TitleNo Clinically Relevant Pharmacokinetic Interactions of a Red Clover Dietary Supplement with Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Women.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsChen L, Choi J, Leonard SW, Banuvar S, Barengolts E, Viana M, Chen S-N, Pauli GF, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB
JournalJ Agric Food Chem
Date Published2020 Nov 25

Extracts of red clover ( L.), containing estrogenic isoflavones like genistein and daidzein and the proestrogenic isoflavones formononetin and biochanin A, are used by women as dietary supplements for the management of menopausal symptoms. Although marketed as a safer alternative to hormone therapy, red clover isoflavones have been reported to inhibit some cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in drug metabolism. To evaluate the potential for clinically relevant drug-red clover interactions, we tested a standardized red clover dietary supplement (120 mg isoflavones per day) for interactions with the pharmacokinetics of four FDA-approved drugs (caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and alprazolam) as probe substrates for the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5, respectively. Fifteen peri- and postmenopausal women completed pharmacokinetic studies at baseline and 2 weeks after consuming red clover. The averaged pharmacokinetic profiles of probe substrates in serum showed no significant alterations and no changes in the areas under the curve (AUC) over 96 h. Subgroup analysis based on the demographic characteristics (BMI, menopausal status, race, and age) also showed no differences in AUC for each probe substrate. Analysis of red clover isoflavones in serum showed primarily conjugated metabolites that explain, at least in part, the red clover pharmacokinetic safety profile.

Alternate JournalJ Agric Food Chem
PubMed ID33197178