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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Chromium

1.  Vaidyanathan VG, Asthana Y, Nair BU. Importance of ligand structure in DNA/protein binding, mutagenicity, excision repair and nutritional aspects of chromium(III) complexes. Dalton Trans. 2013;42(7):2337-2346.  (PubMed)

2.  US Environmental Protection Agency. Chromium compounds; 2000. Available at: Accessed 9/18/14.

3.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Chromium. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:197-223. (National Academy Press)

4.  Lukaski HC. Chromium as a supplement. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:279-302.  (PubMed)

5.  Stoecker B. Chromium. In: Shils M, Shike M, Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2006:332-337.

6.  Saltiel AR, Kahn CR. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature. 2001;414(6865):799-806.  (PubMed)

7.  Martin-Timon I, Sevillano-Collantes C, Segura-Galindo A, Del Canizo-Gomez FJ. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength? World J Diabetes. 2014;5(4):444-470.  (PubMed)

8.  Hua Y, Clark S, Ren J, Sreejayan N. Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23(4):313-319.  (PubMed)

9.  Vincent JB. Elucidating a biological role for chromium at a molecular level. Acc Chem Res. 2000;33(7):503-510.  (PubMed)

10.  Vincent JB. Chromium: Is It essential, pharmacologically relevant, or toxic? In: Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel R, eds. Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases: Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht; 2013:171-198.

11.  Chen G, Liu P, Pattar GR, et al. Chromium activates glucose transporter 4 trafficking and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20(4):857-870.  (PubMed)

12.  Pattar GR, Tackett L, Liu P, Elmendorf JS. Chromium picolinate positively influences the glucose transporter system via affecting cholesterol homeostasis in adipocytes cultured under hyperglycemic diabetic conditions. Mutat Res. 2006;610(1-2):93-100.  (PubMed)

13.  Wang H, Kruszewski A, Brautigan DL. Cellular chromium enhances activation of insulin receptor kinase. Biochemistry. 2005;44(22):8167-8175.  (PubMed)

14.  Wang ZQ, Yu Y, Zhang XH, Komorowski J. Chromium-Insulin Reduces Insulin Clearance and Enhances Insulin Signaling by Suppressing Hepatic Insulin-Degrading Enzyme and Proteasome Protein Expression in KKAy Mice. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:99.  (PubMed)

15.  Campbell WW, Beard JL, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, Evans WJ. Chromium picolinate supplementation and resistive training by older men: effects on iron-status and hematologic indexes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(4):944-949.  (PubMed)

16.  Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, Milne DB. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(6):954-965.  (PubMed)

17.  Lukaski HC, Siders WA, Penland JG. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition. 2007;23(3):187-195.  (PubMed)

18.  Rech M, To L, Tovbin A, Smoot T, Mlynarek M. Heavy metal in the intensive care unit: a review of current literature on trace element supplementation in critically ill patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 2014;29(1):78-89.  (PubMed)

19.  Jeejeebhoy KN. The role of chromium in nutrition and therapeutics and as a potential toxin. Nutr Rev. 1999;57(11):329-335.  (PubMed)

20.  Lukaski HC. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2 Suppl):585S-593S.  (PubMed)

21.  Rubin MA, Miller JP, Ryan AS, et al. Acute and chronic resistive exercise increase urinary chromium excretion in men as measured with an enriched chromium stable isotope. J Nutr. 1998;128(1):73-78.  (PubMed)

22.  European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Dietetic Products NaA. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for chromium. EFSA Journal. 2014;12(10). Available at: Accessed 10/17/14.

23.  Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123(4):626-633.  (PubMed)

24.  World Health Organization Diabetes Programme. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia: Report of a World Health Organization/International Diabetes Foundation Consultation. Geneva, Switzerland 2006. Available at Accessed 10/17/14.

25.  Singleton JR, Smith AG, Russell JW, Feldman EL. Microvascular complications of impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 2003;52(12):2867-2873.  (PubMed)

26.  Nathan DM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo RA, et al. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance: implications for care. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(3):753-759.  (PubMed)

27.  Ali A, Ma Y, Reynolds J, Wise JP, Sr., Inzucchi SE, Katz DL. Chromium effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2011;17(1):16-25.  (PubMed)

28.  Masharani U, Gjerde C, McCoy S, et al. Chromium supplementation in non-obese non-diabetic subjects is associated with a decline in insulin sensitivity. BMC Endocr Disord. 2012;12:31.  (PubMed)

29.  Bailey CH. Improved meta-analytic methods show no effect of chromium supplements on fasting glucose. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014;157(1):1-8.  (PubMed)

30.  Kobla HV, Volpe SL. Chromium, exercise, and body composition. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2000;40(4):291-308.  (PubMed)

31.  Vincent JB. The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent. Sports Med. 2003;33(3):213-230.  (PubMed)

32.  Federal Trade Commission. Companies Advertising Popular Dietary Supplement "Chromium picolinate" Can't Substantiate Weight Loss and Health Benefit Claims, Says FTC; 1996. Available at Accessed 10/17/14.

33.  Onakpoya I, Posadzki P, Ernst E. Chromium supplementation in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Obes Rev. 2013;14(6):496-507.  (PubMed)

34.  Wing RR, Pinto AM, Crane MM, Kumar R, Weinberg BM, Gorin AA. A statewide intervention reduces BMI in adults: Shape Up Rhode Island results. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(5):991-995.  (PubMed)

35.  Anton SD, Morrison CD, Cefalu WT, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10(5):405-412.  (PubMed)

36.  Brownley KA, Von Holle A, Hamer RM, La Via M, Bulik CM. A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) study. J Psychosom Res. 2013;75(1):36-42.  (PubMed)

37.  Tian H, Guo X, Wang X, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation for overweight or obese adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;11:CD010063.  (PubMed)

38.  Morris BW, MacNeil S, Hardisty CA, Heller S, Burgin C, Gray TA. Chromium homeostasis in patients with type II (NIDDM) diabetes. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;13(1-2):57-61.  (PubMed)

39.  Hellerstein MK. Is chromium supplementation effective in managing type II diabetes? Nutr Rev. 1998;56(10):302-306.  (PubMed)

40.  Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-1791.  (PubMed)

41.  Althuis MD, Jordan NE, Ludington EA, Wittes JT. Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):148-155.  (PubMed)

42.  Abdollahi M, Farshchi A, Nikfar S, Seyedifar M. Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(1):99-114.  (PubMed)

43.  DeSisto CL, Kim SY, Sharma AJ. Prevalence estimates of gestational diabetes mellitus in the United States, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2007-2010. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11:E104.  (PubMed)

44.  American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2004;27 Suppl 1:S88-90.  (PubMed)

45.  Mitanchez D. Foetal and neonatal complications in gestational diabetes: perinatal mortality, congenital malformations, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, birth injuries, neonatal complications. Diabetes Metab. 2010;36(6 Pt 2):617-627.  (PubMed)

46.  Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Williams D. Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9677):1773-1779.  (PubMed)

47.  Retnakaran R, Qi Y, Sermer M, Connelly PW, Hanley AJ, Zinman B. Glucose intolerance in pregnancy and future risk of pre-diabetes or diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(10):2026-2031.  (PubMed)

48.  Gunton JE, Hams G, Hitchman R, McElduff A. Serum chromium does not predict glucose tolerance in late pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(1):99-104.  (PubMed)

49.  Woods SE, Ghodsi V, Engel A, Miller J, James S. Serum chromium and gestational diabetes. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(2):153-157.  (PubMed)

50.  Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies which may predispose to glucose intolerance of pregnancy. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15(1):14-20.  (PubMed)

51.  Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM. Dietary chromium intake. Freely chosen diets, institutional diet, and individual foods. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992;32:117-121.  (PubMed)

52.  Bailey RL, Gahche JJ, Lentino CV, et al. Dietary supplement use in the United States, 2003-2006. J Nutr. 2011;141(2):261-266.  (PubMed)

53.  Hendler S, Rorvik D, eds. PDR (Physicians' Desk Reference) for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd edition ed. Montvale: Thomson Reuters; 2008.

54.  Laschinsky N, Kottwitz K, Freund B, Dresow B, Fischer R, Nielsen P. Bioavailability of chromium(III)-supplements in rats and humans. Biometals. 2012;25(5):1051-1060.  (PubMed)

55.  Nielsen FH. Manganese, Molybdenum, Boron, Chromium, and other trace elements. In: Erdman JJ, Macdonald I, Zelssel S, eds. Present Knowledge of Nutrition: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.

56.  Blasiak J, Kowalik J. A comparison of the in vitro genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium. Mutat Res. 2000;469(1):135-145.  (PubMed)

57.  Speetjens JK, Collins RA, Vincent JB, Woski SA. The nutritional supplement chromium(III) tris(picolinate) cleaves DNA. Chem Res Toxicol. 1999;12(6):483-487.  (PubMed)

58.  Stearns DM, Wise JP, Sr., Patierno SR, Wetterhahn KE. Chromium(III) picolinate produces chromosome damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. FASEB J. 1995;9(15):1643-1648.  (PubMed)

59.  Kato I, Vogelman JH, Dilman V, et al. Effect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracil. Eur J Epidemiol. 1998;14(6):621-626.  (PubMed)

60.  Hathcock JN. Vitamins and minerals: efficacy and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(2):427-437.  (PubMed)

61.  Wasser WG, Feldman NS, D'Agati VD. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(5):41.  (PubMed)

62.  Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier I, Malone M, McGoldrick MD. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(4):428-431.  (PubMed)

63.  Wani S, Weskamp C, Marple J, Spry L. Acute tubular necrosis associated with chromium picolinate-containing dietary supplement. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40(3):563-566.  (PubMed)

64.  Davies S, McLaren Howard J, Hunnisett A, Howard M. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients--implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 1997;46(5):469-473.  (PubMed)