TitleDiet composition influences the effect of high fat diets on bone in growing male mice.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsBeaver LM, Prati M, Gilman KE, Luo T, Shay NF, Branscum AJ, Turner RT, Iwaniec UT
Date Published2023 Nov
KeywordsAnimals, Diaphyses, Diet, High-Fat, Male, Mice, Obesity, Soybean Oil, Weight Gain, X-Ray Microtomography

The effect of diet-induced obesity on bone in rodents is variable, with bone mass increases, decreases, and no impact reported. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the composition of obesogenic diet may influence bone independent of its effect on body weight. As proof-of-principle, we used a mouse model to compare the skeletal effects of a commonly used high fat 'Western' diet and a modified high fat diet. The modified high fat diet included ground English walnut and was isocaloric for macronutrients, but differed in fatty acid composition and contained nutrients (e.g. polyphenols) not present in the standard 'Western' diet. Eight-week-old mice were randomized into 1 of 3 dietary treatments (n = 8/group): (1) low fat control diet (LF; 10 % kcal fat); (2) high fat 'Western' diet (HF; 46 % kcal fat as soybean oil and lard); or (3) modified high fat diet supplemented with ground walnuts (HF + walnut; 46 % kcal fat as soybean oil, lard, and walnut) and maintained on their respective diets for 9 weeks. Bone response in femur was then evaluated using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, microcomputed tomography, and histomorphometry. Consumption of both obesogenic diets resulted in increased weight gain but differed in impact on bone and bone marrow adiposity in distal femur metaphysis. Mice consuming the high fat 'Western' diet exhibited a tendency for lower cancellous bone volume fraction and connectivity density, and had lower osteoblast-lined bone perimeter (an index of bone formation) and higher bone marrow adiposity than low fat controls. Mice fed the modified high fat diet did not differ from mice fed control (low fat) diet in cancellous bone microarchitecture, or osteoblast-lined bone perimeter, and exhibited lower bone marrow adiposity compared to mice fed the 'Western' diet. This proof-of-principal study demonstrates that two obesogenic diets, similar in macronutrient distribution and induction of weight gain, can have different effects on cancellous bone in distal femur metaphysis. Because the composition of the diets used to induce obesity in rodents does not recapitulate a common human diet, our finding challenges the translatability of rodent studies evaluating the impact of diet-induced obesity on bone.

Alternate JournalBone
PubMed ID37652285