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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Minerals and Skin Health


1.  Polefka TG, Bianchini RJ, Shapiro S. Interaction of mineral salts with the skin: a literature survey. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2012;34(5):416-423.  (PubMed)

2.  King JC, Shames DM, Woodhouse LR. Zinc homeostasis in humans. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1360S-1366S.  (PubMed)

3.  Michaelsson G, Ljunghall K, Danielson BG. Zinc in epidermis and dermis in healthy subjects. Acta Derm Venereol. 1980;60(4):295-299.  (PubMed)

4.  Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS. Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound Repair Regen. 2007;15(1):2-16.  (PubMed)

5.  Moffatt P, Denizeau F. Metallothionein in physiological and physiopathological processes. Drug Metab Rev. 1997;29(1-2):261-307.  (PubMed)

6.  Udom AO, Brady FO. Reactivation in vitro of zinc-requiring apo-enzymes by rat liver zinc-thionein. The Biochem J. 1980;187(2):329-335.  (PubMed)

7.  van den Oord JJ, De Ley M. Distribution of metallothionein in normal and pathological human skin. Arch Dermatol Res. 1994;286(1):62-68.  (PubMed)

8.  Karasawa M, Nishimura N, Nishimura H, Tohyama C, Hashiba H, Kuroki T. Localization of metallothionein in hair follicles of normal skin and the basal cell layer of hyperplastic epidermis: possible association with cell proliferation. J Invest Dermatol. 1991;97(1):97-100.   (PubMed)

9.  Hanada K, Sawamura D, Hashimoto I, Kida K, Naganuma A. Epidermal proliferation of the skin in metallothionein-null mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110(3):259-262.  (PubMed)

10.  Hanada K, Sawamura D, Tamai K, et al. Novel function of metallothionein in photoprotection: metallothionein-null mouse exhibits reduced tolerance against ultraviolet B injury in the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111(4):582-585.  (PubMed)

11.  Schwartz JR, Marsh RG, Draelos ZD. Zinc and skin health: overview of physiology and pharmacology. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):837-847; discussion 847.  (PubMed)

12.  Rafferty TS, McKenzie RC, Hunter JA, et al. Differential expression of selenoproteins by human skin cells and protection by selenium from UVB-radiation-induced cell death. Biochem J. 1998;332(Pt 1):231-236.  (PubMed)

13.  McKenzie RC. Selenium, ultraviolet radiation and the skin. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000;25(8):631-636.  (PubMed)

14.  Schallreuter KU, Pittelkow MR, Wood JM. Free radical reduction by thioredoxin reductase at the surface of normal and vitiliginous human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 1986;87(6):728-732.  (PubMed)

15.  Newman MD, Stotland M, Ellis JI. The safety of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide- and zinc oxide-based sunscreens. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61(4):685-692.  (PubMed)

16.  Gamer AO, Leibold E, van Ravenzwaay B. The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20(3):301-307.  (PubMed)

17.  Derry JE, McLean WM, Freeman JB. A study of the percutaneous absorption from topically applied zinc oxide ointment. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1983;7(2):131-135.  (PubMed)

18.  Gulson B, McCall M, Korsch M, et al. Small amounts of zinc from zinc oxide particles in sunscreens applied outdoors are absorbed through human skin. Toxicol Sci. 2010;118(1):140-149.  (PubMed)

19.  Gulson B, Wong H, Korsch M, et al. Comparison of dermal absorption of zinc from different sunscreen formulations and differing UV exposure based on stable isotope tracing. Sci Total Environ. 2012;420:313-318.  (PubMed)

20.  Monteiro-Riviere NA, Wiench K, Landsiedel R, Schulte S, Inman AO, Riviere JE. Safety evaluation of sunscreen formulations containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in UVB sunburned skin: an in vitro and in vivo study. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123(1):264-280.  (PubMed)

21.  Nohynek GJ, Dufour EK. Nano-sized cosmetic formulations or solid nanoparticles in sunscreens: a risk to human health? Arch Toxicol. 2012;86(7):1063-1075.  (PubMed)

22.  Darvin ME, Konig K, Kellner-Hoefer M, et al. Safety assessment by multiphoton fluorescence/second harmonic generation/hyper-Rayleigh scattering tomography of ZnO nanoparticles used in cosmetic products. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;25(4):219-226.  (PubMed)

23.  Lin LL, Grice JE, Butler MK, et al. Time-correlated single photon counting for simultaneous monitoring of zinc oxide nanoparticles and NAD(P)H in intact and barrier-disrupted volunteer skin. Pharm Res. 2011;28(11):2920-2930.  (PubMed)

24.  Baroli B, Ennas MG, Loffredo F, Isola M, Pinna R, Lopez-Quintela MA. Penetration of metallic nanoparticles in human full-thickness skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127(7):1701-1712.  (PubMed)

25.  Keen CL, Hurley LS. Zinc absorption through skin: correction of zinc deficiency in the rat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977;30(4):528-530.  (PubMed)

26.  Hallmans G. Healing of experimentally induced burn wounds. A comparative study of the healing of exposed burn wounds and burn wounds covered with adhesive zinc-tape and a scanning electron microscopic study of the microvasculature of wound healing in the rabbit ear. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1978;12(2):105-109.  (PubMed)

27.  Burke KE, Combs GF, Jr., Gross EG, Bhuyan KC, Abu-Libdeh H. The effects of topical and oral L-selenomethionine on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation. Nutr Cancer. 1992;17(2):123-137.  (PubMed)

28.  Edwards LJ. The absorption of methionine by the skin of the guinea pig. Biochem J. 1954;57(4):542-547.  (PubMed)

29.  Lin CH, Fang CL, Al-Suwayeh SA, Yang SY, Fang JY. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of seleno-L-methionine, an antioxidant agent, and other selenium species. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011;32(9):1181-1190.  (PubMed)

30.  Richelle M, Sabatier M, Steiling H, Williamson G. Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium. Br J Nutr. 2006;96(2):227-238.  (PubMed)

31.  Kumar P, Lal NR, Mondal AK, Mondal A, Gharami RC, Maiti A. Zinc and skin: a brief summary. Dermatol Online J. 2012;18(3):1.  (PubMed)

32.  Rostan EF, DeBuys HV, Madey DL, Pinnell SR. Evidence supporting zinc as an important antioxidant for skin. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41(9):606-611.  (PubMed)

33.  Hwang SW, Lee HJ, Suh KS, et al. Changes in murine hair with dietary selenium excess or deficiency. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20(4):367-369.  (PubMed)

34.  Sengupta A, Lichti UF, Carlson BA, et al. Selenoproteins are essential for proper keratinocyte function and skin development. PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e12249.  (PubMed)

35.  Mitchnick MA, Fairhurst D, Pinnell SR. Microfine zinc oxide (Z-cote) as a photostable UVA/UVB sunblock agent. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40(1):85-90.  (PubMed)

36.  Kumari MV, Hiramatsu M, Ebadi M. Free radical scavenging actions of metallothionein isoforms I and II. Free Radic Res. 1998;29(2):93-101.  (PubMed)

37.  Thornalley PJ, Vasak M. Possible role for metallothionein in protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Kinetics and mechanism of its reaction with superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985;827(1):36-44.  (PubMed)

38.  Schallreuter KU, Wood JM. The role of thioredoxin reductase in the reduction of free radicals at the surface of the epidermis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986;136(2):630-637.  (PubMed)

39.  McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ, McLean S, et al. Differential effects of doses and forms of dietary selenium on immune cell numbers in the skin of ultraviolet-irradiated and unirradiated mice. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008;125(3):255-267.  (PubMed)

40.  la Ruche G, Cesarini JP. Protective effect of oral selenium plus copper associated with vitamin complex on sunburn cell formation in human skin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1991;8(6):232-235.  (PubMed)

41.  Burke KE, Burford RG, Combs GF, Jr., French IW, Skeffington DR. The effect of topical L-selenomethionine on minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet irradiation in humans. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1992;9(2):52-57.  (PubMed)

42.  Portugal-Cohen M, Soroka Y, Ma'or Z, et al. Protective effects of a cream containing Dead Sea minerals against UVB-induced stress in human skin. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18(9):781-788.  (PubMed)

43.  Lansdown AB. Metallothioneins: potential therapeutic aids for wound healing in the skin. Wound Repair Regen. 2002;10(3):130-132.  (PubMed)

44.  Steiling H, Munz B, Werner S, Brauchle M. Different types of ROS-scavenging enzymes are expressed during cutaneous wound repair. Exp Cell Res. 1999;247(2):484-494.  (PubMed)

45.  Iwata M, Takebayashi T, Ohta H, Alcalde RE, Itano Y, Matsumura T. Zinc accumulation and metallothionein gene expression in the proliferating epidermis during wound healing in mouse skin. Histochem Cell Biol. 1999;112(4):283-290.  (PubMed)

46.  Wilkinson EA. Oral zinc for arterial and venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;8:CD001273.  (PubMed)

47.  Hostynek JJ, Maibach HI. Copper hypersensitivity: dermatologic aspects--an overview. Rev Environ Health. 2003;18(3):153-183.  (PubMed)

48.  Hostynek JJ, Maibach HI. Skin irritation potential of copper compounds. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2004;14(4):205-213.  (PubMed)

49.  Hostynek JJ, Dreher F, Maibach HI. Human stratum corneum penetration by copper: in vivo study after occlusive and semi-occlusive application of the metal as powder. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44(9):1539-1543.  (PubMed)