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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin A and Skin Health


1.  Blomhoff R. Transport and metabolism of vitamin A. Nutr Rev. 1994;52(2 Pt 2):S13-23.  (PubMed)

2.  Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ. Molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions in skin. FASEB J. 1996;10(9):1002-1013.  (PubMed)

3.  Futoryan T, Gilchrest BA. Retinoids and the skin. Nutr Rev. 1994;52(9):299-310.  (PubMed)

4.  Fisher GJ, Kang S, Varani J, et al. Mechanisms of photoaging and chronological skin aging. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(11):1462-1470.  (PubMed)

5.  Fisher GJ, Talwar HS, Xiao JH, et al. Immunological identification and functional quantitation of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptor proteins in human skin. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(32):20629-20635.  (PubMed)

6.  Elder JT, Fisher GJ, Zhang QY, et al. Retinoic acid receptor gene expression in human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1991;96(4):425-433.  (PubMed)

7.  Fisher GJ, Datta SC, Voorhees JJ. Retinoic acid receptor-gamma in human epidermis preferentially traps all-trans retinoic acid as its ligand rather than 9-cis retinoic acid. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110(3):297-300.  (PubMed)

8.  Tsukada M, Schroder M, Roos TC, et al. 13-cis retinoic acid exerts its specific activity on human sebocytes through selective intracellular isomerization to all-trans retinoic acid and binding to retinoid acid receptors. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;115(2):321-327.  (PubMed)

9.  Zouboulis CC. Isotretinoin revisited: pluripotent effects on human sebaceous gland cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126(10):2154-2156.  (PubMed)

10.  Kurlandsky SB, Xiao JH, Duell EA, Voorhees JJ, Fisher GJ. Biological activity of all-trans retinol requires metabolic conversion to all-trans retinoic acid and is mediated through activation of nuclear retinoid receptors in human keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(52):32821-32827.  (PubMed)

11.  Andersson E, Vahlquist A, Rosdahl I. Beta-carotene uptake and bioconversion to retinol differ between human melanocytes and keratinocytes. Nutr Cancer. 2001;39(2):300-306.  (PubMed)

12.  Antille C, Tran C, Sorg O, Saurat JH. Topical beta-carotene is converted to retinyl esters in human skin ex vivo and mouse skin in vivo. Exp Dermatol. 2004;13(9):558-561.  (PubMed)

13.  Darlenski R, Surber C, Fluhr JW. Topical retinoids in the management of photodamaged skin: from theory to evidence-based practical approach. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(6):1157-1165.  (PubMed)

14.  Kockaert M, Neumann M. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2003;2(4):435-441.  (PubMed)

15.  Mukherjee S, Date A, Patravale V, Korting HC, Roeder A, Weindl G. Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety. Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(4):327-348.  (PubMed)

16.  Bhawan J, Gonzalez-Serva A, Nehal K, et al. Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127(5):666-672.  (PubMed)

17.  Olsen EA, Katz HI, Levine N, et al. Tretinoin emollient cream: a new therapy for photodamaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26(2 Pt 1):215-224.  (PubMed)

18.  Weinstein GD, Nigra TP, Pochi PE, et al. Topical tretinoin for treatment of photodamaged skin. A multicenter study. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127(5):659-665.  (PubMed)

19.  Kang S, Duell EA, Fisher GJ, et al. Application of retinol to human skin in vivo induces epidermal hyperplasia and cellular retinoid binding proteins characteristic of retinoic acid but without measurable retinoic acid levels or irritation. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105(4):549-556.  (PubMed)

20.  Buchan P, Eckhoff C, Caron D, Nau H, Shroot B, Schaefer H. Repeated topical administration of all-trans-retinoic acid and plasma levels of retinoic acids in humans. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30(3):428-434.  (PubMed)

21.  Latriano L, Tzimas G, Wong F, Wills RJ. The percutaneous absorption of topically applied tretinoin and its effect on endogenous concentrations of tretinoin and its metabolites after single doses or long-term use. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;36(3 Pt 2):S37-46.  (PubMed)

22.  Wolbach SB, Howe PR. Tissue changes following deprivation of fat-soluble A vitamin. J Exp Med. 1925;42(6):753-777.  (PubMed)

23.  Barthelemy H, Chouvet B, Cambazard F. Skin and mucosal manifestations in vitamin deficiency. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15(6):1263-1274.  (PubMed)

24.  Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15(4 Pt 2):817-821.  (PubMed)

25.  Singh M, Griffiths CE. The use of retinoids in the treatment of photoaging. Dermatol Ther. 2006;19(5):297-305.  (PubMed)

26.  Fisher GJ, Datta SC, Talwar HS, et al. Molecular basis of sun-induced premature skin ageing and retinoid antagonism. Nature. 1996;379(6563):335-339.  (PubMed)

27.  Pfahl M. Signal transduction by retinoid receptors. Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6 Suppl 1:8-16.  (PubMed)

28.  Fisher GJ, Wang ZQ, Datta SC, Varani J, Kang S, Voorhees JJ. Pathophysiology of premature skin aging induced by ultraviolet light. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(20):1419-1428.  (PubMed)

29.  Wang Z, Boudjelal M, Kang S, Voorhees JJ, Fisher GJ. Ultraviolet irradiation of human skin causes functional vitamin A deficiency, preventable by all-trans retinoic acid pre-treatment. Nat Med. 1999;5(4):418-422.  (PubMed)

30.  Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Photoageing: mechanism, prevention and therapy. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157(5):874-887.  (PubMed)

31.  Bhawan J. Short- and long-term histologic effects of topical tretinoin on photodamaged skin. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37(4):286-292.  (PubMed)

32.  Kligman LH. Effects of all-trans-retinoic acid on the dermis of hairless mice. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15(4 Pt 2):779-785, 884-777.  (PubMed)

33.  Chaquour B, Seite S, Coutant K, Fourtanier A, Borel JP, Bellon G. Chronic UVB- and all-trans retinoic-acid-induced qualitative and quantitative changes in hairless mouse skin. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1995;28(2):125-135.  (PubMed)

34.  Chen S, Kiss I, Tramposch KM. Effects of all-trans retinoic acid on UVB-irradiated and non-irradiated hairless mouse skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1992;98(2):248-254.  (PubMed)

35.  Bryce GF, Bogdan NJ, Brown CC. Retinoic acids promote the repair of the dermal damage and the effacement of wrinkles in the UVB-irradiated hairless mouse. J Invest Dermatol. 1988;91(2):175-180.  (PubMed)

36.  Yamamoto O, Bhawan J, Solares G, Tsay AW, Gilchrest BA. Ultrastructural effects of topical tretinoin on dermo-epidermal junction and papillary dermis in photodamaged skin. A controlled study. Exp Dermatol. 1995;4(3):146-154.  (PubMed)

37.  Olsen EA, Katz HI, Levine N, et al. Tretinoin emollient cream for photodamaged skin: results of 48-week, multicenter, double-blind studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;37(2 Pt 1):217-226.  (PubMed)

38.  Kligman AM, Grove GL, Hirose R, Leyden JJ. Topical tretinoin for photoaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15(4 Pt 2):836-859.  (PubMed)

39.  Weiss JS, Ellis CN, Headington JT, Tincoff T, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Topical tretinoin improves photoaged skin. A double-blind vehicle-controlled study. JAMA. 1988;259(4):527-532.  (PubMed)

40.  Ellis CN, Weiss JS, Hamilton TA, Headington JT, Zelickson AS, Voorhees JJ. Sustained improvement with prolonged topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) for photoaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23(4 Pt 1):629-637.  (PubMed)

41.  Griffiths CE, Russman AN, Majmudar G, Singer RS, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Restoration of collagen formation in photodamaged human skin by tretinoin (retinoic acid). N Engl J Med. 1993;329(8):530-535.  (PubMed)

42.  Olsen EA, Katz HI, Levine N, et al. Sustained improvement in photodamaged skin with reduced tretinoin emollient cream treatment regimen: effect of once-weekly and three-times-weekly applications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;37(2 Pt 1):227-230.  (PubMed)

43.  Bhawan J, Olsen E, Lufrano L, Thorne EG, Schwab B, Gilchrest BA. Histologic evaluation of the long term effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. J Dermatol Sci. 1996;11(3):177-182.  (PubMed)

44.  Kang S, Bergfeld W, Gottlieb AB, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of tretinoin emollient cream 0.05% in the treatment of photodamaged facial skin: a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(4):245-253.  (PubMed)

45.  Maddin S, Lauharanta J, Agache P, Burrows L, Zultak M, Bulger L. Isotretinoin improves the appearance of photodamaged skin: results of a 36-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(1 Pt 1):56-63.  (PubMed)

46.  Varani J, Warner RL, Gharaee-Kermani M, et al. Vitamin A antagonizes decreased cell growth and elevated collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases and stimulates collagen accumulation in naturally aged human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;114(3):480-486.  (PubMed)

47.  Kafi R, Kwak HS, Schumacher WE, et al. Improvement of naturally aged skin with vitamin A (retinol). Arch Dermatol. 2007;143(5):606-612.  (PubMed)

48.  Brandaleone H, Papper E. The effect of the local and oral administration of cod liver oil on the rate of wound healing in vitamin A-deficient and normal rats. Ann Surg. 1941;114(4):791-798.  (PubMed)

49.  Sandberg N. Time relationship between administration of cortisone and wound healing in rats. Acta Chir Scand. 1964;127:446-455.  (PubMed)

50.  Ehrlich HP, Hunt TK. Effects of cortisone and vitamin A on wound healing. Ann Surg. 1968;167(3):324-328.  (PubMed)

51.  Kligman AM. The treatment of acne with topical retinoids: one man's opinions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;36(6 Pt 2):S92-95.  (PubMed)

52.  Thielitz A, Gollnick H. Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: update on efficacy and safety. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9(6):369-381.  (PubMed)

53.  Orfanos CE, Zouboulis CC. Oral retinoids in the treatment of seborrhoea and acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):140-147.  (PubMed)

54.  Williams HC, Dellavalle RP, Garner S. Acne vulgaris. Lancet. 2012;379(9813):361-372.  (PubMed)

55.  Wozel G, Chang A, Zultak M, et al. The effect of topical retinoids on the leukotriene-B4-induced migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into human skin. Arch Dermatol Res. 1991;283(3):158-161.  (PubMed)

56.  Chalker DK, Lesher JL, Jr., Smith JG, Jr., et al. Efficacy of topical isotretinoin 0.05% gel in acne vulgaris: results of a multicenter, double-blind investigation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17(2 Pt 1):251-254.  (PubMed)

57.  Shapiro L, Pastuszak A, Curto G, Koren G. Safety of first-trimester exposure to topical tretinoin: prospective cohort study. Lancet. 1997;350(9085):1143-1144.  (PubMed)

58.  Jick SS, Terris BZ, Jick H. First trimester topical tretinoin and congenital disorders. Lancet. 1993;341(8854):1181-1182.  (PubMed)

59.  Rollman O, Vahlquist A. Oral isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) therapy in severe acne: drug and vitamin A concentrations in serum and skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1986;86(4):384-389.  (PubMed)

60.  Strauss JS. Use of systemic antibiotics in acne. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1980;Suppl 89:71-73.  (PubMed)

61.  Landthaler M, Kummermehr J, Wagner A, Plewig G. Inhibitory effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid on human sebaceous glands. Arch Dermatol Res. 1980;269(3):297-309.  (PubMed)

62.  Nelson AM, Gilliland KL, Cong Z, Thiboutot DM. 13-cis Retinoic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human SEB-1 sebocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126(10):2178-2189.  (PubMed)