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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Flavonoids and Skin Health


1.  Nijveldt RJ, van Nood E, van Hoorn DE, Boelens PG, van Norren K, van Leeuwen PA. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(4):418-425.  (PubMed)

2.  Kroon PA, Clifford MN, Crozier A, et al. How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(1):15-21.  (PubMed)

3.  Richelle M, Sabatier M, Steiling H, Williamson G. Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium. Br J Nutr. 2006;96(2):227-238.  (PubMed)

4.  Schiffer R, Neis M, Holler D, et al. Active influx transport is mediated by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120(2):285-291.  (PubMed)

5.  Arct J, Pytkowska K. Flavonoids as components of biologically active cosmeceuticals. Clin Dermatol. 2008;26(4):347-357.  (PubMed)

6.  Williams RJ, Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C. Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36(7):838-849.  (PubMed)

7.  Jackson RL, Greiwe JS, Schwen RJ. Ageing skin: oestrogen receptor beta agonists offer an approach to change the outcome. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20(11):879-882.  (PubMed)

8.  Pelletier G, Ren L. Localization of sex steroid receptors in human skin. Histol Histopathol. 2004;19(2):629-636.  (PubMed)

9.  Saija A, Tomaino A, Trombetta D, Giacchi M, De Pasquale A, Bonina F. Influence of different penetration enhancers on in vitro skin permeation and in vivo photoprotective effect of flavonoids. Int J Pharm. 1998;175(1):85-94.

10.  Dvorakova K, Dorr RT, Valcic S, Timmermann B, Alberts DS. Pharmacokinetics of the green tea derivative, EGCG, by the topical route of administration in mouse and human skin. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1999;43(4):331-335.  (PubMed)

11.  dal Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM, Marty JP. Skin penetration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and quercetin from green tea and Ginkgo biloba extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;22(6):299-304.  (PubMed)

12.  Arct J, Oborska A, Mojski M, Binkowska A, Swidzikowska B. Common cosmetic hydrophilic ingredients as penetration modifiers of flavonoids. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2002;24(6):357-366.  (PubMed)

13.  Kitagawa S, Tanaka Y, Tanaka M, Endo K, Yoshii A. Enhanced skin delivery of quercetin by microemulsion. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61(7):855-860.  (PubMed)

14.  Vicentini FT, Simi TR, Del Ciampo JO, et al. Quercetin in w/o microemulsion: in vitro and in vivo skin penetration and efficacy against UVB-induced skin damages evaluated in vivo. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2008;69(3):948-957.  (PubMed)

15.  Al Shaal L, Shegokar R, Muller RH. Production and characterization of antioxidant apigenin nanocrystals as a novel UV skin protective formulation. Int J Pharm. 2011;420(1):133-140.  (PubMed)

16.  Afaq F, Mukhtar H. Botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Exp Dermatol. 2006;15(9):678-684.  (PubMed)

17.  Heinrich U, Moore CE, De Spirt S, Tronnier H, Stahl W. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women. J Nutr. 2011;141(6):1202-1208.  (PubMed)

18.  Heinrich U, Neukam K, Tronnier H, Sies H, Stahl W. Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women. J Nutr. 2006;136(6):1565-1569.  (PubMed)

19.  Neukam K, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Sies H, Heinrich U. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin. Eur J Nutr. 2007;46(1):53-56.  (PubMed)

20.  Schroeter H, Heiss C, Balzer J, et al. (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(4):1024-1029.  (PubMed)

21.  Katz DL, Doughty K, Ali A. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15(10):2779-2811.  (PubMed)

22.  Katiyar SK, Afaq F, Perez A, Mukhtar H. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment of human skin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22(2):287-294.  (PubMed)

23.  Katiyar SK, Matsui MS, Elmets CA, Mukhtar H. Polyphenolic antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea reduces UVB-induced inflammatory responses and infiltration of leukocytes in human skin. Photochem Photobiol. 1999;69(2):148-153.  (PubMed)

24.  Katiyar SK, Perez A, Mukhtar H. Green tea polyphenol treatment to human skin prevents formation of ultraviolet light B-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6(10):3864-3869.  (PubMed)

25.  Elmets CA, Singh D, Tubesing K, Matsui M, Katiyar S, Mukhtar H. Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(3):425-432.  (PubMed)

26.  Camouse MM, Domingo DS, Swain FR, et al. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18(6):522-526.  (PubMed)

27.  Vayalil PK, Elmets CA, Katiyar SK. Treatment of green tea polyphenols in hydrophilic cream prevents UVB-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins, depletion of antioxidant enzymes and phosphorylation of MAPK proteins in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24(5):927-936.  (PubMed)

28.  Meeran SM, Akhtar S, Katiyar SK. Inhibition of UVB-induced skin tumor development by drinking green tea polyphenols is mediated through DNA repair and subsequent inhibition of inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129(5):1258-1270.  (PubMed)

29.  Meeran SM, Mantena SK, Elmets CA, Katiyar SK. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents photocarcinogenesis in mice through interleukin-12-dependent DNA repair. Cancer Res. 2006;66(10):5512-5520.  (PubMed)

30.  Meeran SM, Mantena SK, Katiyar SK. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice is mediated through interleukin 12-dependent DNA repair. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(7 Pt 1):2272-2280.  (PubMed)

31.  Schwarz A, Maeda A, Gan D, Mammone T, Matsui MS, Schwarz T. Green tea phenol extracts reduce UVB-induced DNA damage in human cells via interleukin-12. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84(2):350-355.  (PubMed)

32.  Wei H, Saladi R, Lu Y, et al. Isoflavone genistein: photoprotection and clinical implications in dermatology. J Nutr. 2003;133(11 Suppl 1):3811S-3819S.  (PubMed)

33.  Moore JO, Wang Y, Stebbins WG, et al. Photoprotective effect of isoflavone genistein on ultraviolet B-induced pyrimidine dimer formation and PCNA expression in human reconstituted skin and its implications in dermatology and prevention of cutaneous carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27(8):1627-1635.  (PubMed)

34.  Katiyar SK, Korman NJ, Mukhtar H, Agarwal R. Protective effects of silymarin against photocarcinogenesis in a mouse skin model. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89(8):556-566.  (PubMed)

35.  Katiyar SK, Mantena SK, Meeran SM. Silymarin protects epidermal keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage by nucleotide excision repair mechanism. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21410.  (PubMed)

36.  Hruza LL, Pentland AP. Mechanisms of UV-induced inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;100(1):35S-41S.  (PubMed)

37.  Petrova A, Davids LM, Rautenbach F, Marnewick JL. Photoprotection by honeybush extracts, hesperidin and mangiferin against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 mice. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2011;103(2):126-139.  (PubMed)

38.  Sime S, Reeve VE. Protection from inflammation, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis induced by UV radiation in mice by topical Pycnogenol. Photochem Photobiol. 2004;79(2):193-198.  (PubMed)

39.  Brand RM, Jendrzejewski JL. Topical treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and genistein after a single UV exposure can reduce skin damage. J Dermatol Sci. 2008;50(1):69-72.  (PubMed)

40.  Widyarini S, Spinks N, Husband AJ, Reeve VE. Isoflavonoid compounds from red clover (Trifolium pratense) protect from inflammation and immune suppression induced by UV radiation. Photochem Photobiol. 2001;74(3):465-470.  (PubMed)

41.  Casetti F, Jung W, Wolfle U, et al. Topical application of solubilized Reseda luteola extract reduces ultraviolet B-induced inflammation in vivo. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2009;96(3):260-265.  (PubMed)

42.  Janjua R, Munoz C, Gorell E, et al. A two-year, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral green tea polyphenols on the long-term clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35(7):1057-1065.  (PubMed)

43.  Chiu AE, Chan JL, Kern DG, Kohler S, Rehmus WE, Kimball AB. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of green tea extracts in the clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):855-860; discussion 860.  (PubMed)

44.  Accorsi-Neto A, Haidar M, Simoes R, Simoes M, Soares-Jr J, Baracat E. Effects of isoflavones on the skin of postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(6):505-510.  (PubMed)

45.  Moraes AB, Haidar MA, Soares Junior JM, Simoes MJ, Baracat EC, Patriarca MT. The effects of topical isoflavones on postmenopausal skin: double-blind and randomized clinical trial of efficacy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;146(2):188-192.  (PubMed)

46.  Baron JM, Wiederholt T, Heise R, Merk HF, Bickers DR. Expression and function of cytochrome p450-dependent enzymes in human skin cells. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15(22):2258-2264.  (PubMed)

47.  Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. Cytochrome p450: a target for drug development for skin diseases. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123(3):417-425.  (PubMed)

48.  Baron JM, Holler D, Schiffer R, et al. Expression of multiple cytochrome p450 enzymes and multidrug resistance-associated transport proteins in human skin keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116(4):541-548.  (PubMed)

49.  Dinkova-Kostova AT, Talalay P. Direct and indirect antioxidant properties of inducers of cytoprotective proteins. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(Suppl 1):S128-S138.  (PubMed)

50.  Liska DJ. The detoxification enzyme systems. Altern Med Rev. 1998;3(3):187-198.  (PubMed)

51.  Katiyar SK, Matsui MS, Mukhtar H. Ultraviolet-B exposure of human skin induces cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;114(2):328-33.  (PubMed)

52.  Afaq F, Mukhtar H. Effects of solar radiation on cutaneous detoxification pathways. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2001;63(1-3):61-69.  (PubMed)

53.  Villard PH, Sampol E, Elkaim JL, et al. Increase of CYP1B1 transcription in human keratinocytes and HaCaT cells after UV-B exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;178(3):137-143.  (PubMed)

54.  Das M, Mukhtar H, Bik DP, Bickers DR. Inhibition of epidermal xenobiotic metabolism in SENCAR mice by naturally occurring plant phenols. Cancer Res. 1987;47(3):760-766.  (PubMed)

55.  Das M, Khan WA, Asokan P, Bickers DR, Mukhtar H. Inhibition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct formation in epidermis and lungs of SENCAR mice by naturally occurring plant phenols. Cancer Res. 1987;47(3):767-773.  (PubMed)

56.  Zhao J, Agarwal R. Tissue distribution of silibinin, the major active constituent of silymarin, in mice and its association with enhancement of phase II enzymes: implications in cancer chemoprevention. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20(11):2101-2108.  (PubMed)

57.  Cho JW, Cho SY, Lee SR, Lee KS. Onion extract and quercetin induce matrix metalloproteinase-1 in vitro and in vivo. Int J Mol Med. 2010;25(3):347-352.  (PubMed)

58.  Fisher GJ, Kang S, Varani J, et al. Mechanisms of photoaging and chronological skin aging. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(11):1462-1470.  (PubMed)