TitlePharmacokinetics and Early Tumor Response to Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization with Sorafenib and Doxorubicin in a VX2 Rabbit Tumor Model.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsElkhadragy L, Khabbaz RC, Muchiri RN, Totura WM, Samuelson JP, Whiteley HE, van Breemen RB, R Lokken P, Gaba RC
JournalJ Vasc Interv Radiol
Date Published2022 Oct
KeywordsAnimals, Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, Chemoembolization, Therapeutic, Doxorubicin, Emulsions, Ethiodized Oil, Hypoxia, Liver Neoplasms, Necrosis, Rabbits, Sorafenib, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A

PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and early effects of conventional transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using sorafenib and doxorubicin on tumor necrosis, hypoxia markers, and angiogenesis in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: VX2 tumor-laden New Zealand White rabbits (N = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group was treated with hepatic arterial administration of ethiodized oil and doxorubicin emulsion (DOX-TACE), and the other group was treated with ethiodized oil, sorafenib, and doxorubicin emulsion (SORA-DOX-TACE). Animals were killed within 3 days of the procedure. Levels of sorafenib and doxorubicin were measured in blood, tumor, and adjacent liver using mass spectrometry. Tumor necrosis was determined by histopathological examination. Intratumoral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvessel density (MVD) were determined by immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS: The median intratumoral concentration of sorafenib in the SORA-DOX-TACE group was 17.7 μg/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 7.42-33.5 μg/mL), and its maximal plasma concentration (C) was 0.164 μg/mL (IQR, 0.0798-0.528 μg/mL). The intratumoral concentration and C of doxorubicin were similar between the groups: 4.08 μg/mL (IQR, 3.18-4.79 μg/mL) and 0.677 μg/mL (IQR, 0.315-1.23 μg/mL), respectively, in the DOX-TACE group and 1.68 μg/mL (IQR, 0.795-4.08 μg/mL) and 0.298 μg/mL (IQR, 0.241-0.64 μg/mL), respectively, in the SORA-DOX-TACE group. HIF-1α expression was increased in the SORA-DOX-TACE group than in the DOX-TACE group. Tumor volume, tumor necrosis, VEGF expression, and MVD were similar between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The addition of sorafenib to DOX-TACE delivered to VX2 liver tumors resulted in high intratumoral and low systemic concentrations of sorafenib without altering the PK of doxorubicin.

Alternate JournalJ Vasc Interv Radiol
PubMed ID35850455