TitleThe Critical Role of X Chromosome-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) in Differential Synergism Induced by Pentachlorophenol and Copper-1,10-Phenanthroline Complex in Normal and Cancer Liver Cells.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsSheng Z-G, Shen C, Fan R-M, Chao X-J, Liu Y-X, Zhu B-Z
JournalToxicol Sci
Date Published2019 04 01
KeywordsApoptosis, Cell Survival, Copper, Drug Synergism, Hep G2 Cells, Hepatocytes, Humans, Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial, Organometallic Compounds, Pentachlorophenol, Phenanthrolines, Reactive Oxygen Species, Transcriptome, X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein

Chemical pollutants often co-occur and can interact to cause unexpected combined toxic effects. Both pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-1,10-phenanthroline [Cu(OP)2], used as wood preservatives, coexist in fluids and tissues of ordinary population. Our previous studies demonstrate that a combination of subtoxic PCP and Cu(OP)2 causes synergistic toxicity on Escherichia coli and hepatocarcinoma cells. However, it is not clear whether this effect also occurs in normal hepatocytes; and if so, what are the differences as compared with the hepatocarcinoma cells. We demonstrate that the combination of low-toxic PCP and Cu(OP)2 (0-1.6 µM; PCP/Cu(OP)2 molar ratio: 2:1) induces a concentration-dependent intracellular copper accumulation, apoptosis, caspase-3/9 activation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species increasing and glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio decreasing) in both normal hepatocytes HL-7702 and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. However, HepG2 cells are more susceptible to the above molecular events as compared with HL-7702 cells. Further data reveal that PCP/Cu(OP)2 markedly decreases X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), p-ERK-1/2, and p-JNK protein expression in HepG2, but not HL-7702. Overexpression of XIAP gene in HepG2 significantly blocks PCP/Cu(OP)2-induced cytotoxicity, caspase activity, apoptosis, ROS accumulation, and antioxidant genes expression. These results suggest that the combination of low-toxic PCP and Cu(OP)2 preferentially induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human hepatocarcinoma cells by XIAP-ROS-apoptosis pathway, compared with the normal hepatocytes. The present data not only confirm the synergistic toxicity of PCP/Cu(OP)2 combination in normal liver cells, but also suggest a possible opportunity in developing new therapeutic approaches for liver cancer by sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapy.

Alternate JournalToxicol Sci
PubMed ID30590774