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References: Coffee


1.  Spiller MA. The Chemical Components of Coffee. In: Spiller GA, ed. Caffeine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1998:97-161.

2.  Clifford MN. Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates--nature occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric. 1999;79:362-372.

3.  Iwai K, Kishimoto N, Kakino Y, Mochida K, Fujita T. In vitro antioxidative effects and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of seven hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives in green coffee beans. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(15):4893-4898.  (PubMed)

4.  Olthof MR, Hollman PC, Buijsman MN, van Amelsvoort JM, Katan MB. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea phenols are extensively metabolized in humans. J Nutr. 2003;133(6):1806-1814.  (PubMed)

5.  James JE. Critical review of dietary caffeine and blood pressure: a relationship that should be taken more seriously. Psychosom Med. 2004;66(1):63-71.  (PubMed)

6.  McCusker RR, Goldberger BA, Cone EJ. Caffeine content of specialty coffees. J Anal Toxicol. 2003;27(7):520-522.  (PubMed)

7.  Urgert R, Katan MB. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans. Annu Rev Nutr. 1997;17:305-324.  (PubMed)

8.  Gross G, Jaccaud E, Huggett AC. Analysis of the content of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee brews. Food Chem Toxicol. 1997;35(6):547-554.  (PubMed)

9.  Urgert R, van der Weg G, Kosmeijer-Schuil TG, van de Bovenkamp P, Hovenier R, Katan MB. Levels of the cholesterol-elevating diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in various coffee brews. J Agric Food Chem. 1995;43(8):2167-2172.

10.  Hu G, Jousilahti P, Peltonen M, Bidel S, Tuomilehto J. Joint association of coffee consumption and other factors to the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in Finland. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30(12):1742-1749.  (PubMed)

11.  Carlsson S, Hammar N, Grill V, Kaprio J. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish twins. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33(3):616-617.  (PubMed)

12.  Rosengren A, Dotevall A, Wilhelmsen L, Thelle D, Johansson S. Coffee and incidence of diabetes in Swedish women: a prospective 18-year follow-up study. J Intern Med. 2004;255(1):89-95.  (PubMed)

13.  Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, et al. Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(1):1-8.  (PubMed)

14.  Tuomilehto J, Hu G, Bidel S, Lindstrom J, Jousilahti P. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Finnish men and women. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1213-1219.  (PubMed)

15.  van Dam RM, Feskens EJ. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lancet. 2002;360(9344):1477-1478.  (PubMed)

16.  van Dam RM, Hu FB. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. JAMA. 2005;294(1):97-104.  (PubMed)

17.  Greenberg JA, Axen KV, Schnoll R, Boozer CN. Coffee, tea and diabetes: the role of weight loss and caffeine. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005;29(9):1121-1129.  (PubMed)

18.  van Dam RM, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study in younger and middle-aged U.S. women. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):398-403.  (PubMed)

19.  Pereira MA, Parker ED, Folsom AR. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(12):1311-1316.  (PubMed)

20.  Keijzers GB, De Galan BE, Tack CJ, Smits P. Caffeine can decrease insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(2):364-369.  (PubMed)

21.  Petrie HJ, Chown SE, Belfie LM, et al. Caffeine ingestion increases the insulin response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in obese men before and after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(1):22-28.  (PubMed)

22.  Ascherio A, Weisskopf MG, O'Reilly EJ, et al. Coffee consumption, gender, and Parkinson's disease mortality in the cancer prevention study II cohort: the modifying effects of estrogen. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160(10):977-984.  (PubMed)

23.  Ascherio A, Zhang SM, Hernan MA, et al. Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson's disease in men and women. Ann Neurol. 2001;50(1):56-63.  (PubMed)

24.  Ross GW, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, et al. Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of Parkinson disease. JAMA. 2000;283(20):2674-2679.  (PubMed)

25.  Hu G, Bidel S, Jousilahti P, Antikainen R, Tuomilehto J. Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2007;22(15):2242-2248.  (PubMed)

26.  Schwarzschild MA, Chen JF, Ascherio A. Caffeinated clues and the promise of adenosine A(2A) antagonists in PD. Neurology. 2002;58(8):1154-1160.  (PubMed)

27.  Ascherio A, Chen H, Schwarzschild MA, Zhang SM, Colditz GA, Speizer FE. Caffeine, postmenopausal estrogen, and risk of Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2003;60(5):790-795.  (PubMed)

28.  Pollock BG, Wylie M, Stack JA, et al. Inhibition of caffeine metabolism by estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;39(9):936-940.  (PubMed)

29.  Tavani A, La Vecchia C. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea and cancer of the colon and rectum: a review of epidemiological studies, 1990-2003. Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(8):743-757.  (PubMed)

30.  Giovannucci E. Meta-analysis of coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147(11):1043-1052.  (PubMed)

31.  Michels KB, Willett WC, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci E. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(4):282-292.  (PubMed)

32.  Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Giovannucci E, Wolk A. Coffee consumption and incidence of colorectal cancer in two prospective cohort studies of Swedish women and men. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163(7):638-644.  (PubMed)

33.  Oba S, Shimizu N, Nagata C, et al. The relationship between the consumption of meat, fat, and coffee and the risk of colon cancer: a prospective study in Japan. Cancer Lett. 2006;244(2):260-267.  (PubMed)

34.  Lee KJ, Inoue M, Otani T, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a population-based prospective cohort of Japanese men and women. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(6):1312-1318.  (PubMed)

35.  Naganuma T, Kuriyama S, Akhter M, et al. Coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective cohort study in Japan. Int J Cancer. 2007;120(7):1542-1547.  (PubMed)

36.  Friedman SL, Schiano TD. Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. St. Louis: W. B. Saunders; 2004:940-944.

37.  Corrao G, Lepore AR, Torchio P, et al. The effect of drinking coffee and smoking cigarettes on the risk of cirrhosis associated with alcohol consumption. A case-control study. Provincial Group for the Study of Chronic Liver Disease. Eur J Epidemiol. 1994;10(6):657-664.  (PubMed)

38.  Corrao G, Zambon A, Bagnardi V, D'Amicis A, Klatsky A. Coffee, caffeine, and the risk of liver cirrhosis. Ann Epidemiol. 2001;11(7):458-465.  (PubMed)

39.  Gallus S, Tavani A, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Does coffee protect against liver cirrhosis? Ann Epidemiol. 2002;12(3):202-205.   (PubMed)

40.  Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA. Alcohol, smoking, coffee, and cirrhosis. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;136(10):1248-1257.  (PubMed)

41.  Tverdal A, Skurtveit S. Coffee intake and mortality from liver cirrhosis. Ann Epidemiol. 2003;13(6):419-423.  (PubMed)

42.  Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD. Coffee, tea, and mortality. Ann Epidemiol. 1993;3(4):375-381.  (PubMed)

43.  Klatsky AL, Morton C, Udaltsova N, Friedman GD. Coffee, cirrhosis, and transaminase enzymes. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(11):1190-1195.  (PubMed)

44.  Gallus S, Bertuzzi M, Tavani A, et al. Does coffee protect against hepatocellular carcinoma? Br J Cancer. 2002;87(9):956-959.  (PubMed)

45.  Gelatti U, Covolo L, Franceschini M, et al. Coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independently of its aetiology: a case-control study. J Hepatol. 2005;42(4):528-534.  (PubMed)

46.  Montella M, Polesel J, La Vecchia C, et al. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy. Int J Cancer. 2007;120(7):1555-1559.  (PubMed)

47.  Tanaka K, Hara M, Sakamoto T, et al. Inverse association between coffee drinking and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in Japan. Cancer Sci. 2007;98(2):214-218.  (PubMed)

48.  Ohfuji S, Fukushima W, Tanaka T, et al. Coffee consumption and reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with chronic type C liver disease: A case-control study. Hepatol Res. 2006;36(3):201-208.  (PubMed)

49.  Shimazu T, Tsubono Y, Kuriyama S, et al. Coffee consumption and the risk of primary liver cancer: Pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan. Int J Cancer. 2005;116(1):150-154.  (PubMed)

50.  Inoue M, Yoshimi I, Sobue T, Tsugane S. Influence of coffee drinking on subsequent risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study in Japan. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(4):293-300.  (PubMed)

51.  Kurozawa Y, Ogimoto I, Shibata A, et al. Coffee and risk of death from hepatocellular carcinoma in a large cohort study in Japan. Br J Cancer. 2005;93(5):607-610.  (PubMed)

52.  Hu G, Tuomilehto J, Pukkala E, et al. Joint effects of coffee consumption and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase on the risk of liver cancer. Hepatology. 2008;48(1):129-136.  (PubMed)

53.  Bravi F, Bosetti C, Tavani A, et al. Coffee drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis. Hepatology. 2007;46(2):430-435.  (PubMed)

54.  Larsson SC, Wolk A. Coffee consumption and risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2007;132(5):1740-1745.  (PubMed)

55.  Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Li TY, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Hu FB. The relationship of coffee consumption with mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(12):904-914.  (PubMed)

56.  Iwai N, Ohshiro H, Kurozawa Y, et al. Relationship between coffee and green tea consumption and all-cause mortality in a cohort of a rural Japanese population. J Epidemiol. 2002;12(3):191-198.  (PubMed)

57.  Murray SS, Bjelke E, Gibson RW, Schuman LM. Coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease and other causes: results from the Lutheran Brotherhood study, 1966-1978. Am J Epidemiol. 1981;113(6):661-667.  (PubMed)

58.  Jazbec A, Simic D, Corovic N, Durakovic Z, Pavlovic M. Impact of coffee and other selected factors on general mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease in Croatia. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21(4):332-340.  (PubMed)

59.  Rosengren A, Wilhelmsen L. Coffee, coronary heart disease and mortality in middle-aged Swedish men: findings from the Primary Prevention Study. J Intern Med. 1991;230(1):67-71.  (PubMed)

60.  Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stone CB. Does coffee drinking increase the risk of coronary heart disease? Results from a meta-analysis. Br Heart J. 1994;72(3):269-275.  (PubMed)

61.  Greenland S. A meta-analysis of coffee, myocardial infarction, and coronary death. Epidemiology. 1993;4(4):366-374.  (PubMed)

62.  Tverdal A, Stensvold I, Solvoll K, Foss OP, Lund-Larsen P, Bjartveit K. Coffee consumption and death from coronary heart disease in middle aged Norwegian men and women. BMJ. 1990;300(6724):566-569.  (PubMed)

63.  Myers MG, Basinski A. Coffee and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(9):1767-1772.  (PubMed)

64.  Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women. A ten-year follow-up. JAMA. 1996;275(6):458-462.  (PubMed)

65.  Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Willett WC, et al. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in men and women: a prospective cohort study. Circulation. 2006;113(17):2045-2053.  (PubMed)

66.  Andersen LF, Jacobs DR, Jr., Carlsen MH, Blomhoff R. Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(5):1039-1046.  (PubMed)

67.  Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Coffee and tea consumption in the Scottish Heart Health Study follow up: conflicting relations with coronary risk factors, coronary disease, and all cause mortality. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999;53(8):481-487.  (PubMed)

68.  Bidel S, Hu G, Qiao Q, Jousilahti P, Antikainen R, Tuomilehto J. Coffee consumption and risk of total and cardiovascular mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2006;49(11):2618-2626.  (PubMed)

69.  Denaro CP, Brown CR, Jacob P, 3rd, Benowitz NL. Effects of caffeine with repeated dosing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;40(3):273-278.   (PubMed)

70.  James JE. Chronic effects of habitual caffeine consumption on laboratory and ambulatory blood pressure levels. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1994;1(2):159-164.  (PubMed)

71.  Lovallo WR, Wilson MF, Vincent AS, Sung BH, McKey BS, Whitsett TL. Blood pressure response to caffeine shows incomplete tolerance after short-term regular consumption. Hypertension. 2004;43(4):760-765.  (PubMed)

72.  Jee SH, He J, Whelton PK, Suh I, Klag MJ. The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Hypertension. 1999;33(2):647-652.  (PubMed)

73.  Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CS, Arends LR, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. 2005;23(5):921-928.  (PubMed)

74.  Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360(9349):1903-1913.  (PubMed)

75.  Winkelmayer WC, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Curhan GC. Habitual caffeine intake and the risk of hypertension in women. JAMA. 2005;294(18):2330-2335.  (PubMed)

76.  Jee SH, He J, Appel LJ, Whelton PK, Suh I, Klag MJ. Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(4):353-362.  (PubMed)

77.  Splaver A, Lamas GA, Hennekens CH. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: biological mechanisms, observational epidemiology, and the need for randomized trials. Am Heart J. 2004;148(1):34-40.  (PubMed)

78.  Husemoen LL, Thomsen TF, Fenger M, Jorgensen T. Effect of lifestyle factors on plasma total homocysteine concentrations in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(8):1142-1150.  (PubMed)

79.  Mennen LI, de Courcy GP, Guilland JC, et al. Homocysteine, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and habitual diet in the French Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(6):1279-1289.  (PubMed)

80.  de Bree A, Verschuren WM, Blom HJ, Kromhout D. Lifestyle factors and plasma homocysteine concentrations in a general population sample. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(2):150-154.  (PubMed)

81.  Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Miller ER, 3rd, Maguire MG, Selhub J, Appel LJ. Association of dietary protein intake and coffee consumption with serum homocysteine concentrations in an older population. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(3):467-475.  (PubMed)

82.  Nygard O, Refsum H, Ueland PM, et al. Coffee consumption and plasma total homocysteine: The Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(1):136-143.  (PubMed)

83.  Christensen B, Mosdol A, Retterstol L, Landaas S, Thelle DS. Abstention from filtered coffee reduces the concentrations of plasma homocysteine and serum cholesterol--a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(3):302-307.  (PubMed)

84.  Urgert R, van Vliet T, Zock PL, Katan MB. Heavy coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine: a randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(5):1107-1110.  (PubMed)

85.  Grubben MJ, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(2):480-484.  (PubMed)

86.  Chelsky LB, Cutler JE, Griffith K, Kron J, McClelland JH, McAnulty JH. Caffeine and ventricular arrhythmias. An electrophysiological approach. JAMA. 1990;264(17):2236-2240.  (PubMed)

87.  Myers MG. Caffeine and cardiac arrhythmias. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114(2):147-150.  (PubMed)

88.  Frost L, Vestergaard P. Caffeine and risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(3):578-582.  (PubMed)

89.  Wilhelmsen L, Rosengren A, Lappas G. Hospitalizations for atrial fibrillation in the general male population: morbidity and risk factors. J Intern Med. 2001;250(5):382-389.  (PubMed)

90.  Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, Rotstein J, Hugenholtz A, Feeley M. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam. 2003;20(1):1-30.  (PubMed)

91.  Cnattingius S, Signorello LB, Anneren G, et al. Caffeine intake and the risk of first-trimester spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(25):1839-1845.  (PubMed)

92.  Giannelli M, Doyle P, Roman E, Pelerin M, Hermon C. The effect of caffeine consumption and nausea on the risk of miscarriage. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003;17(4):316-323.  (PubMed)

93.  Rasch V. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82(2):182-188.  (PubMed)

94.  Wen W, Shu XO, Jacobs DR, Jr., Brown JE. The associations of maternal caffeine consumption and nausea with spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology. 2001;12(1):38-42.  (PubMed)

95.  Weng X, Odouli R, Li DK. Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198(3):279 e271-278.  (PubMed)

96.  Fenster L, Hubbard AE, Swan SH, et al. Caffeinated beverages, decaffeinated coffee, and spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology. 1997;8(5):515-523.  (PubMed)

97.  Mills JL, Holmes LB, Aarons JH, et al. Moderate caffeine use and the risk of spontaneous abortion and intrauterine growth retardation. JAMA. 1993;269(5):593-597.  (PubMed)

98.  Savitz DA, Chan RL, Herring AH, Howards PP, Hartmann KE. Caffeine and miscarriage risk. Epidemiology. 2008;19(1):55-62.  (PubMed)

99.  Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, DerSimonian R, Clemens JD, Wilkins DG. Maternal serum paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(22):1639-1644.  (PubMed)

100.  Leviton A, Cowan L. A review of the literature relating caffeine consumption by women to their risk of reproductive hazards. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40(9):1271-1310.  (PubMed)

101.  Bracken MB, Triche E, Grosso L, Hellenbrand K, Belanger K, Leaderer BP. Heterogeneity in assessing self-reports of caffeine exposure: implications for studies of health effects. Epidemiology. 2002;13(2):165-171.  (PubMed)

102.  Martin TR, Bracken MB. The association between low birth weight and caffeine consumption during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(5):813-821.  (PubMed)

103.  Peacock JL, Bland JM, Anderson HR. Effects on birthweight of alcohol and caffeine consumption in smoking women. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991;45(2):159-163.  (PubMed)

104.  Bracken MB, Triche EW, Belanger K, Hellenbrand K, Leaderer BP. Association of maternal caffeine consumption with decrements in fetal growth. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(5):456-466.  (PubMed)

105.  Bech BH, Obel C, Henriksen TB, Olsen J. Effect of reducing caffeine intake on birth weight and length of gestation: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2007;334(7590):409.  (PubMed)

106.  Christian MS, Brent RL. Teratogen update: evaluation of the reproductive and developmental risks of caffeine. Teratology. 2001;64(1):51-78.  (PubMed)

107.  Browne ML. Maternal exposure to caffeine and risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review. Epidemiology. 2006;17(3):324-331.  (PubMed)

108.  American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):776-789.  (PubMed)

109.  Novak K, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2005.

110.  Engebretsen KM, Harris CR. Caffeine and Related Nonprescription Sympathomimetics. In: Ford MD, Delaney KA, Ling LJ, Erickson T, eds. Clinical Toxicology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 2001:310-315.

111.  Juliano LM, Griffiths RR. A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;176(1):1-29.  (PubMed)

112.  Dews PB, Curtis GL, Hanford KJ, O'Brien CP. The frequency of caffeine withdrawal in a population-based survey and in a controlled, blinded pilot experiment. J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;39(12):1221-1232.  (PubMed)

113.  Carrillo JA, Benitez J. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary caffeine and medications. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000;39(2):127-153.  (PubMed)

114.  Faber MS, Fuhr U. Time response of cytochrome P450 1A2 activity on cessation of heavy smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;76(2):178-184.  (PubMed)

115.  Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP. Caffeine and the calcium economy revisited. Osteoporos Int. 1995;5(2):97-102.  (PubMed)

116.  Hasling C, Sondergaard K, Charles P, Mosekilde L. Calcium metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporotic women is determined by dietary calcium and coffee intake. J Nutr. 1992;122(5):1119-1126.  (PubMed)

117.  Heaney RP. Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40(9):1263-1270.  (PubMed)

118.  Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Caffeine and bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(4):573-578.  (PubMed)

119.  Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Ryschon KL. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(5):694-700.  (PubMed)

120.  Fujiwara S, Kasagi F, Yamada M, Kodama K. Risk factors for hip fracture in a Japanese cohort. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12(7):998-1004.  (PubMed)

121.  Huopio J, Kroger H, Honkanen R, Saarikoski S, Alhava E. Risk factors for perimenopausal fractures: a prospective study. Osteoporos Int. 2000;11(3):219-227.  (PubMed)

122.  Meyer HE, Pedersen JI, Loken EB, Tverdal A. Dietary factors and the incidence of hip fracture in middle-aged Norwegians. A prospective study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145(2):117-123.  (PubMed)

123.  Kiel DP, Felson DT, Hannan MT, Anderson JJ, Wilson PW. Caffeine and the risk of hip fracture: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132(4):675-684.  (PubMed)

124.  Hernandez-Avila M, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Caffeine, moderate alcohol intake, and risk of fractures of the hip and forearm in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(1):157-163.  (PubMed)

125.  Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(12):767-773.  (PubMed)

126.  Hallstrom H, Wolk A, Glynn A, Michaelsson K. Coffee, tea and caffeine consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in a cohort of Swedish women. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(7):1055-1064.  (PubMed)

127.  Fairweather-Tait SJ. Iron nutrition in the UK: getting the balance right. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004;63(4):519-528.  (PubMed)

128.  Morck TA, Lynch SR, Cook JD. Inhibition of food iron absorption by coffee. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37(3):416-420.  (PubMed)

129.  Hallberg L, Rossander L. Effect of different drinks on the absorption of non-heme iron from composite meals. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1982;36(2):116-123.  (PubMed)