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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Chromium


1.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Chromium. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:197-223. (National Academy Press)

2.  Lukaski HC. Chromium as a supplement. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:279-302. (PubMed)

3.  Stoecker BJ. Chromium. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:277-282.

4.  Vincent JB. Elucidating a biological role for chromium at a molecular level. Acc Chem Res. 2000;33(7):503-510. (PubMed)

5.  Chen G, Liu P, Pattar GR, et al. Chromium activates glucose transporter 4 trafficking and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20(4):857-870. (PubMed)

6.  Pattar GR, Tackett L, Liu P, Elmendorf JS. Chromium picolinate positively influences the glucose transporter system via affecting cholesterol homeostasis in adipocytes cultured under hyperglycemic diabetic conditions. Mutat Res. 2006;610(1-2):93-100. (PubMed)

7.  Wang H, Kruszewski A, Brautigan DL. Cellular chromium enhances activation of insulin receptor kinase. Biochemistry. 2005;44(22):8167-8175. (PubMed)

8.  Campbell WW, Beard JL, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, Evans WJ. Chromium picolinate supplementation and resistive training by older men: effects on iron-status and hematologic indexes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(4):944-949. (PubMed)

9.  Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, Milne DB. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(6):954-965. (PubMed)

10.  Jeejeebhoy KN. The role of chromium in nutrition and therapeutics and as a potential toxin. Nutr Rev. 1999;57(11):329-335. (PubMed)

11.  Lukaski HC. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2 Suppl):585S-593S. (PubMed)

12.  Rubin MA, Miller JP, Ryan AS, et al. Acute and chronic resistive exercise increase urinary chromium excretion in men as measured with an enriched chromium stable isotope. J Nutr. 1998;128(1):73-78. (PubMed)

13.  Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123(4):626-633. (PubMed)

14.  Goldman L, Bennett JC. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 21st ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 2000.

15.  Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(9):266-270. (PubMed)

16.  Althuis MD, Jordan NE, Ludington EA, Wittes JT. Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):148-155. (PubMed)

17.  Kobla HV, Volpe SL. Chromium, exercise, and body composition. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2000;40(4):291-308. (PubMed)

18.  Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20(4):293-306. (PubMed)

19.  Pittler MH, Stevinson C, Ernst E. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(4):522-529. (PubMed)

20.  Martin J, Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(8):1826-1832. (PubMed)

21.  Morris BW, MacNeil S, Hardisty CA, Heller S, Burgin C, Gray TA. Chromium homeostasis in patients with type II (NIDDM) diabetes. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;13(1-2):57-61. (PubMed)

22.  Hellerstein MK. Is chromium supplementation effective in managing type II diabetes? Nutr Rev. 1998;56(10):302-306. (PubMed)

23.  Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Chi J, Feng J. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-1791. (PubMed)

24.  Broadhurst CL, Domenico P. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus--a review. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006;8(6):677-687. (PubMed)

25.  Gunton JE, Hams G, Hitchman R, McElduff A. Serum chromium does not predict glucose tolerance in late pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(1):99-104. (PubMed)

26.  Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies which may predispose to glucose intolerance of pregnancy. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15(1):14-20. (PubMed)

27.  Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM. Dietary chromium intake. Freely chosen diets, institutional diet, and individual foods. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992;32:117-121. (PubMed)

28.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

29.  Blasiak J, Kowalik J. A comparison of the in vitro genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium. Mutat Res. 2000;469(1):135-145. (PubMed)

30.  Speetjens JK, Collins RA, Vincent JB, Woski SA. The nutritional supplement chromium(III) tris(picolinate) cleaves DNA. Chem Res Toxicol. 1999;12(6):483-487. (PubMed)

31.  Stearns DM, Wise JP, Sr., Patierno SR, Wetterhahn KE. Chromium(III) picolinate produces chromosome damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Faseb J. 1995;9(15):1643-1648. (PubMed)

32.  Kato I, Vogelman JH, Dilman V, et al. Effect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracil. Eur J Epidemiol. 1998;14(6):621-626. (PubMed)

33.  Hathcock JN. Vitamins and minerals: efficacy and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(2):427-437. (PubMed)

34.  Wasser WG, Feldman NS, D'Agati VD. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(5):410.

35.  Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier I, Malone M, McGoldrick MD. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(4):428-431. (PubMed)

36.  Wani S, Weskamp C, Marple J, Spry L. Acute tubular necrosis associated with chromium picolinate-containing dietary supplement. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40(3):563-566. (PubMed)

37.  Davies S, McLaren Howard J, Hunnisett A, Howard M. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients--implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 1997;46(5):469-473. (PubMed)