The Cancer Chemoprotection Program (CCP) Core Laboratory provides genetic toxicology testing services. Its mission is to help investigators identify dietary compounds with chemoprotective properties and to elucidate their inhibitory mechanism(s). Several techniques, including the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test), single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay), and micronucleus assay, enable investigators to assess the mutagenic, DNA-damaging, and clastogenic effects of chemicals. Using known mutagens or clastogens as positive controls, we study the potential beneficial activities of dietary compounds or other chemicals against those DNA-damaging agents. We also recently implemented a Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) assay to identify dietary HDAC inhibitors, which are of interest in cancer chemoprotection.
Oxidative and nitrative stress can be produced by inflammation, disease, or environmental exposure, including tobacco smoke. The resulting reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can react with lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in the body to form molecules measurable by sensitive chemical analytical methods. These molecules can serve as "biomarkers" to reveal an individual's state of health or the effectiveness of dietary or pharmaceutical interventions. For example, F2-isoprostanes and their metabolites are considered good biomarkers of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation. The Oxidative/Nitrative Stress Core Laboratory (ONSL) has several high-performance liquid chromatographs (HPLCs) coupled to UV, fluorescence, electrochemical, and single and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer detectors. ONSL also has several solid phase extraction robots for sample preparation. These facilities provide LPI investigators with state-of-the-art chemical analysis of biomarkers, antioxidants, and drug metabolites.
The Food Composition Laboratory provides chemical analyses of food composition and nutritional factors. We provide analyses of food, feed or dietary supplement samples for vitamins, phytochemicals and other compositional factors.