|Title||Water Extract Shows Low Potential for Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Interactions.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Wright KM, Magana AAlcazar, Laethem RM, Moseley CL, Banks TT, Maier CS, Stevens JF, Quinn JF, Soumyanath A|
|Journal||Drug Metab Dispos|
|Date Published||2020 Oct|
(CA) shows considerable promise for development as a botanical drug for cognitive decline. Its primary bioactive components include triterpene glycosides asiaticoside and madecassoside and their corresponding aglycones asiatic acid and madecassic acid. Exploration of the bioactivity of CA's caffeoylquinic acids is ongoing. In this study, an aqueous extract of CA (CAW-R61J) was evaluated for drug interaction potential through inhibition or induction of P450 enzymes, as required by the US Food and Drug Administration. CAW-R61J was assessed for induction potential of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 using transporter-certified cryopreserved human hepatocytes in sandwich culture. Gene expression of these target P450s was quantified, and enzyme activities were determined to confirm gene expression results. No induction was observed up to 16.7 µg/ml CAW-R61J (equivalent to 1.1 µM asiaticoside, 0.8 µM madecassoside, 0.09 µM asiatic acid, and 0.12 µM madecassic acid). Reversible and time-dependent inhibitory effects of CAW-R61J on CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5 were evaluated using human liver microsomes. CAW-R61J showed weak reversible inhibition of most of the P450 forms tested, with the strongest being CYP2C9 (IC of 330 µg/ml). CAW-R61J (≤1000 µg/ml) was not a time-dependent inhibitor of any of these P450 enzymes. In summary, CAW-R61J had no, or only a weak impact, on P450 induction and inhibition in vitro. The clinical relevance of these results will depend on the in vivo concentration of CAW-R61J components achieved in humans. Plasma triterpene concentrations measured in our recent clinical studies suggest minimal risk of P450-mediated drug interactions by these components. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: A preparation of is currently under clinical development for the prevention or treatment of cognitive decline. The US Food and Drug Administration required an evaluation of its potential for drug interactions mediated through drug-metabolizing enzymes. This in vitro study revealed minimal induction or inhibition of a range of P450 enzymes, including CYP3A4, by the extract, suggesting a low potential for drug interactions modulated by P450 metabolism.