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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin C and Skin Health


1.  Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D, Epstein W, Packer L. Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1994;102:122-124.  (PubMed)

2.  Rhie G, Shin MH, Seo JY, et al. Aging- and photoaging-dependent changes of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in the epidermis and dermis of human skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol 2001;117:1212-1217.  (PubMed)

3.  Lopez-Torres M, Shindo Y, Packer L. Effect of age on antioxidants and molecular markers of oxidative damage in murine epidermis and dermis. J Invest Dermatol 1994;102:476-480.  (PubMed)

4.  Shindo Y, Witt E, Packer L. Antioxidant defense mechanisms in murine epidermis and dermis and their responses to ultraviolet light. J Invest Dermatol 1993;100:260-265.  (PubMed)

5.  Thiele JJ, Traber MG, Tsang K, Cross CE, Packer L. In vivo exposure to ozone depletes vitamins C and E and induces lipid peroxidation in epidermal layers of murine skin. Free Radic Biol Med 1997;23:385-391.  (PubMed)

6.  Podda M, Traber MG, Weber C, Yan LJ, Packer L. UV-irradiation depletes antioxidants and causes oxidative damage in a model of human skin. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;24:55-65.  (PubMed)

7.  Steiling H, Longet K, Moodycliffe A, et al. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter isoforms in skin: Distribution, kinetics, and effect of UVB-induced oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 2007;43:752-762.  (PubMed)

8.  Kang JS, Kim HN, Jung da J, et al. Regulation of UVB-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in skin keratinocytes by increasing vitamin C uptake via the redistribution of SVCT-1 from the cytosol to the membrane. J Invest Dermatol 2007;127:698-706.  (PubMed)

9.  McArdle F, Rhodes LE, Parslew R, Jack CI, Friedmann PS, Jackson MJ. UVR-induced oxidative stress in human skin in vivo: effects of oral vitamin C supplementation. Free Radic Biol Med 2002;33:1355-1362.  (PubMed)

10.  Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:1006-1012.  (PubMed)

11.  Pinnell SR, Yang H, Omar M, et al. Topical L-ascorbic acid: percutaneous absorption studies. Dermatol Surg 2001;27:137-142.  (PubMed)

12.  Lee WR, Shen SC, Kuo-Hsien W, Hu CH, Fang JY. Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C. J Invest Dermatol 2003;121:1118-1125.  (PubMed)

13.  Bissett DL, Chatterjee R, Hannon DP. Photoprotective effect of superoxide-scavenging antioxidants against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1990;7:56-62.  (PubMed)

14.  Campos PM, Goncalves GM, Gaspar LR. In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo efficacy of topical formulations containing vitamin C and its derivatives studied by non-invasive methods. Skin Res Technol 2008;14:376-380.  (PubMed)

15.  Meves A, Stock SN, Beyerle A, Pittelkow MR, Peus D. Vitamin C derivative ascorbyl palmitate promotes ultraviolet-B-induced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity in keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 2002;119:1103-1108.  (PubMed)

16.  Lin FH, Lin JY, Gupta RD, et al. Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin. J Invest Dermatol 2005;125:826-832.  (PubMed)

17.  Murray JC, Burch JA, Streilein RD, Iannacchione MA, Hall RP, Pinnell SR. A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human skin against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;59:418-425.  (PubMed)

18.  Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-874.  (PubMed)

19.  Oresajo C, Stephens T, Hino PD, et al. Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin. J Cosmet Dermatol 2008;7:290-297.  (PubMed)

20.  Woolery-Lloyd H, Baumann L, Ikeno H. Sodium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate 5% lotion for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. J Cosmet Dermatol 2010;9:22-27.  (PubMed)

21.  Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1091-1098.  (PubMed)

22.  Sauermann K, Jaspers S, Koop U, Wenck H. Topically applied vitamin C increases the density of dermal papillae in aged human skin. BMC Dermatol 2004;4:13.  (PubMed)

23.  Raschke T, Koop U, Dusing HJ, et al. Topical activity of ascorbic acid: from in vitro optimization to in vivo efficacy. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:200-206.  (PubMed)

24.  Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:332-339.  (PubMed)

25.  Humbert PG, Haftek M, Creidi P, et al. Topical ascorbic acid on photoaged skin. Clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: double-blind study vs. placebo. Exp Dermatol 2003;12:237-244.  (PubMed)

26.  Nusgens BV, Humbert P, Rougier A, et al. Topically applied vitamin C enhances the mRNA level of collagens I and III, their processing enzymes and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in the human dermis. J Invest Dermatol 2001;116:853-859.  (PubMed)

27.  Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF. Double-blind, half-face study comparing topical vitamin C and vehicle for rejuvenation of photodamage. Dermatol Surg 2002;28:231-236.  (PubMed)

28.  Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, et al. Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22:18-35.  (PubMed)

29.  Hodges RE, Hood J, Canham JE, Sauberlich HE, Baker EM. Clinical manifestations of ascorbic acid deficiency in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1971;24:432-443.  (PubMed)

30.  Hodges RE, Baker EM, Hood J, Sauberlich HE, March SC. Experimental scurvy in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1969;22:535-548.  (PubMed)

31.  Lind J. A Treatise on the Scurvy. In. London: A. Millar; 1753.

32.  Ross R, Benditt EP. Wound healing and collagen formation. II. Fine structure in experimental scurvy. J Cell Biol 1962;12:533-551.  (PubMed)

33.  Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S, Manning T, Pinnell S. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br J Dermatol 1992;127:247-253.  (PubMed)

34.  Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D, Packer L. Dose-response effects of acute ultraviolet irradiation on antioxidants and molecular markers of oxidation in murine epidermis and dermis. J Invest Dermatol 1994;102:470-475.  (PubMed)

35.  Tebbe B, Wu S, Geilen CC, Eberle J, Kodelja V, Orfanos CE. L-ascorbic acid inhibits UVA-induced lipid peroxidation and secretion of IL-1alpha and IL-6 in cultured human keratinocytes in vitro. J Invest Dermatol 1997;108:302-306.  (PubMed)

36.  Stewart MS, Cameron GS, Pence BC. Antioxidant nutrients protect against UVB-induced oxidative damage to DNA of mouse keratinocytes in culture. J Invest Dermatol 1996;106:1086-1089.  (PubMed)

37.  Savini I, D'Angelo I, Ranalli M, Melino G, Avigliano L. Ascorbic acid maintenance in HaCaT cells prevents radical formation and apoptosis by UV-B. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;26:1172-1180.  (PubMed)

38.  Nakamura T, Pinnell SR, Darr D, et al. Vitamin C abrogates the deleterious effects of UVB radiation on cutaneous immunity by a mechanism that does not depend on TNF-alpha. J Invest Dermatol 1997;109:20-24.  (PubMed)

39.  Dunham WB, Zuckerkandl E, Reynolds R, et al. Effects of intake of L-ascorbic acid on the incidence of dermal neoplasms induced in mice by ultraviolet light. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1982;79:7532-7536.  (PubMed)

40.  Pauling L, Willoughby R, Reynolds R, Blaisdell BE, Lawson S. Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in hairless mice irradiated with ultraviolet light in relation to intake of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and of D, L-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E). Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 1982;23:53-82.  (PubMed)

41.  Placzek M, Gaube S, Kerkmann U, et al. Ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage in human epidermis is modified by the antioxidants ascorbic acid and D-alpha-tocopherol. J Invest Dermatol 2005;124:304-307.  (PubMed)

42.  Eberlein-Konig B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:45-48.  (PubMed)

43.  Quevedo WC, Jr., Holstein TJ, Dyckman J, McDonald CJ, Isaacson EL. Inhibition of UVR-induced tanning and immunosuppression by topical applications of vitamins C and E to the skin of hairless (hr/hr) mice. Pigment Cell Res 2000;13:89-98.  (PubMed)

44.  Darr D, Dunston S, Faust H, Pinnell S. Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants. Acta Derm Venereol 1996;76:264-268.  (PubMed)

45.  Ou-Yang H, Stamatas G, Saliou C, Kollias N. A chemiluminescence study of UVA-induced oxidative stress in human skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol 2004;122:1020-1029.  (PubMed)

46.  Peterkofsky B. Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1135S-1140S.  (PubMed)

47.  Geesin JC, Darr D, Kaufman R, Murad S, Pinnell SR. Ascorbic acid specifically increases type I and type III procollagen messenger RNA levels in human skin fibroblast. J Invest Dermatol 1988;90:420-424.  (PubMed)

48.  Davidson JM, LuValle PA, Zoia O, Quaglino D, Jr., Giro M. Ascorbate differentially regulates elastin and collagen biosynthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells and skin fibroblasts by pretranslational mechanisms. J Biol Chem 1997;272:345-352.  (PubMed)

49.  Phillips CL, Combs SB, Pinnell SR. Effects of ascorbic acid on proliferation and collagen synthesis in relation to the donor age of human dermal fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol 1994;103:228-232.  (PubMed)

50.  Duarte TL, Cooke MS, Jones GD. Gene expression profiling reveals new protective roles for vitamin C in human skin cells. Free Radic Biol Med 2009;46:78-87.  (PubMed)

51.  Cosgrove MC, Franco OH, Granger SP, Murray PG, Mayes AE. Dietary nutrient intakes and skin-aging appearance among middle-aged American women. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1225-1231.  (PubMed)

52.  Purba MB, Kouris-Blazos A, Wattanapenpaiboon N, et al. Skin wrinkling: can food make a difference? J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:71-80.  (PubMed)

53.  Kim M, Otsuka M, Yu R, Kurata T, Arakawa N. The distribution of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid during tissue regeneration in wounded dorsal skin of guinea pigs. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1994;64:56-59.  (PubMed)

54.  Shukla A, Rasik AM, Patnaik GK. Depletion of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and antioxidant defence enzymes in a healing cutaneous wound. Free Radic Res 1997;26:93-101.  (PubMed)

55.  Sorensen LT, Toft BG, Rygaard J, et al. Effect of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine patch on wound dimension, vitamin C, and systemic markers of collagen metabolism. Surgery 2010;148:982-990.  (PubMed)

56.  Savini I, Catani MV, Rossi A, Duranti G, Melino G, Avigliano L. Characterization of keratinocyte differentiation induced by ascorbic acid: protein kinase C involvement and vitamin C homeostasis. J Invest Dermatol 2002;118:372-379.  (PubMed)

57.  Boyce ST, Supp AP, Swope VB, Warden GD. Vitamin C regulates keratinocyte viability, epidermal barrier, and basement membrane in vitro, and reduces wound contraction after grafting of cultured skin substitutes. J Invest Dermatol 2002;118:565-572.  (PubMed)

58.  Ponec M, Weerheim A, Kempenaar J, et al. The formation of competent barrier lipids in reconstructed human epidermis requires the presence of vitamin C. J Invest Dermatol 1997;109:348-355.  (PubMed)

59.  Kramer GM, Fillios LC, Bowler EC. Ascorbic acid treatment on early collagen production and wound healing in the guinea pig. J Periodontol 1979;50:189-192.  (PubMed)

60.  Young ME. Malnutrition and wound healing. Heart Lung 1988;17:60-67.  (PubMed)

61.  Dunphy JE, Edwards LC, Udupa KN. Wound healing; a new perspective with particular reference to ascorbic acid deficiency. Ann Surg 1956;144:304-317.  (PubMed)

62.  Silverstein RJ, Landsman AS. The effects of a moderate and high dose of vitamin C on wound healing in a controlled guinea pig model. J Foot Ankle Surg 1999;38:333-338.  (PubMed)

63.  Thompson C, Fuhrman MP. Nutrients and wound healing: still searching for the magic bullet. Nutr Clin Pract 2005;20:331-347.  (PubMed)

64.  Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, et al. Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process. A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial. Eur Surg Res 1995;27:158-166.  (PubMed)

65.  Desneves KJ, Todorovic BE, Cassar A, Crowe TC. Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. Clin Nutr 2005;24:979-987.  (PubMed)

66.  Ellinger S, Stehle P. Efficacy of vitamin supplementation in situations with wound healing disorders: results from clinical intervention studies. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009;12:588-595.  (PubMed)

67.  Barbosa E, Faintuch J, Machado Moreira EA, et al. Supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and zinc attenuates oxidative stress in burned children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. J Burn Care Res 2009;30:859-866.  (PubMed)

68.  Pasonen-Seppanen S, Suhonen TM, Kirjavainen M, et al. Vitamin C enhances differentiation of a continuous keratinocyte cell line (REK) into epidermis with normal stratum corneum ultrastructure and functional permeability barrier. Histochem Cell Biol 2001;116:287-297.  (PubMed)

69.  Klock J, Ikeno H, Ohmori K, Nishikawa T, Vollhardt J, Schehlmann V. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate shows in vitro and in vivo efficacy in the prevention and treatment of acne vulgaris. Int J Cosmet Sci 2005;27:171-176.  (PubMed)

70.  Kameyama K, Sakai C, Kondoh S, et al. Inhibitory effect of magnesium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (VC-PMG) on melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;34:29-33.  (PubMed)