TitleProtective versus promotional effects of white tea and caffeine on PhIP-induced tumorigenesis and beta-catenin expression in the rat.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsWang R, W Dashwood M, Löhr CV, Fischer KA, Pereira CB, Louderback M, Nakagama H, Bailey GS, Williams DE, Dashwood RH
Date Published2008 Apr
KeywordsAnimals, Anticarcinogenic Agents, beta Catenin, Caffeine, Carcinogens, Catechin, Colonic Neoplasms, Imidazoles, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational, Rats, Survival Analysis, Tea

A 1 year carcinogenicity bioassay was conducted in rats treated with three short cycles of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)/high-fat (HF) diet, followed by 2% white tea (wt/vol), 0.05% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) or 0.065% caffeine as sole source of fluid intake. Thirty-two percent of the PhIP/HF controls survived to 1 year, compared with 50, 48.7 and 18.2% in groups given white tea, EGCG and caffeine, respectively. After 1 year, PhIP/HF controls had tumors in the colon, skin, small intestine, Zymbal's gland, salivary gland and pancreas. For all sites combined, excluding the colon, tumor incidence data were as follows: PhIP/HF 69.5%, PhIP/HF + EGCG 48.7%, PhIP/HF + white tea 46.9% and PhIP/HF + caffeine 13.3%. Unexpectedly, a higher incidence of colon tumors was detected in rats post-treated with white tea (69%) and caffeine (73%) compared with the 42% incidence in PhIP/HF controls. In the colon tumors, beta-catenin mutations were detected at a higher frequency after caffeine posttreatment, and there was a shift toward more tumors harboring substitutions of Gly34 with correspondingly high protein and messenger RNA expression seen for both beta-catenin and c-Myc. c-Myc expression exhibited concordance with tumor promotion, and there was a concomitant increase in cell proliferation versus apoptosis in colonic crypts. A prior report described suppression of PhIP-induced colonic aberrant crypts by the same test agents, but did not incorporate a HF diet. These findings are discussed in the context of epidemiological data which do not support an adverse effect of tea and coffee on colon tumor outcome-indeed, some such studies suggest a protective role for caffeinated beverages.

Alternate JournalCarcinogenesis
PubMed ID18283038
PubMed Central IDPMC2796682
Grant ListCA122959 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P01 CA090890 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P01 CA090890-01A20003 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
CA90890 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA122959-02 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA122959-01A2 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R29 CA065525 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P01 CA090890-05 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA065525 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA122959 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
CA65525 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA065525-10 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P01 CA090890-01A29001 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States