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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Phosphorus


1. Knochel JP. Phosphorus. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:211-222.

2.  Heaney RP. Phosphorus. In: Erdman Jr. JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed. Ames: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012; 447-458.

3.  Martin A, David V, Quarles LD. Regulation and function of the FGF23/klotho endocrine pathways. Physiol Rev. 2012;92(1):131-155.  (PubMed)

4.  Amanzadeh J, Reilly RF, Jr. Hypophosphatemia: an evidence-based approach to its clinical consequences and management. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2006;2(3):136-148.  (PubMed)

5.  Alizadeh Naderi AS, Reilly RF. Hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010;6(11):657-665.  (PubMed)

6.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Phosphorus. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1997:146-189.  (National Academy Press)

7.  Takeda E, Yamamoto H, Yamanaka-Okumura H, Taketani Y. Dietary phosphorus in bone health and quality of life. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(6):311-321.  (PubMed)

8.  Calvo MS, Moshfegh AJ, Tucker KL. Assessing the health impact of phosphorus in the food supply: issues and considerations. Adv Nutr. 2014;5(1):104-113.  (PubMed)

9.  Calvo MS, Uribarri J. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(1):6-15.  (PubMed)

10.  Calvo MS, Uribarri J. Contributions to total phosphorus intake: all sources considered. Semin Dial. 2013;26(1):54-61.  (PubMed)

11.  Moe SM, Zidehsarai MP, Chambers MA, et al. Vegetarian compared with meat dietary protein source and phosphorus homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(2):257-264.  (PubMed)

12.  National Research Council, Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Allowances. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1989:184-187.

13.  Phosphorus. In: Hendler SS, Rorvik DM, eds., eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. 2nd ed. Montvale: Physicians' Desk Reference; 2008:494-497.

14.  Al-Azem H, Khan AA. Hypoparathyroidism. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;26(4):517-522.  (PubMed)

15.  Menon MC, Ix JH. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013; 1301:21-26.  (PubMed)

16.  Dhingra R, Sullivan LM, Fox CS, et al. Relations of serum phosphorus and calcium levels to the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the community. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(9):879-885.  (PubMed)

17.  Tonelli M, Sacks F, Pfeffer M, et al. Relation between serum phosphate level and cardiovascular event rate in people with coronary disease. Circulation. 2005;112(17):2627-2633.  (PubMed)

18.  O'Seaghdha CM, Hwang SJ, Muntner P, Melamed ML, Fox CS. Serum phosphorus predicts incident chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26(9):2885-2890.  (PubMed)

19.  Foley RN, Collins AJ, Herzog CA, Ishani A, Kalra PA. Serum phosphate and left ventricular hypertrophy in young adults: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2009;32(1):37-44.  (PubMed)

20.  Shuto E, Taketani Y, Tanaka R, et al. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(7):1504-1512.  (PubMed)

21.  Tuttle KR, Short RA. Longitudinal relationships among coronary artery calcification, serum phosphorus, and kidney function. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(12):1968-1973.  (PubMed)

22.  de Boer IH, Rue TC, Kestenbaum B. Serum phosphorus concentrations in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;53(3):399-407.  (PubMed)

23.  Isakova T, Wahl P, Vargas GS, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 is elevated before parathyroid hormone and phosphate in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2011;79(12):1370-1378.  (PubMed)

24.  Isakova T, Xie H, Yang W, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and risks of mortality and end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. JAMA. 2011;305(23):2432-2439.  (PubMed)

25.  Palmer SC, Hayen A, Macaskill P, et al. Serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and risks of death and cardiovascular disease in individuals with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2011;305(11):1119-1127.  (PubMed)

26.  Li YC. Vitamin D: roles in renal and cardiovascular protection. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2012;21(1):72-79.  (PubMed)

27.  Hruska KA, Mathew S, Lund R, Qiu P, Pratt R. Hyperphosphatemia of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008;74(2):148-157.  (PubMed)

28.  Jono S, McKee MD, Murry CE, et al. Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Circ Res. 2000;87(7):E10-17.  (PubMed)

29.  Rennenberg RJ, Kessels AG, Schurgers LJ, van Engelshoven JM, de Leeuw PW, Kroon AA. Vascular calcifications as a marker of increased cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5(1):185-197.  (PubMed)

30.  Chang AR, Lazo M, Appel LJ, Gutierrez OM, Grams ME. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(2):320-327.  (PubMed)

31.  Calvo MS, Park YK. Changing phosphorus content of the U.S. diet: potential for adverse effects on bone. J Nutr. 1996;126(4 Suppl):1168S-1180S.  (PubMed)

32.  Calvo MS. Dietary considerations to prevent loss of bone and renal function. Nutrition. 2000;16(7-8):564-566.  (PubMed)

33.  Kemi VE, Karkkainen MU, Rita HJ, Laaksonen MM, Outila TA, Lamberg-Allardt CJ. Low calcium:phosphorus ratio in habitual diets affects serum parathyroid hormone concentration and calcium metabolism in healthy women with adequate calcium intake. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(4):561-568.  (PubMed)

34.  Grimm M, Muller A, Hein G, Funfstuck R, Jahreis G. High phosphorus intake only slightly affects serum minerals, urinary pyridinium crosslinks and renal function in young women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(3):153-161.  (PubMed)

35.  Pinheiro MM, Schuch NJ, Genaro PS, Ciconelli RM, Ferraz MB, Martini LA. Nutrient intakes related to osteoporotic fractures in men and women--the Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS). Nutr J. 2009;8:6.  (PubMed)

36.  Calvo MS, Tucker KL. Is phosphorus intake that exceeds dietary requirements a risk factor in bone health? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013; 1301:29-35.  (PubMed)

37.  Minerals. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:27-51.

38.  Cervelli MJ, Shaman A, Meade A, Carroll R, McDonald SP. Effect of gastric acid suppression with pantoprazole on the efficacy of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in haemodialysis patients. Nephrology (Carlton). 2012;17(5):458-465.  (PubMed)

39.  Zhang D, Maalouf NM, Adams-Huet B, Moe OW, Sakhaee K. Effects of sex and postmenopausal estrogen use on serum phosphorus levels: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63(2):198-205.  (PubMed)

40.  Bansal N, Katz R, de Boer IH, et al. Influence of estrogen therapy on calcium, phosphorus, and other regulatory hormones in postmenopausal women: the MESA study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(12):4890-4898.  (PubMed)