TitleVitamin E absorption and kinetics in healthy women, as modulated by food and by fat, studied using 2 deuterium-labeled α-tocopherols in a 3-phase crossover design.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsTraber MG, Leonard SW, Ebenuwa I, Violet P-C, Wang Y, Niyyati M, Padayatty S, Tu H, Courville A, Bernstein S, Choi J, Shamburek R, Smith S, Head B, Bobe G, Ramakrishnan R, Levine M
JournalAm J Clin Nutr
Date Published2019 11 01
KeywordsAdult, Cross-Over Studies, Deuterium, Dietary Fats, Fasting, Female, Humans, Meals, Models, Theoretical, Research Design, Vitamin E

BACKGROUND: Determining the human vitamin E [α-tocopherol (α-T)] requirement is difficult, and novel approaches to assess α-T absorption and trafficking are needed.

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the dual-isotope technique, using 2 deuterium-labeled [intravenous (IV) d6- and oral d3-] α-T, would be effective in determining α-T fractional absorption. Further, defined liquid meal (DLM) fat or fasting would modulate α-T fractional absorption and lipoprotein transport.

METHODS: A 3-phase cr ossover design was used. At 0 h, participants received IV d6-α-T and consumed d3-α-T with a 600-kcal DLM (40% or 0% fat) followed by controlled meals or by the 0% fat DLM, a 12-h fast, and then controlled meals. Blood samples and fecal samples were collected at intervals and analyzed by LC-MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from plasma tracer concentrations and enrichments. Fractional absorption was calculated from d3- to d6-α-T areas under the curve, from a novel mathematical model, and from the balance method (oral d3-α-T minus fecal d3-α-T excreted).

RESULTS: Estimated α-T fractional absorption during the 40% fat intervention was 55% ± 3% (mean ± SEM; n = 10), which was 9% less than during the 0% fat intervention (64% ± 3%, n = 10; P < 0.02). Fasting had no apparent effect (56% ± 3%, n = 7), except it slowed plasma oral d3-α-T appearance. Both balance data and model outcomes confirmed that the DLM fat did not potentiate d3-α-T absorption. During the IV emulsion clearance, HDL rapidly acquired d6-α-T (21 ± 2 nmol/L plasma per minute). During the first 8 h postdosing, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) were preferentially d3-α-T enriched relative to LDL or HDL, showing the TRL precursor role.

CONCLUSIONS: Quantitatively, α-T absorption is not limited by fat absence or by fasting. However, α-T leaves the intestine by a process that is prolonged during fasting and potentiated by eating, suggesting that α-T absorption is highly dependent on chylomicron assembly processes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00862433.

PubMed ID31495886
PubMed Central IDPMC6821549