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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Manganese


1.  Keen CL, Ensunsa JL, Watson MH, et al. Nutritional aspects of manganese from experimental studies. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20(2-3):213-223.  (PubMed)

2.  Nielsen FH. Ultratrace minerals. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:283-303.

3.  Leach RM, Harris ED. Manganese. In: O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, eds. Handbook of nutritionally essential minerals. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1997:335-355.

4.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Manganese. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:394-419.  (National Academy Press)

5.  Wedler FC. Biochemical and nutritional role of manganese: an overview. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DJ (ed). Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.; 1994:1-37.

6.  Albrecht J, Sonnewald U, Waagepetersen HS, Schousboe A. Glutamine in the central nervous system: function and dysfunction. Front Biosci. 2007;12:332-343.  (PubMed)

7. Keen CL, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Manganese. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:334-343.

8.  Muszynska A, Palka J, Gorodkiewicz E. The mechanism of daunorubicin-induced inhibition of prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts and its implication to impaired collagen biosynthesis. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2000;52(2):149-155.  (PubMed)

9.  Shetlar MR, Shetlar CL. The role of manganese in wound healing. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DL, ed. Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.; 1994:145-157.

10.  Fitsanakis VA, Zhang N, Garcia S, Aschner M. Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe): Interdependency of Transport and Regulation. Neurotox Res. 2009.  (PubMed)

11.  Davis CD, Greger JL. Longitudinal changes of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase and other indexes of manganese and iron status in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(3):747-752.  (PubMed)

12.  Finley JW. Manganese absorption and retention by young women is associated with serum ferritin concentration. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(1):37-43.  (PubMed)

13.  Finley JW, Johnson PE, Johnson LK. Sex affects manganese absorption and retention by humans from a diet adequate in manganese. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(6):949-955.  (PubMed)

14.  Aschner M, Dorman DC. Manganese: pharmacokinetics and molecular mechanisms of brain uptake. Toxicol Rev. 2006;25(3):147-154.  (PubMed)

15. Kies C. Bioavailability of manganese. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DL, ed. Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc; 1994:39-58.

16.  Johnson PE, Lykken GI. Manganese and calcium absorption and balance in young women fed diets with varying amounts of manganese and calcium. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1991;4:19-35.

17.  Norose N, Terai M, Norose K. Manganese deficiency in a child with very short bowel syndrome receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1992;5:100-101 (abstract).

18.  Friedman BJ, Freeland-Graves JH, Bales CW, et al. Manganese balance and clinical observations in young men fed a manganese-deficient diet. J Nutr. 1987;117(1):133-143.  (PubMed)

19.  Freeland-Graves J, Llanes C. Models to study manganese deficiency. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DL, ed. Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc; 1994;59-86.

20.  Reginster JY, Strause LG, Saltman P, Franchimont P. Trace elements and postmenopausal osteoporosis: a preliminary study of decreased serum manganese. Med Sci Res. 1988;16:337-338.

21.  Odabasi E, Turan M, Aydin A, Akay C, Kutlu M. Magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Can magnesium play a key role in osteoporosis? Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2008;37(7):564-567.  (PubMed)

22.  Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, Bracker M, Andon MB. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr. 1994;124(7):1060-1064.  (PubMed)

23.  Walter RM, Jr., Uriu-Hare JY, Olin KL, et al. Copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium status and complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1991;14(11):1050-1056.  (PubMed)

24.  el-Yazigi A, Hannan N, Raines DA. Urinary excretion of chromium, copper, and manganese in diabetes mellitus and associated disorders. Diabetes Res. 1991;18(3):129-134.  (PubMed)

25.  Ekin S, Mert N, Gunduz H, Meral I. Serum sialic acid levels and selected mineral status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biol Trac Elem Res. 2003;94:193-201.  (PubMed)

26.  Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Kazi N, et al. Copper, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc levels in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008;122(1):1-18.  (PubMed)

27.  Nath N, Chari SN, Rathi AB. Superoxide dismutase in diabetic polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Diabetes. 1984;33(6):586-589.  (PubMed)

28.  Walter RM, Aoki TT, Keen CL. Acute oral manganese does not consistently affect glucose tolerance in non diabetic and type II diabetic humans. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1991;4:73-79.

29.  Carl GF, Gallagher BB. Manganese and epilepsy. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DL, ed. Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc; 1994:133-157.

30.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22. 2009. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/. Accessed 3/3/10.

31.  Aschner JL, Aschner M. Nutritional aspects of manganese homeostasis. Mol Aspects Med. 2005;26(4-5):353-362.  (PubMed)

32. Keen CL, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Manganese toxicity in humans and experimental animals. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DL, ed. Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc; 1994:193-205.

33. EPA Office of Water. Current Drinking Water Standards. Environmental Protection Agency, [Web page]. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html. Accessed 9/14/06.

34.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

35.  Davis JM. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl: health risk uncertainties and research directions. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106 Suppl 1:191-201.  (PubMed)

36.  Pal PK, Samii A, Calne DB. Manganese neurotoxicity: a review of clinical features, imaging and pathology. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20(2-3):227-238. 

37.  Aschner M, Aschner JL. Manganese neurotoxicity: cellular effects and blood-brain barrier transport. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1991;15(3):333-340.  (PubMed)

38.  Han J, Lee JS, Choi D, et al. Manganese (II) induces chemical hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase: implication in manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;235(3):261-267.  (PubMed)

39.  Roels H, Lauwerys R, Buchet JP, et al. Epidemiological survey among workers exposed to manganese: effects on lung, central nervous system, and some biological indices. Am J Ind Med. 1987;11(3):307-327.  (PubMed)

40.  Zayed J, Thibault C, Gareau L, Kennedy G. Airborne manganese particulates and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) at selected outdoor sites in Montreal. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20(2-3):151-157. 

41.  Bolte S, Normandin L, Kennedy G, Zayed J. Human exposure to respirable manganese in outdoor and indoor air in urban and rural areas. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004;67(6):459-467.  (PubMed)

42.  Aschner M. Manganese: brain transport and emerging research needs. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108 Suppl 3:429-432. 

43. Kawamura R. Intoxication by manganese in well water. Kisasato Archives of Experimental Medicine. 1941;18:145-169.

44. Kondakis XG, Makris N, Leotsinidis M, Prinou M, Papapetropoulos T. Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water. Arch Environ Health. 1989;44(3):175-178.   (PubMed)

45. Vieregge P, Heinzow B, Korf G, Teichert HM, Schleifenbaum P, Mosinger HU. Long term exposure to manganese in rural well water has no neurological effects. Can J Neurol Sci. 1995;22(4):286-289.   (PubMed)

46.  Ljung K, Vahter M. Time to re-evaluate the guideline value for manganese in drinking water? Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(11):1533-1538.  (PubMed)

47.  Wasserman GA, Liu X, Parvez F, et al. Water manganese exposure and children's intellectual function in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(1):124-129.  (PubMed)

48.  Bouchard M, Laforest F, Vandelac L, Bellinger D, Mergler D. Hair manganese and hyperactive behaviors: pilot study of school-age children exposed through tap water. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(1):122-127.  (PubMed)

49.  Keen C, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Manganese toxicity in humans and experimental animals. In: Klimis-Tavantzis D (ed). Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.; 1994.

50.  Dobson AW, Erikson KM, Aschner M. Manganese neurotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1012:115-128.  

51.  Erikson KM, Thompson K, Aschner J, Aschner M. Manganese neurotoxicity: a focus on the neonate. Pharmacol Ther. 2007;113(2):369-377.  (PubMed)

52.  Hardy IJ, Gillanders L, Hardy G. Is manganese an essential supplement for parenteral nutrition? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008;11(3):289-296.  (PubMed)

53.  Wright RO, Amarasiriwardena C, Woolf AD, Jim R, Bellinger DC. Neuropsychological correlates of hair arsenic, manganese, and cadmium levels in school-age children residing near a hazardous waste site. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27(2):210-216.  (PubMed)

54.  Das A, Jr., Hammad TA. Efficacy of a combination of FCHG49 glucosamine hydrochloride, TRH122 low molecular weight sodium chondroitin sulfate and manganese ascorbate in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2000;8(5):343-350.   (PubMed)

55.  Leffler CT, Philippi AF, Leffler SG, Mosure JC, Kim PD. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Mil Med. 1999;164(2):85-91.  (PubMed)