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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Micronutrients and Cognitive Function


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22.  Bates CJ. Thiamin. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM,eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. 9th ed. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:242-249.

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28.  Miller JW, Rogers LM, Rucker RB. Pantothenic acid. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. 9th ed. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:327-339.

29.  Brody T. Lipids. Nutritional biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999:311-378.

30.  Plesofsky-Vig N. Pantothenic acid. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:423-432.

31.  Hodges RE, Ohlson MA, Bean WB. Pantothenic acid deficiency in man. J Clin Invest. 1958;37(11):1642-1657.  (PubMed)

32.  Fry PC, Fox HM, Tao HG. Metabolic response to a pantothenic acid deficient diet in humans. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1976;22(4):339-346.  (PubMed)

33.  Leklem JE. Vitamin B6. In: Machlin L, ed. Hanbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Decker Inc.; 1991:341-378.

34.  Camporeale G, Zempleni J. Biotin. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM,eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:314-326.

35.  Mock DM. Biotin. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:482-497.

36.  Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd. Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr. 1999;129(4):779-782.  (PubMed)

37.  Coppen A, Swade C, Jones SA, Armstrong RA, Blair JA, Leeming RJ. Depression and tetrahydrobiopterin: the folate connection. J Affect Disord. 1989;16(2-3):103-107.  (PubMed)

38.  Yudkoff M. Diseases of amino acid metabolism. In: Siegel GJ, ed. Basic neurochemistry: molecular, cellular, and medical aspects. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:887-915.

39.  Baik HW, Russell RM. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:357-377.  (PubMed)

40.  Lindenbaum J, Healton EB, Savage DG, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by cobalamin deficiency in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis. N Engl J Med. 1988;318(26):1720-1728.  (PubMed)

41.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin B12. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:306-356.

42.  Healton EB, Savage DG, Brust JC, Garrett TJ, Lindenbaum J. Neurologic aspects of cobalamin deficiency. Medicine (Baltimore). 1991;70(4):229-245.  (PubMed)

43.  Stabler SP. Vitamin B12 In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:302-313.

44.  Harrison FE, May JM. Vitamin C function in the brain: vital role of the ascorbate transporter SVCT2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46(6):719-730.  (PubMed)

45.  Carr AC, Frei B. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(6):1086-1107.  (PubMed)

46.  Garcion E, Wion-Barbot N, Montero-Menei CN, Berger F, Wion D. New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2002;13(3):100-105.  (PubMed)

47.  McCann JC, Ames BN. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction? Faseb J. 2008;22(4):982-1001.  (PubMed)

48.  Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(3):266-281.  (PubMed)

49.  Holick MF, Matsuoka LY, Wortsman J. Age, vitamin D, and solar ultraviolet. Lancet. 1989;2(8671):1104-1105.  (PubMed)

50.  Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Langa KM, et al. Vitamin D and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(13):1135-1141.  (PubMed)

51.  Wilkins CH, Sheline YI, Roe CM, Birge SJ, Morris JC. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14(12):1032-1040.  (PubMed)

52.  Lee DM, Tajar A, Ulubaev A, et al. Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older European men. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80(7):722-729.  (PubMed)

53.  Annweiler C, Schott AM, Allali G, et al. Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study. Neurology. 2010;74(1):27-32.  (PubMed)

54.  Przybelski RJ, Binkley NC. Is vitamin D important for preserving cognition? A positive correlation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration with cognitive function. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;460(2):202-205.  (PubMed)

55.  Buell JS, Scott TM, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Vitamin D is associated with cognitive function in elders receiving home health services. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009;64(8):888-895.  (PubMed)

56.  Annweiler C, Allali G, Allain P, et al. Vitamin D and cognitive performance in adults: a systematic review. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(10):1083-1089.  (PubMed)

57.  MacEvilly CJ, Muller DP. Lipid peroxidation in neural tissues and fractions from vitamin E-deficient rats. Free Radic Biol Med. 1996;20(5):639-648.  (PubMed)

58.  Traber MG. Vitamin E. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:396-411.

59.  Traber MG. Vitamin E. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM,eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:211-219.

60.  Hidalgo C, Nunez MT. Calcium, iron and neuronal function. IUBMB Life. 2007;59(4-5):280-285.  (PubMed)

61.  Toescu EC, Verkhratsky A. The importance of being subtle: small changes in calcium homeostasis control cognitive decline in normal aging. Aging Cell. 2007;6(3):267-273.  (PubMed)

62.  Foster TC. Calcium homeostasis and modulation of synaptic plasticity in the aged brain. Aging Cell. 2007;6(3):319-325.  (PubMed)

63.  Hetzel BS, Clugston GA. Iodine. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC,eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:253-264.

64.  Dunn JT. What's happening to our iodine? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83(10):3398-3400.  (PubMed)

65.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Iodine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:258-289.

66.  Dunn JT. Iodine. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:300-311.

67.  Melse-Boonstra A, Jaiswal N. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;24(1):29-38.  (PubMed)

68.  Beard J. Iron. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM,eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:430-444.

69.  Brody T. Inorganic nutrients. Nutritional biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999:693-878.

70.  Gambling L, McArdle HJ. Iron, copper and fetal development. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004;63(4):553-562.  (PubMed)

71.  Kwik-Uribe CL, Golub MS, Keen CL. Chronic marginal iron intakes during early development in mice alter brain iron concentrations and behavior despite postnatal iron supplementation. J Nutr. 2000;130(8):2040-2048.  (PubMed)

72.  Rude RK, Shils ME. Magnesium. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:223-247.

73.  Arthur JR. The glutathione peroxidases. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000;57(13-14):1825-1835.  (PubMed)

74.  Gladyshev VN. Selenoproteins and selenoproteomes. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: its molecular biology and role in human health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:99-114.

75.  Sanchez V, Camarero J, O'Shea E, Green AR, Colado MI. Differential effect of dietary selenium on the long-term neurotoxicity induced by MDMA in mice and rats. Neuropharmacology. 2003;44(4):449-461.  (PubMed)

76.  Koh JY. Zinc and disease of the brain. Mol Neurobiol. 2001;24(1-3):99-106.  (PubMed)

77.  Henkin RI, Patten BM, Re PK, Bronzert DA. A syndrome of acute zinc loss. Cerebellar dysfunction, mental changes, anorexia, and taste and smell dysfunction. Arch Neurol. 1975;32(11):745-751.  (PubMed)

78.  Sandstead HH, Frederickson CJ, Penland JG. History of zinc as related to brain function. J Nutr. 2000;130(2S Suppl):496S-502S.  (PubMed)

79.  Bhatnagar S, Taneja S. Zinc and cognitive development. Br J Nutr. 2001;85 Suppl 2:S139-145.  (PubMed)

80.  Bitanihirwe BK, Cunningham MG. Zinc: the brain's dark horse. Synapse. 2009;63(11):1029-1049.  (PubMed)

81.  Blusztajn JK. Choline, a vital amine. Science. 1998;281(5378):794-795.  (PubMed)

82.  Zeisel SH. Choline: an essential nutrient for humans. Nutrition. 2000;16(7-8):669-671.  (PubMed)

83.  Zeisel SH, Niculescu MD. Choline and phosphatidylcholine. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:525-536.

84.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Choline. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:390-422.

85.  Zeisel SH. Choline and brain development. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM,eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI; 2006:352-360.

86.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary fats: total fat and fatty acids. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2002:422-541.

87.  Cunnane SC. Problems with essential fatty acids: time for a new paradigm? Prog Lipid Res. 2003;42(6):544-568.  (PubMed)

88.  Muskiet FA, Fokkema MR, Schaafsma A, Boersma ER, Crawford MA. Is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) essential? Lessons from DHA status regulation, our ancient diet, epidemiology and randomized controlled trials. J Nutr. 2004;134(1):183-186.  (PubMed)

89.  Haag M. Essential fatty acids and the brain. Can J Psychiatry. 2003;48(3):195-203.  (PubMed)

90.  Stillwell W, Wassall SR. Docosahexaenoic acid: membrane properties of a unique fatty acid. Chem Phys Lipids. 2003;126(1):1-27.  (PubMed)

91.  SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2005;24(1):87-138.  (PubMed)

92.  Su HM. Mechanisms of n-3 fatty acid-mediated development and maintenance of learning memory performance. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21(5):364-373.  (PubMed)

93.  Innis SM. Perinatal biochemistry and physiology of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Pediatr. 2003;143(4 Suppl):S1-8.  (PubMed)

94.  Chalon S, Vancassel S, Zimmer L, Guilloteau D, Durand G. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cerebral function: focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission. Lipids. 2001;36(9):937-944.  (PubMed)

95.  Lepage G, Levy E, Ronco N, Smith L, Galeano N, Roy CC. Direct transesterification of plasma fatty acids for the diagnosis of essential fatty acid deficiency in cystic fibrosis. J Lipid Res. 1989;30(10):1483-1490.  (PubMed)

96.  Jeppesen PB, Hoy CE, Mortensen PB. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(1):126-133.  (PubMed)

97.  Uauy R, Dangour AD. Nutrition in brain development and aging: role of essential fatty acids. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(5 Pt 2):S24-33; discussion S72-91.  (PubMed)

98.  Wainwright PE. Dietary essential fatty acids and brain function: a developmental perspective on mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002;61(1):61-69.  (PubMed)

99.  Lauritzen L, Hansen HS, Jorgensen MH, Michaelsen KF. The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Prog Lipid Res. 2001;40(1-2):1-94.  (PubMed)

100.  Wainwright PE. Do essential fatty acids play a role in brain and behavioral development? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1992;16(2):193-205.  (PubMed)

101.  Schmitt JA, Benton D, Kallus KW. General methodological considerations for the assessment of nutritional influences on human cognitive functions. Eur J Nutr. 2005;44(8):459-464.  (PubMed)

102.  Isaacs E, Oates J. Nutrition and cognition: assessing cognitive abilities in children and young people. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47 Suppl 3:4-24.  (PubMed)

103.  Benton D, Fordy J, Haller J. The impact of long-term vitamin supplementation on cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995;117(3):298-305.  (PubMed)

104.  Vazir S, Nagalla B, Thangiah V, Kamasamudram V, Bhattiprolu S. Effect of micronutrient supplement on health and nutritional status of schoolchildren: mental function. Nutrition. 2006;22(1 Suppl):S26-32.  (PubMed)

105.  Osendarp SJ, Baghurst KI, Bryan J, et al. Effect of a 12-mo micronutrient intervention on learning and memory in well-nourished and marginally nourished school-aged children: 2 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in Australia and Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(4):1082-1093.  (PubMed)

106.  Haskell CF, Scholey AB, Jackson PA, et al. Cognitive and mood effects in healthy children during 12 weeks' supplementation with multi-vitamin/minerals. Br J Nutr. 2008;100(5):1086-1096.  (PubMed)

107.  Bjork EL, Bjork RA. Memory. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc.; 1996.

108.  Hassing L, Wahlin A, Winblad B, Backman L. Further evidence on the effects of vitamin B12 and folate levels on episodic memory functioning: a population-based study of healthy very old adults. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45(11):1472-1480.  (PubMed)

109.  Goodwin JS, Goodwin JM, Garry PJ. Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. JAMA. 1983;249(21):2917-2921.  (PubMed)

110.  Wahlin A, Hill RD, Winblad B, Backman L. Effects of serum vitamin B12 and folate status on episodic memory performance in very old age: a population-based study. Psychol Aging. 1996;11(3):487-496.  (PubMed)

111.  Ebly EM, Schaefer JP, Campbell NR, Hogan DB. Folate status, vascular disease and cognition in elderly Canadians. Age Ageing. 1998;27(4):485-491.  (PubMed)

112.  Riggs KM, Spiro A, 3rd, Tucker K, Rush D. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(3):306-314.  (PubMed)

113.  Perrig WJ, Perrig P, Stahelin HB. The relation between antioxidants and memory performance in the old and very old. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45(6):718-724.  (PubMed)

114.  Perkins AJ, Hendrie HC, Callahan CM, et al. Association of antioxidants with memory in a multiethnic elderly sample using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(1):37-44.  (PubMed)

115.  Durga J, van Boxtel MP, Schouten EG, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9557):208-216.  (PubMed)

116.  McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(26):2764-2772.  (PubMed)

117.  Eussen SJ, de Groot LC, Joosten LW, et al. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(2):361-370.  (PubMed)

118.  Deijen JB, van der Beek EJ, Orlebeke JF, van den Berg H. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;109(4):489-496.  (PubMed)

119.  Bryan J, Calvaresi E, Hughes D. Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages. J Nutr. 2002;132(6):1345-1356.  (PubMed)

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123.  Zeisel SH. Choline and phosphatidylcholine. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern nutritition in health and disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:513-523.

124.  McCann JC, Hudes M, Ames BN. An overview of evidence for a causal relationship between dietary availability of choline during development and cognitive function in offspring. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(5):696-712.  (PubMed)

125.  Becker RE, Giacobini E. Mechanisms of cholinesterase inhibition in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: clinical, pharmacological, and therapeutic aspects. Drug Dev Res. 1988;12:163-195.

126.  Mohs RC, Davis KL, Tinklenberg JR, Hollister LE. Choline chloride effects on memory in the elderly. Neurobiol Aging. 1980;1(1):21-25.  (PubMed)

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130.  Bellebaum C, Daum I. Cerebellar involvement in executive control. Cerebellum. 2007;6(3):184-192.  (PubMed)

131.  Macready AL, Butler LT, Kennedy OB, Ellis JA, Williams CM, Spencer JP. Cognitive tests used in chronic adult human randomised controlled trial micronutrient and phytochemical intervention studies. Nutr Res Rev.1-30.  (PubMed)

132.  Miyake A, Friedman NP, Emerson MJ, Witzki AH, Howerter A, Wager TD. The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex "Frontal Lobe" tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cogn Psychol. 2000;41(1):49-100.  (PubMed)

133.  Haskell CF, Robertson B, Jones E, et al. Effects of a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement on cognitive function and fatigue during extended multi-tasking. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2010;25(6):448-461.  (PubMed)

134.  Kennedy DO, Veasey R, Watson A, et al. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;211(1):55-68.  (PubMed)

135.  McNeill G, Avenell A, Campbell MK, et al. Effect of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation on cognitive function in men and women aged 65 years and over: a randomised controlled trial. Nutr J. 2007;6:10.  (PubMed)

136.  van Uffelen JG, Chinapaw MJ, van Mechelen W, Hopman-Rock M. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(5):344-351.  (PubMed)

137.  Benton D, Haller J, Fordy J. Vitamin supplementation for 1 year improves mood. Neuropsychobiology. 1995;32(2):98-105.  (PubMed)

138.  Carroll D, Ring C, Suter M, Willemsen G. The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;150(2):220-225.  (PubMed)

139.  Schlebusch L, Bosch BA, Polglase G, Kleinschmidt I, Pillay BJ, Cassimjee MH. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-centre study of the effects of an oral multivitamin-mineral combination on stress. S Afr Med J. 2000;90(12):1216-1223.  (PubMed)

140.  Sawada T, Yokoi K. Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(3):331-333.  (PubMed)

141.  Benton D, Griffiths R, Haller J. Thiamine supplementation mood and cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997;129(1):66-71.  (PubMed)

142.  Evans-Olders R, Eintracht S, Hoffer LJ. Metabolic origin of hypovitaminosis C in acutely hospitalized patients. Nutrition. 2010;26(11-12):1070-1074.  (PubMed)

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