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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Iodine

1.  Hetzel BS, Clugston GA. Iodine. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:253-264.

2.  Dunn JT. What's happening to our iodine? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83(10):3398-3400.  (PubMed)

3.  Larsen PR, Davies TF, Hay ID. The thyroid gland. In: Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg HM, Larsen PR, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1998:389-515.

4.  World Health Organization. Eliminating Iodine Deficiency disorders. World Health Organization, [Web page]. 04/09/2003. Accessed 04/11/2003.

5.  de Benoist B, McLean E, Andersson M, Rogers L. Iodine deficiency in 2007: global progress since 2003. Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29(3):195-202.  (PubMed)

6.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Iodine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:258-289. (National Academy Press)

7.  United Nations Children's Fund. The State of the World's Children 2007, UNICEF. New York; 2006. p. 109.

8.  Levander OA, Whanger PD. Deliberations and evaluations of the approaches, endpoints and paradigms for selenium and iodine dietary recommendations. J Nutr. 1996;126(9 Suppl):2427S-2434S.  (PubMed)

9.  DeLong GR, Leslie PW, Wang SH, et al. Effect on infant mortality of iodination of irrigation water in a severely iodine-deficient area of China. Lancet. 1997;350(9080):771-773.  (PubMed)

10.  Hetzel BS. Iodine and neuropsychological development. J Nutr. 2000;130(2S Suppl):493S-495S.  (PubMed)

11.  Tiwari BD, Godbole MM, Chattopadhyay N, Mandal A, Mithal A. Learning disabilities and poor motivation to achieve due to prolonged iodine deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(5):782-786.  (PubMed)

12.  Bleichrodt N, Shrestha RM, West CE, Hautvast JG, van de Vijver FJ, Born MP. The benefits of adequate iodine intake. Nutr Rev. 1996;54(4 Pt 2):S72-78.

13.  Becker DV, Braverman LE, Delange F, et al. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2006;16(10):949-951.  (PubMed)

14.  Zimmermann MB, Jooste PL, Pandav CS. Iodine-deficiency disorders. Lancet. 2008;372(9645):1251-1262.  (PubMed)

15.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DM, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Thomson Reuters; 2008.

16.  Knudsen N, Bulow I, Laurberg P, Ovesen L, Perrild H, Jorgensen T. Association of tobacco smoking with goiter in a low-iodine-intake area. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(4):439-443.  (PubMed)

17.  Remer T, Neubert A, Manz F. Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutrition. Br J Nutr. 1999;81(1):45-49.  (PubMed)

18.  Davidsson L. Are vegetarians an 'at risk group' for iodine deficiency? Br J Nutr. 1999;81(1):3-4.

19.  Zimmermann MB, Aeberli I, Torresani T, Burgi H. Increasing the iodine concentration in the Swiss iodized salt program markedly improved iodine status in pregnant women and children: a 5-y prospective national study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(2):388-392.  (PubMed)

20.  Thomson CD, Woodruffe S, Colls A, Doyle TD. Urinary iodine and thyroid status of New Zealand residents. In: Roussel AM, Anderson RA, Favier A, eds. Trace Elements in Man and Animals. Vol 10. New York: Kluwer Academic Press; 2000:343-344.

21.  Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Hannon WH, et al. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83(10):3401-3408.  (PubMed)

22.  Caldwell KL, Miller GA, Wang RY, Jain RB, Jones RL. Iodine status of the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Thyroid. 2008;18(11):1207-1214.  (PubMed)

23.  Iodine Level, United States, 2000. [Web page]. January, 2007. National Center for Health Statistics. Available at: Accessed 7/11/2007.

24.  Zanzonico PB, Becker DV. Effects of time of administration and dietary iodine levels on potassium iodide (KI) blockade of thyroid irradiation by 131I from radioactive fallout. Health Phys. 2000;78(6):660-667.  (PubMed)

25.  Nauman J, Wolff J. Iodide prophylaxis in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident: benefits and risks. Am J Med. 1993;94(5):524-532.

26.  Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Consideration of potassium iodide in emergency plans. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Final rule. Fed Regist. 2001;66(13):5427-5440.  (PubMed)

27.  Eskin BA, Grotkowski CE, Connolly CP, Ghent WR. Different tissue responses for iodine and iodide in rat thyroid and mammary glands. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1995;49(1):9-19.  (PubMed)

28.  Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, Hill LP. Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast. Can J Surg. 1993;36(5):453-460.  (PubMed)

29.  Kessler JH. The effect of supraphysiologic levels of iodine on patients with cyclic mastalgia. Breast J. 2004;10(4):328-336.  (PubMed)

30.  Pennington JAT, Schoen SA, Salmon GD, Young B, Johnson RD, Marts RW. Composition of core foods of the U.S. food supply, 1982-1991. III. Copper, manganese, selenium, iodine. J Food Comp Anal. 1995;8:171-217.

31.  Delange F. Risks and benefits of iodine supplementation. Lancet. 1998;351(9107):923-924.

32.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

33.  Feldt-Rasmussen U. Iodine and cancer. Thyroid. 2001;11(5):483-486.  (PubMed)