|Vitamin E sequestration by liver fat in humans.
|Year of Publication
|Violet P-C, Ebenuwa IC, Wang Y, Niyyati M, Padayatty SJ, Head B, Wilkins K, Chung S, Thakur V, Ulatowski L, Atkinson J, Ghelfi M, Smith S, Tu H, Bobe G, Liu C-Y, Herion DW, Shamburek RD, Manor D, Traber MG, Levine M
|2020 Jan 16
BACKGROUNDWe hypothesized that obesity-associated hepatosteatosis is a pathophysiological chemical depot for fat-soluble vitamins and altered normal physiology. Using α-tocopherol (vitamin E) as a model vitamin, pharmacokinetics and kinetics principles were used to determine whether excess liver fat sequestered α-tocopherol in women with obesity-associated hepatosteatosis versus healthy controls.METHODSCustom-synthesized deuterated α-tocopherols (d3- and d6-α-tocopherols) were administered to hospitalized healthy women and women with hepatosteatosis under investigational new drug guidelines. Fluorescently labeled α-tocopherol was custom-synthesized for cell studies.RESULTSIn healthy subjects, 85% of intravenous d6-α-tocopherol disappeared from the circulation within 20 minutes but reappeared within minutes and peaked at 3-4 hours; d3- and d6-α-tocopherols localized to lipoproteins. Lipoprotein redistribution occurred only in vivo within 1 hour, indicating a key role of the liver in uptake and re-release. Compared with healthy subjects who received 2 mg, subjects with hepatosteatosis had similar d6-α-tocopherol entry rates into liver but reduced initial release rates (P < 0.001). Similarly, pharmacokinetics parameters were reduced in hepatosteatosis subjects, indicating reduced hepatic d6-α-tocopherol output. Reductions in kinetics and pharmacokinetics parameters in hepatosteatosis subjects who received 2 mg were echoed by similar reductions in healthy subjects when comparing 5- and 2-mg doses. In vitro, fluorescent-labeled α-tocopherol localized to lipid in fat-loaded hepatocytes, indicating sequestration.CONCLUSIONSThe unique role of the liver in vitamin E physiology is dysregulated by excess liver fat. Obesity-associated hepatosteatosis may produce unrecognized hepatic vitamin E sequestration, which might subsequently drive liver disease. Our findings raise the possibility that hepatosteatosis may similarly alter hepatic physiology of other fat-soluble vitamins.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00862433.FUNDINGNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and NIH grants DK053213-13, DK067494, and DK081761.