas. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;46(9):3635-3642.

7.  Lin YS, Tsai YJ, Tsay JS, Lin JK. Factors affecting the levels of tea polyphenols and caffeine in tea leaves. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(7):1864-1873.  (PubMed)

8.  McCusker RR, Goldberger BA, Cone EJ. Caffeine content of specialty coffees. J Anal Toxicol. 2003;27(7):520-522.  (PubMed)

9.  Wong MH, Fung KF, Carr HP. Aluminium and fluoride contents of tea, with emphasis on brick tea and their health implications. Toxicol Lett. 2003;137(1-2):111-120.  (PubMed)

10.  Cao J, Bai X, Zhao Y, et al. The relationship of fluorosis and brick tea drinking in Chinese Tibetans. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104(12):1340-1343.  (PubMed)

11.  Cao J, Zhao Y, Liu J, et al. Brick tea fluoride as a main source of adult fluorosis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41(4):535-542.  (PubMed)

12.  Fung KF, Zhang ZQ, Wong JWC, Wong MH. Fluoride contents in tea and soil from tea plantations and the release of fluoride into tea liquor during infusion. Environmental Pollution. 1999;104(2):197-205.

13.  Cao J, Luo SF, Liu JW, Li YH. Safety evaluation on fluoride content in black tea. Food Chemistry. 2004;88(2):233-236.

14.  Peters U, Poole C, Arab L. Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(6):495-503.  (PubMed)

15.  Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Van der Kuip DA, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(5):880-886.  (PubMed)

16.  Sesso HD, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Buring JE. Flavonoid intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1400-1408.  (PubMed)

17.  Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS, Jr., Oguma Y, Lee IM. Lack of association between tea and cardiovascular disease in college alumni. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32(4):527-533.  (PubMed)

18.  Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K, et al. Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki study. JAMA. 2006;296(10):1255-1265.  (PubMed)

19.  Vita JA. Tea consumption and cardiovascular disease: effects on endothelial function. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3293S-3297S.  (PubMed)

20.  Duffy SJ, Keaney JF, Jr., Holbrook M, et al. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2001;104(2):151-156.  (PubMed)

21.  Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, Watts GF, Beilin LJ. Regular ingestion of black tea improves brachial artery vasodilator function. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;102(2):195-201.  (PubMed)

22.  Vita JA. Polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: effects on endothelial and platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1 Suppl):292S-297S.  (PubMed)

23.  Nagaya N, Yamamoto H, Uematsu M, et al. Green tea reverses endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers. Heart. 2004;90(12):1485-1486.  (PubMed)

24.  Kim W, Jeong MH, Cho SH, et al. Effect of green tea consumption on endothelial function and circulating endothelial progenitor cells in chronic smokers. Circ J. 2006;70(8):1052-1057.  (PubMed)

25.  Widlansky ME, Hamburg NM, Anter E, et al. Acute EGCG supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(2):95-102.  (PubMed)

26.  Lambert JD, Yang CS. Mechanisms of cancer prevention by tea constituents. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3262S-3267S.  (PubMed)

27.  Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng X. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002;42:25-54.  (PubMed)

28.  Lu YP, Lou YR, Lin Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of orally administered green tea, black tea, and caffeine on skin carcinogenesis in mice previously treated with ultraviolet B light (high-risk mice): relationship to decreased tissue fat. Cancer Res. 2001;61(13):5002-5009.  (PubMed)

29.  Chung FL, Wang M, Rivenson A, et al. Inhibition of lung carcinogenesis by black tea in Fischer rats treated with a tobacco-specific carcinogen: caffeine as an important constituent. Cancer Res. 1998;58(18):4096-4101.  (PubMed)

30.  Carter O, Dashwood RH, Wang R, et al. Comparison of white tea, green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine as inhibitors of PhIP-induced colonic aberrant crypts. Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(1):60-65.  (PubMed)

31.  Williams RJ, Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C. Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36(7):838-849.  (PubMed)

32.  Hou Z, Lambert JD, Chin KV, Yang CS. Effects of tea polyphenols on signal transduction pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. Mutat Res. 2004;555(1-2):3-19.  (PubMed)

33.  Khan N, Afaq F, Saleem M, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. Targeting multiple signaling pathways by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Cancer Res. 2006;66(5):2500-2505.  (PubMed)

34.  Higdon JV, Frei B. Tea catechins and polyphenols: health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2003;43(1):89-143.  (PubMed)

35.  Hoshiyama Y, Kawaguchi T, Miura Y, et al. A nested case-control study of stomach cancer in relation to green tea consumption in Japan. Br J Cancer. 2004;90(1):135-138.  (PubMed)

36.  Koizumi Y, Tsubono Y, Nakaya N, et al. No association between green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(5):472-473.  (PubMed)

37.  Hoshiyama Y, Kawaguchi T, Miura Y, et al. A prospective study of stomach cancer death in relation to green tea consumption in Japan. Br J Cancer. 2002;87(3):309-313.  (PubMed)

38.  Tsubono Y, Nishino Y, Komatsu S, et al. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(9):632-636.  (PubMed)

39.  Hoshiyama Y, Kawaguchi T, Miura Y, et al. Green tea and stomach cancer--a short review of prospective studies. J Epidemiol. 2005;15 Suppl 2:S109-112.  (PubMed)

40.  Orner GA, Dashwood WM, Blum CA, Diaz GD, Li Q, Dashwood RH. Suppression of tumorigenesis in the Apc(min) mouse: down-regulation of beta-catenin signaling by a combination of tea plus sulindac. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24(2):263-267.  (PubMed)

41.  Arab L, Il'yasova D. The epidemiology of tea consumption and colorectal cancer incidence. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3310S-3318S.  (PubMed)

42.  Tavani A, Vecchia CL. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea and cancer of the colon and rectum: a review of epidemiological studies, 1990-2003. Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(8):743-757.  (PubMed)

43.  Sun CL, Yuan JM, Koh WP, Yu MC. Green tea, black tea and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27(7):1301-1309.  (PubMed)

44.  Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):727-747.  (PubMed)

45.  Wu AH, Tseng CC, Van Den Berg D, Yu MC. Tea intake, COMT genotype, and breast cancer in Asian-American women. Cancer Res. 2003;63(21):7526-7529.  (PubMed)

46.  Wu CH, Yang YC, Yao WJ, Lu FH, Wu JS, Chang CJ. Epidemiological evidence of increased bone mineral density in habitual tea drinkers. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(9):1001-1006.  (PubMed)

47.  Hernandez-Avila M, Stampfer MJ, Ravnikar VA, et al. Caffeine and other predictors of bone density among pre- and perimenopausal women. Epidemiology. 1993;4(2):128-134.  (PubMed)

48.  Hegarty VM, May HM, Khaw KT. Tea drinking and bone mineral density in older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(4):1003-1007.  (PubMed)

49.  Hoover PA, Webber CE, Beaumont LF, Blake JM. Postmenopausal bone mineral density: relationship to calcium intake, calcium absorption, residual estrogen, body composition, and physical activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1996;74(8):911-917.  (PubMed)

50.  Devine A, Hodgson JM, Dick IM, Prince RL. Tea drinking is associated with benefits on bone density in older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(4):1243-1247.  (PubMed)

51.  Kanis J, Johnell O, Gullberg B, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in men from southern Europe: the MEDOS study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int. 1999;9(1):45-54.  (PubMed)

52.  Johnell O, Gullberg B, Kanis JA, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in European women: the MEDOS Study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(11):1802-1815.  (PubMed)

53.  Chen Z, Pettinger MB, Ritenbaugh C, et al. Habitual tea consumption and risk of osteoporosis: a prospective study in the women's health initiative observational cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(8):772-781.  (PubMed)

54.  Hernandez-Avila M, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Caffeine, moderate alcohol intake, and risk of fractures of the hip and forearm in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(1):157-163.  (PubMed)

55.  Trevisanato SI, Kim YI. Tea and health. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(1):1-10.  (PubMed)

56. Rasheed A, Haider M. Antibacterial activity of Camellia sinensis extracts against dental caries. Arch Pharm Res. 1998;21(3):348-352.  (PubMed)

57.  Matsumoto M, Minami T, Sasaki H, Sobue S, Hamada S, Ooshima T. Inhibitory effects of oolong tea extract on caries-inducing properties of mutans streptococci. Caries Res. 1999;33(6):441-445.  (PubMed)

58.  Hirasawa M, Takada K, Otake S. Inhibition of acid production in dental plaque bacteria by green tea catechins. Caries Res. 2006;40(3):265-270.  (PubMed)

59.  Linke HA, LeGeros RZ. Black tea extract and dental caries formation in hamsters. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003;54(1):89-95.  (PubMed)

60.  Jones C, Woods K, Whittle G, Worthington H, Taylor G. Sugar, drinks, deprivation and dental caries in 14-year-old children in the north west of England in 1995. Community Dent Health. 1999;16(2):68-71.  (PubMed)

61.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ. Beverage use and risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(7):534-540.  (PubMed)

62.  Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ. Prospective study of beverage use and the risk of kidney stones. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143(3):240-247.  (PubMed)

63.  Itoh Y, Yasui T, Okada A, Tozawa K, Hayashi Y, Kohri K. Preventive effects of green tea on renal stone formation and the role of oxidative stress in nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 2005;173(1):271-275.  (PubMed)

64.  Borghi L, Meschi T, Schianchi T, et al. Urine volume: stone risk factor and preventive measure. Nephron. 1999;81 Suppl 1:31-37.  (PubMed)

65.  Massey LK, Roman-Smith H, Sutton RA. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93(8):901-906.  (PubMed)

66.  Massey LK. Tea oxalate. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(3 Pt 1):88-89.  (PubMed)

67.  Komatsu T, Nakamori M, Komatsu K, et al. Oolong tea increases energy metabolism in Japanese females. J Med Invest. 2003;50(3-4):170-175.  (PubMed)

68.  Rumpler W, Seale J, Clevidence B, et al. Oolong tea increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in men. J Nutr. 2001;131(11):2848-2852.  (PubMed)

69.  Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(6):1040-1045.  (PubMed)

70.  Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(3):431-437.  (PubMed)

71.  Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obes Res. 2005;13(7):1195-1204.  (PubMed)

72.  Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1):122-129.  (PubMed)

73.  Aizaki T, Osaka M, Hara H, et al. Hypokalemia with syncope caused by habitual drinking of oolong tea. Intern Med. 1999;38(3):252-256.  (PubMed)

74.  Trewby PN, Rutter MD, Earl UM, Sattar MA. Teapot myositis. Lancet. 1998;351(9111):1248.  (PubMed)

75.  Jatoi A, Ellison N, Burch PA, et al. A phase II trial of green tea in the treatment of patients with androgen independent metastatic prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97(6):1442-1446.  (PubMed)

76.  Pisters KM, Newman RA, Coldman B, et al. Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(6):1830-1838.  (PubMed)

77.  Chow HH, Cai Y, Hakim IA, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(9):3312-3319.  (PubMed)

78.  Caffeine. The National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction [Web site]. December 21, 2005. Available at: http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/common/caffeine.html. Accessed December 21, 2007.

79.  Taylor JR, Wilt VM. Probable antagonism of warfarin by green tea. Ann Pharmacother. 1999;33(4):426-428.  (PubMed)

80.  Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(13):1221-1227.  (PubMed)

81.  Carrillo JA, Benitez J. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary caffeine and medications. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000;39(2):127-153.  (PubMed)

82.  Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr. 1999;81(4):289-295.  (PubMed)

83.  Zijp IM, Korver O, Tijburg LB. Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2000;40(5):371-398.  (PubMed)

84.  Boehm K, Borrelli F, Ernst E, et al. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(3):CD005004.  (PubMed)