|Reductive Metabolism of Xanthohumol and 8-Prenylnaringenin by the Intestinal Bacterium Eubacterium ramulus.
|Year of Publication
|Paraiso IL, Plagmann LS, Yang L, Zielke R, Gombart AF, Maier CS, Sikora AE, Blakemore PR, Stevens JF
|Mol Nutr Food Res
SCOPE: The intestinal microbiota transforms a wide range of available substrates, including polyphenols. Microbial catabolites of polyphenols can contribute in significant ways to the health-promoting properties of their parent polyphenols. This work aims to identify intestinal metabolites of xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus) and beer, as well as to identify pathways of metabolism of XN in the gut.
METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate intestinal metabolism, XN and related prenylated flavonoids, isoxanthohumol (IX), and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) were added to growing cultures of intestinal bacteria, Eubacterium ramulus and E. limosum. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify metabolites of the flavonoids from the cultures. The metabolic capacity of E. limosum appears to be limited to O-demethylation. Evidence from the study indicates that E. ramulus hydrogenates XN to form α,β-dihydroxanthohumol (DXN) and metabolizes the potent phytoestrogen 8PN into the chalcones, O-desmethylxanthohumol (DMX) and O-desmethyl-α,β-dihydroxanthohumol (DDXN).
CONCLUSION: Microbial metabolism is likely to affect both activity and toxicity of XN and derivatives. This study along with others highlights that attention should be focused on metabolites, in particular, products of intestinal microbial metabolism.
|Mol Nutr Food Res
|PubMed Central ID
|R01 AT009168 / AT / NCCIH NIH HHS / United States
R01 AT010271 / AT / NCCIH NIH HHS / United States
S10 RR022589 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States