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References: Thiamin


1.  Tanphaichitr V. Thiamin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:381-389.

2.  Rindi G. Thiamin. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:160-166.

3.  Hutson SM, Sweatt AJ, Lanoue KF. Branched-chain [corrected] amino acid metabolism: implications for establishing safe intakes. J Nutr. 2005;135(6 Suppl):1557S-1564S.  (PubMed)

4.  Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

5.  Donnino M. Gastrointestinal beriberi: a previously unrecognized syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(11):898-899.  (PubMed)

6.  McDowell L. Thiamin. In: Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition. 2nd ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press; 2000:265-310. Available at: http://www.ucv.ve/fileadmin/user_upload/facultad_agronomia/Producion_
Animal/Vitamins_in_Animal_and_Human_Nutrition.pdf

7.  Yamasaki H, Tada H, Kawano S, Aonuma K. Reversible pulmonary hypertension, lactic acidosis, and rapidly evolving multiple organ failure as manifestations of shoshin beriberi. Circ J. 2010;74(9):1983-1985.  (PubMed)

8.  Doss A, Mahad D, Romanowski CA. Wernicke encephalopathy: unusual findings in nonalcoholic patients. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2003;27(2):235-240.  (PubMed)

9.  Hazell AS, Faim S, Wertheimer G, Silva VR, Marques CS. The impact of oxidative stress in thiamine deficiency: a multifactorial targeting issue. Neurochem Int. 2013;62(5):796-802.  (PubMed)

10.  Saad L, Silva LF, Banzato CE, Dantas CR, Garcia C, Jr. Anorexia nervosa and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2010;4:217.  (PubMed)

11.  Becker DA, Balcer LJ, Galetta SL. The Neurological Complications of Nutritional Deficiency following Bariatric Surgery. J Obes. 2012;2012:608534.  (PubMed)

12.  Jung ES, Kwon O, Lee SH, et al. Wernicke's encephalopathy in advanced gastric cancer. Cancer Res Treat. 2010;42(2):77-81.  (PubMed)

13.  Greenspon J, Perrone EE, Alaish SM. Shoshin beriberi mimicking central line sepsis in a child with short bowel syndrome. World journal of pediatrics : World J Pediatr. 2010;6(4):366-368.  (PubMed)

14.  Sequeira Lopes da Silva JT, Almaraz Velarde R, Olgado Ferrero F, et al. Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parental nutrition. Nutr Hosp. 2010;25(6):1034-1036.  (PubMed)

15.  Francini-Pesenti F, Brocadello F, Manara R, Santelli L, Laroni A, Caregaro L. Wernicke's syndrome during parenteral feeding: not an unusual complication. Nutrition. 2009;25(2):142-146.  (PubMed)

16.  Krishna S, Taylor AM, Supanaranond W, et al. Thiamine deficiency and malaria in adults from southeast Asia. Lancet. 1999;353(9152):546-549.  (PubMed)

17.  Mayxay M, Taylor AM, Khanthavong M, et al. Thiamin deficiency and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Laos. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12(3):363-369.  (PubMed)

18.  Muri RM, Von Overbeck J, Furrer J, Ballmer PE. Thiamin deficiency in HIV-positive patients: evaluation by erythrocyte transketolase activity and thiamin pyrophosphate effect. Clin Nutr. 1999;18(6):375-378.  (PubMed)

19.  Stanga Z, Brunner A, Leuenberger M, et al. Nutrition in clinical practice-the refeeding syndrome: illustrative cases and guidelines for prevention and treatment. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(6):687-694.  (PubMed)

20.  Suter PM, Haller J, Hany A, Vetter W. Diuretic use: a risk for subclinical thiamine deficiency in elderly patients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2000;4(2):69-71.  (PubMed)

21.  Rieck J, Halkin H, Almog S, et al. Urinary loss of thiamine is increased by low doses of furosemide in healthy volunteers. J Lab Clin Med. 1999;134(3):238-243.  (PubMed)

22.  Sica DA. Loop diuretic therapy, thiamine balance, and heart failure. Congestive heart failure 2007;13(4):244-247.  (PubMed)

23.  Zenuk C, Healey J, Donnelly J, Vaillancourt R, Almalki Y, Smith S. Thiamine deficiency in congestive heart failure patients receiving long term furosemide therapy. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;10(4):184-8.  (PubMed)

24.  Hung SC, Hung SH, Tarng DC, Yang WC, Chen TW, Huang TP. Thiamine deficiency and unexplained encephalopathy in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(5):941-947.  (PubMed)

25.  Wilcox CS. Do diuretics cause thiamine deficiency? J Lab Clin Med. 1999;134(3):192-193.

26.  Vimokesant SL, Hilker DM, Nakornchai S, Rungruangsak K, Dhanamitta S. Effects of betel nut and fermented fish on the thiamin status of northeastern Thais. Am J Clin Nutr. 1975;28(12):1458-1463.  (PubMed)

27.  Ventura A, Mafe MC, Bourguet M, Tornero C. Wernicke's encephalopathy secondary to hyperthyroidism and ingestion of thiaminase-rich products. Neurologia. 2013;28(4):257-259.  (PubMed)

28.  Nishimune T, Watanabe Y, Okazaki H, Akai H. Thiamin is decomposed due to Anaphe spp. entomophagy in seasonal ataxia patients in Nigeria. J Nutr. 2000;130(6):1625-1628.  (PubMed)

29.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Thiamin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:58-86. (National Academy Press)

30.  Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(3):450-456.  (PubMed)

31.  Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(4):517-526.  (PubMed)

32.  Thornalley PJ, Babaei-Jadidi R, Al Ali H, et al. High prevalence of low plasma thiamine concentration in diabetes linked to a marker of vascular disease. Diabetologia. 2007;50(10):2164-2170.  (PubMed)

33.  Larkin JR, Zhang F, Godfrey L, et al. Glucose-induced down regulation of thiamine transporters in the kidney proximal tubular epithelium produces thiamine insufficiency in diabetes. PLoS One. 2012;7:e53175.  (PubMed)

34.  Rathanaswami P, Sundaresan R. Effects of thiamine deficiency on the biosynthesis of insulin in rats. Biochem Int. 1991;24(6):1057-1062.  (PubMed)

35.  Rathanaswami P, Pourany A, Sundaresan R. Effects of thiamine deficiency on the secretion of insulin and the metabolism of glucose in isolated rat pancreatic islets. Biochem Int. 1991;25(3):577-583.  (PubMed)

36.  Alaei Shahmiri F, Soares MJ, Zhao Y, Sherriff J. High-dose thiamine supplementation improves glucose tolerance in hyperglycemic individuals: a randomized, double-blind cross-over trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013. May 29 [Epub ahead of print]  (PubMed)

37.  Gonzalez-Ortiz M, Martinez-Abundis E, Robles-Cervantes JA, Ramirez-Ramirez V, Ramos-Zavala MG. Effect of thiamine administration on metabolic profile, cytokines and inflammatory markers in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;50(2):145-149.  (PubMed)

38.  Tepper OM, Galiano RD, Capla JM, et al. Human endothelial progenitor cells from type II diabetics exhibit impaired proliferation, adhesion, and incorporation into vascular structures. Circulation. 2002;106(22):2781-2786.  (PubMed)

39.  Wong CY, Qiuwaxi J, Chen H, et al. Daily intake of thiamine correlates with the circulating level of endothelial progenitor cells and the endothelial function in patients with type II diabetes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(12):1421-1427.  (PubMed)

40.  Rabbani N, Alam SS, Riaz S, et al. High-dose thiamine therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. Diabetologia. 2009;52(2):208-212.  (PubMed)

41.  Babaei-Jadidi R, Karachalias N, Ahmed N, Battah S, Thornalley PJ. Prevention of incipient diabetic nephropathy by high-dose thiamine and benfotiamine. Diabetes. 2003;52(8):2110-2120.  (PubMed)

42.  Hammes HP, Du X, Edelstein D, et al. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevents experimental diabetic retinopathy. Nature Med. 2003;9(3):294-299.  (PubMed)

43.  Varkonyi T, Kempler P. Diabetic neuropathy: new strategies for treatment. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008;10(2):99-108.  (PubMed)

44.  Kohda Y, Shirakawa H, Yamane K, et al. Prevention of incipient diabetic cardiomyopathy by high-dose thiamine. J Toxicol Sci. 2008;33(4):459-472.  (PubMed)

45.  Lee DC, Chu J, Satz W, Silbergleit R. Low plasma thiamine levels in elder patients admitted through the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(10):1156-1159.  (PubMed)

46.  Ito Y, Yamanaka K, Susaki H, Igata A. A cross-investigation between thiamin deficiency and the physical condition of elderly people who require nursing care. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2012;58(3):210-216.  (PubMed)

47.  Prvulovic D, Hampel H. Amyloid beta(A-beta) and phospho-tau (p-tau) as diagnostic biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:367-374.  (PubMed)

48.  Kish SJ. Brain energy metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer's disease: alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and cytochrome oxidase. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;826:218-228.  (PubMed)

49.  Langbaum JB, Chen K, Lee W, et al. Categorical and correlational analyses of baseline fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). NeuroImage. 2009;45(4):1107-1116.  (PubMed)

50.  Arvanitakis Z, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer disease and decline in cognitive function. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(5):661-666.  (PubMed)

51.  Gibson GE, Hirsch JA, Cirio RT, Jordan BD, Fonzetti P, Elder J. Abnormal thiamine-dependent processes in Alzheimer's Disease. Lessons from diabetes. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013;55:17-25.  (PubMed)

52.  Glaso M, Nordbo G, Diep L, Bohmer T. Reduced concentrations of several vitamins in normal weight patients with late-onset dementia of the Alzheimer type without vascular disease. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(5):407-413.  (PubMed)

53.  Bender DA. Optimum nutrition: thiamin, biotin and pantothenate. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58(2):427-433.  (PubMed)

54.  Mastrogiacoma F, Bettendorff L, Grisar T, Kish SJ. Brain thiamine, its phosphate esters, and its metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 1996;39(5):585-591.  (PubMed)

55.  Heroux M, Raghavendra Rao VL, Lavoie J, Richardson JS, Butterworth RF. Alterations of thiamine phosphorylation and of thiamine-dependent enzymes in Alzheimer's disease. Metab Brain Dis. 1996;11(1):81-88.  (PubMed)

56.  Pan X, Gong N, Zhao J, et al. Powerful beneficial effects of benfotiamine on cognitive impairment and beta-amyloid deposition in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mice. Brain. 2010;133(Pt 5):1342-1351.  (PubMed)

57.  Karuppagounder SS, Xu H, Shi Q, et al. Thiamine deficiency induces oxidative stress and exacerbates the plaque pathology in Alzheimer's mouse model. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30(10):1587-1600.  (PubMed)

58.  Zhang Q, Yang G, Li W, et al. Thiamine deficiency increases beta-secretase activity and accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides. Neurobiol Aging. 2011;32(1):42-53.  (PubMed)

59.  Dumont M, Beal MF. Neuroprotective strategies involving ROS in Alzheimer disease. Free Rad Res Med. 2011;51(5):1014-1026.  (PubMed)

60.  Nolan KA, Black RS, Sheu KF, Langberg J, Blass JP. A trial of thiamine in Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurology. 1991;48(1):81-83.  (PubMed)

61.  Meador K, Loring D, Nichols M, et al. Preliminary findings of high-dose thiamine in dementia of Alzheimer's type. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1993;6(4):222-229.  (PubMed)

62.  Mimori Y, Katsuoka H, Nakamura S. Thiamine therapy in Alzheimer's disease. Metab Brain Dis. 1996;11(1):89-94.  (PubMed)

63.  Rodriguez-Martin JL, Qizilbash N, Lopez-Arrieta JM. Thiamine for Alzheimer's disease (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;2:CD001498.  (PubMed)

64.  Hanninen SA, Darling PB, Sole MJ, Barr A, Keith ME. The prevalence of thiamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(2):354-361.  (PubMed)

65.  Wilkinson TJ, Hanger HC, George PM, Sainsbury R. Is thiamine deficiency in elderly people related to age or co-morbidity? Age Ageing. 2000;29(2):111-116.  (PubMed)

66.  Shimon I, Almog S, Vered Z, et al. Improved left ventricular function after thiamine supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure receiving long-term furosemide therapy. Am J Med. 1995;98(5):485-490.  (PubMed)

67.  Leslie D, Gheorghiade M. Is there a role for thiamine supplementation in the management of heart failure? Am Heart J. 1996;131(6):1248-1250.

68.  Comin-Anduix B, Boren J, Martinez S, et al. The effect of thiamine supplementation on tumour proliferation. A metabolic control analysis study. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268(15):4177-4182.  (PubMed)

69.  Zastre JA, Hanberry BS, Sweet RL, et al. Up-regulation of vitamin B1 homeostasis genes in breast cancer. J Nutr Biochem. 2013. May 1 [Epub ahead of print]  (PubMed)

70.  Boros LG, Brandes JL, Lee WN, et al. Thiamine supplementation to cancer patients: a double edged sword. Anticancer Res. 1998;18(1B):595-602.  (PubMed)

71.  Naito E, Ito M, Yokota I, Saijo T, Ogawa Y, Kuroda Y. Diagnosis and molecular analysis of three male patients with thiamine-responsive pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. J Neurological Sci. 2002;201(1-2):33-37.  (PubMed)

72.  Patel KP, O'Brien TW, Subramony SH, Shuster J, Stacpoole PW. The spectrum of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: clinical, biochemical and genetic features in 371 patients. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;106(3):385-394.  (PubMed)

73.  Lee EH, Ahn MS, Hwang JS, Ryu KH, Kim SJ, Kim SH. A Korean female patient with thiamine-responsive pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency due to a novel point mutation (Y161C)in the PDHA1 gene. J Korean Med Sci. 2006;21(5):800-804.  (PubMed)

74.  Chuang DT, Chuang JL, Wynn RM. Lessons from genetic disorders of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. J Nutr. 2006;136(1 Suppl):243S-249S.  (PubMed)

75.  Shaw-Smith C, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, et al. Recessive SLC19A2 mutations are a cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus in thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia. Pediatr Diabetes. 2012;13(4):314-321.  (PubMed)

76.  Akin L, Kurtoglu S, Kendirci M, Akin MA, Karakukcu M. Does early treatment prevent deafness in thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia syndrome? J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2011;3(1):36-39.  (PubMed)

77.  Alfadhel M, Almuntashri M, Jadah RH, et al. Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease should be renamed biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease: a retrospective review of the clinical, radiological and molecular findings of 18 new cases. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2013;8:83.  (PubMed)

78.  LeBlanc JG, Milani C, de Giori GS, Sesma F, van Sinderen D, Ventura M. Bacteria as vitamin suppliers to their host: a gut microbiota perspective. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2013;24(2):160-168.  (PubMed)

79.  Russell RM, Suter PM. Vitamin requirements of elderly people: an update. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58(1):4-14.  (PubMed)

80.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. 2012. Available at: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov. Accessed 6/21/13.

81.  Thiamin (vitamin B1). In: Hendler S, Rorvik D, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Physicians' Desk Reference Inc.; 2008:609-615.

82.  Flodin N. Pharmacology of micronutrients. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.; 1988.

83.  Schumann K. Interactions between drugs and vitamins at advanced age. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1999;69(3):173-178.  (PubMed)

84.  Subramanya SB, Subramanian VS, Said HM. Chronic alcohol consumption and intestinal thiamin absorption: effects on physiological and molecular parameters of the uptake process. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299(1):G23-G31.  (PubMed)

85.  Subramanian VS, Subramanya SB, Tsukamoto H, Said HM. Effect of chronic alcohol feeding on physiological and molecular parameters of renal thiamin transport. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299(1):F28-F34.  (PubMed)