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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin D and Skin Health


1.  Holick MF. Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest. 2006;116(8):2062-2072.  (PubMed)

2.  Brunette MG, Chan M, Ferriere C, Roberts KD. Site of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 synthesis in the kidney. Nature. 1978;276(5685):287-289.  (PubMed)

3.  Bikle DD, Nemanic MK, Gee E, Elias P. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 production by human keratinocytes. Kinetics and regulation. J Clin Invest. 1986;78(2):557-566.  (PubMed)

4.  Bikle DD, Nemanic MK, Whitney JO, Elias PW. Neonatal human foreskin keratinocytes produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Biochemistry. 1986;25(7):1545-1548.  (PubMed)

5.  Lehmann B, Sauter W, Knuschke P, Dressler S, Meurer M. Demonstration of UVB-induced synthesis of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) in human skin by microdialysis. Arch Dermatol Res. 2003;295(1):24-28.  (PubMed)

6.  Abramovits W. Calcitriol 3 microg/g ointment: an effective and safe addition to the armamentarium in topical psoriasis therapy. J Drugs Dermatol. 2009;8(8 Suppl):s17-22.  (PubMed)

7.  Gerritsen MJ, Van De Kerkhof PC, Langner A. Long-term safety of topical calcitriol 3 microg g(-1) ointment. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144 Suppl 58:17-19.  (PubMed)

8.  Rizova E, Corroller M. Topical calcitriol--studies on local tolerance and systemic safety. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144 Suppl 58:3-10.  (PubMed)

9.  Mason AR, Mason J, Cork M, Dooley G, Edwards G. Topical treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009(2):CD005028.  (PubMed)

10.  Murphy G, Reich K. In touch with psoriasis: topical treatments and current guidelines. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25 Suppl 4:3-8.  (PubMed)

11.  Holick MF, MacLaughlin JA, Clark MB, et al. Photosynthesis of previtamin D3 in human skin and the physiologic consequences. Science. 1980;210(4466):203-205.  (PubMed)

12.  Holick MF, MacLaughlin JA, Doppelt SH. Regulation of cutaneous previtamin D3 photosynthesis in man: skin pigment is not an essential regulator. Science. 1981;211(4482):590-593.  (PubMed)

13.  Webb AR, DeCosta BR, Holick MF. Sunlight regulates the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 by causing its photodegradation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989;68(5):882-887.  (PubMed)

14.  Chen TC, Persons KS, Lu Z, Mathieu JS, Holick MF. An evaluation of the biologic activity and vitamin D receptor binding affinity of the photoisomers of vitamin D3 and previtamin D3. J Nutr Biochem. 2000;11(5):267-272.  (PubMed)

15.  Tsiaras WG, Weinstock MA. Factors influencing vitamin D status. Acta Derm Venereol. 2011;91(2):115-124.  (PubMed)

16.  Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF. Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;67(2):373-378.  (PubMed)

17.  Holick MF. Vitamin d: a d-lightful solution for health. J Investig Med. 2011;59(6):872-880.  (PubMed)

18.  Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(3):266-281.  (PubMed)

19.  MacLaughlin J, Holick MF. Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. J Clin Invest. 1985;76(4):1536-1538.  (PubMed)

20.  Matsuoka LY, Ide L, Wortsman J, MacLaughlin JA, Holick MF. Sunscreens suppress cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987;64(6):1165-1168.  (PubMed)

21.  Jones G, Strugnell SA, DeLuca HF. Current understanding of the molecular actions of vitamin D. Physiol Rev. 1998;78(4):1193-1231.  (PubMed)

22.  Jurutka PW, Whitfield GK, Hsieh JC, Thompson PD, Haussler CA, Haussler MR. Molecular nature of the vitamin D receptor and its role in regulation of gene expression. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2001;2(2):203-216.  (PubMed)

23.  Odland GF. Structure of the skin. In: Goldsmith LA, ed. Physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the skin. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 1991:3-62.

24.  Freinkel RK, Woodley D. The biology of the skin. New York: Parthenon Pub. Group; 2001.

25.  Bikle DD. Vitamin D metabolism and function in the skin. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;347(1-2):80-89.  (PubMed)

26.  Bikle DD, Pillai S. Vitamin D, calcium, and epidermal differentiation. Endocr Rev. 1993;14(1):3-19.  (PubMed)

27.  Skorija K, Cox M, Sisk JM, et al. Ligand-independent actions of the vitamin D receptor maintain hair follicle homeostasis. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19(4):855-862.  (PubMed)

28.  Sakai Y, Demay MB. Evaluation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2000;141(6):2043-2049.  (PubMed)

29.  Li YC, Pirro AE, Amling M, et al. Targeted ablation of the vitamin D receptor: an animal model of vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94(18):9831-9835.  (PubMed)

30.  Malloy PJ, Feldman D. The role of vitamin D receptor mutations in the development of alopecia. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;347(1-2):90-96.  (PubMed)

31.  Bikle DD. Vitamin D and the skin. J Bone Miner Metab. 2010;28(2):117-130.  (PubMed)

32.  Lee J, Youn JI. The photoprotective effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on ultraviolet light B-induced damage in keratinocyte and its mechanism of action. J Dermatol Sci. 1998;18(1):11-18.  (PubMed)

33.  Wong G, Gupta R, Dixon KM, et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and three low-calcemic analogs decrease UV-induced DNA damage via the rapid response pathway. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89-90(1-5):567-570.  (PubMed)

34.  De Haes P, Garmyn M, Degreef H, Vantieghem K, Bouillon R, Segaert S. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis, Jun kinase activation, and interleukin-6 production in primary human keratinocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2003;89(4):663-673.  (PubMed)

35.  Dixon KM, Deo SS, Wong G, et al. Skin cancer prevention: a possible role of 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97(1-2):137-143.  (PubMed)

36.  Dixon KM, Deo SS, Norman AW, et al. In vivo relevance for photoprotection by the vitamin D rapid response pathway. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;103(3-5):451-456.  (PubMed)

37.  Gupta R, Dixon KM, Deo SS, et al. Photoprotection by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 is associated with an increase in p53 and a decrease in nitric oxide products. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127(3):707-715.  (PubMed)

38.  Mason RS, Sequeira VB, Dixon KM, et al. Photoprotection by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and analogs: further studies on mechanisms and implications for UV-damage. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121(1-2):164-168.  (PubMed)

39.  Revelli A, Massobrio M, Tesarik J. Nongenomic effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1998;9(10):419-427.  (PubMed)

40.  Wang TT, Nestel FP, Bourdeau V, et al. Cutting edge: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a direct inducer of antimicrobial peptide gene expression. J Immunol. 2004;173(5):2909-2912.  (PubMed)

41.  Gombart AF, Borregaard N, Koeffler HP. Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Faseb J. 2005;19(9):1067-1077.  (PubMed)

42.  Heilborn JD, Nilsson MF, Kratz G, et al. The cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide LL-37 is involved in re-epithelialization of human skin wounds and is lacking in chronic ulcer epithelium. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120(3):379-389.  (PubMed)

43.  Frohm M, Agerberth B, Ahangari G, et al. The expression of the gene coding for the antibacterial peptide LL-37 is induced in human keratinocytes during inflammatory disorders. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(24):15258-15263.  (PubMed)

44.  Koczulla R, von Degenfeld G, Kupatt C, et al. An angiogenic role for the human peptide antibiotic LL-37/hCAP-18. J Clin Invest. 2003;111(11):1665-1672.  (PubMed)

45.  Weber G, Heilborn JD, Chamorro Jimenez CI, Hammarsjo A, Torma H, Stahle M. Vitamin D induces the antimicrobial protein hCAP18 in human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124(5):1080-1082.  (PubMed)