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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load


1.  Liu S, Willett WC. Dietary glycemic load and atherothrombotic risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2002;4(6):454-461.  (PubMed)

2.  Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2002;287(18):2414-2423.  (PubMed)

3.  Fernandes G, Velangi A, Wolever TM. Glycemic index of potatoes commonly consumed in North America. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(4):557-562.  (PubMed)

4.  Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):5-56.  (PubMed)

5.  Willett WC. Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2001.

6.  Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):274S-280S.  (PubMed)

7.  Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997;277(6):472-477.  (PubMed)

8.  Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(4):545-550.  (PubMed)

9.  Schulze MB, Liu S, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(2):348-356.  (PubMed)

10.  Krishnan S, Rosenberg L, Singer M, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(21):2304-2309.  (PubMed)

11.  Patel AV, McCullough ML, Pavluck AL, Jacobs EJ, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a large US cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18(3):287-294.  (PubMed)

12.  Villegas R, Liu S, Gao YT, et al. Prospective study of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Chinese women. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(21):2310-2316.  (PubMed)

13.  Gross LS, Li L, Ford ES, Liu S. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):774-779.  (PubMed)

14.  Ford ES, Liu S. Glycemic index and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among us adults. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(4):572-576.  (PubMed)

15.  Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(3):560-566.  (PubMed)

16.  Liu S, Manson JE, Buring JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ridker PM. Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(3):492-498.  (PubMed)

17.  Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(6):1455-1461.  (PubMed)

18.  Beulens JW, de Bruijne LM, Stolk RP, et al. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50(1):14-21.  (PubMed)

19.  Franz MJ. Is there a role for the glycemic index in coronary heart disease prevention or treatment? Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008;10(6):497-502.  (PubMed)

20.  Ludwig DS. Dietary glycemic index and the regulation of body weight. Lipids. 2003;38(2):117-121.  (PubMed)

21.  Slabber M, Barnard HC, Kuyl JM, Dannhauser A, Schall R. Effects of a low-insulin-response, energy-restricted diet on weight loss and plasma insulin concentrations in hyperinsulinemic obese females. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(1):48-53.  (PubMed)

22.  Bouche C, Rizkalla SW, Luo J, et al. Five-week, low-glycemic index diet decreases total fat mass and improves plasma lipid profile in moderately overweight nondiabetic men. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(5):822-828.  (PubMed)

23.  Spieth LE, Harnish JD, Lenders CM, et al. A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(9):947-951.  (PubMed)

24.  Thomas DE, Elliott EJ, Baur L. Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD005105.  (PubMed)

25.  Jonas CR, McCullough ML, Teras LR, Walker-Thurmond KA, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of incident breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(6):573-577.  (PubMed)

26.  Nielsen TG, Olsen A, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjonneland A. Dietary carbohydrate intake is not associated with the breast cancer incidence rate ratio in postmenopausal Danish women. J Nutr. 2005;135(1):124-128.  (PubMed)

27.  Giles GG, Simpson JA, English DR, et al. Dietary carbohydrate, fibre, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006;118(7):1843-1847.  (PubMed)

28.  Lajous M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fabre A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Romieu I. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1384-1391.  (PubMed)

29.  Sieri S, Pala V, Brighenti F, et al. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(4):1160-1166.  (PubMed)

30.  Silvera SA, Jain M, Howe GR, Miller AB, Rohan TE. Dietary carbohydrates and breast cancer risk: a prospective study of the roles of overall glycemic index and glycemic load. Int J Cancer. 2005;114(4):653-658.  (PubMed)

31.  Higginbotham S, Zhang ZF, Lee IM, Cook NR, Buring JE, Liu S. Dietary glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(1):65-70.  (PubMed)

32.  Michaud DS, Fuchs CS, Liu S, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Giovannucci E. Dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate, sugar, and colorectal cancer risk in men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(1):138-147.  (PubMed)

33.  Michaud DS, Liu S, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS. Dietary sugar, glycemic load, and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(17):1293-1300.  (PubMed)

34.  McCarl M, Harnack L, Limburg PJ, Anderson KE, Folsom AR. Incidence of colorectal cancer in relation to glycemic index and load in a cohort of women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(5):892-896.  (PubMed)

35.  Strayer L, Jacobs DR, Jr., Schairer C, Schatzkin A, Flood A. Dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load and the risk of colorectal cancer in the BCDDP cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18(8):853-863.  (PubMed)

36.  Larsson SC, Giovannucci E, Wolk A. Dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(3):256-261.  (PubMed)

37.  Weijenberg MP, Mullie PF, Brants HA, Heinen MM, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Dietary glycemic load, glycemic index and colorectal cancer risk: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Int J Cancer. 2008;122(3):620-629.  (PubMed)

38.  Higginbotham S, Zhang ZF, Lee IM, et al. Dietary glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(3):229-233.  (PubMed)

39.  Gnagnarella P, Gandini S, La Vecchia C, Maisonneuve P. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(6):1793-1801.  (PubMed)

40.  Mulholland HG, Murray LJ, Cardwell CR, Cantwell MM. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of digestive tract neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(2):568-576.  (PubMed)

41.  Mulholland HG, Murray LJ, Cardwell CR, Cantwell MM. Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and endometrial and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2008;99(3):434-441.  (PubMed)

42.  Boyd DB. Insulin and cancer. Integr Cancer Ther. 2003;2(4):315-329.  (PubMed)

43.  Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. Gut. 2005;54(6):823-828.  (PubMed)

44.  Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake in relation to risk of cholecystectomy in women. Gastroenterology. 2005;129(1):105-112.  (PubMed)

45.  Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S. Low-Glycemic Index Diets in the Management of Diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(8):2261-2267.  (PubMed)

46.  Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, et al. Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(10):1461-1466.  (PubMed)

47.   Sieri S, Krogh V, Berrino F, et al. Dietary glycemic load and index and risk of coronary heart disease in a large italian cohort: the EPICOR study. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(7):640-647.  (PubMed)