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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Choline


1.  Blusztajn JK. Choline, a vital amine. Science 1998; 281(5378)794-795.  (PubMed)

2. SH. Choline and phosphatidylcholine. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999;513-523.

3.  Zeisel SH. Choline: an essential nutrient for humans. Nutrition 2000;16(7-8):669-671.

4.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Choline. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1998:390-422.  (National Academy Press)

5.  Gerhard GT, Duell PB. Homocysteine and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 1999;10(5):417-428.  (PubMed)

6.  Zeisel SH, Blusztajn JK. Choline and human nutrition. Annual Rev Nutr 1994;14:269-296.  (PubMed)

7.  Fischer LM, daCosta KA, Kwock L, et al. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(5):1275-1285.  (PubMed)

8.  Resseguie M, Song J, Niculescu MD, da Costa KA, Randall TA, Zeisel SH. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene expression is induced by estrogen in human and mouse primary hepatocytes. FASEB J 2007;21(10):2622-2632.  (PubMed)

9.  da Costa KA, Kozyreva OG, Song J, Galanko JA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline. FASEB J 2006;20(9):1336-1344.  (PubMed)

10.  Kohlmeier M, da Costa KA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102(44):16025-16030.  (PubMed)

11.  da Costa KA, Niculescu MD, Craciunescu CN, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(1):88-94.  (PubMed)

12.  Jacob RA, Jenden DJ, Allman-Farinelli MA, Swendseid ME. Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. J Nutr 1999; 129(3):712-717.  (PubMed)

13.  Lundberg P, Dudman NP, Kuchel PW, Wilcken DE. 1H NMR determination of urinary betaine in patients with premature vascular disease and mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Clin Chem 1995; 41(2):275-283.  (PubMed)

14.  Olthof MR, Brink EJ, Katan MB, Verhoef P. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82(1):111-117.  (PubMed)

15.  Bidulescu A, Chambless LE, Siega-Riz AM, Zeisel SH, Heiss G. Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2007;7:20.  (PubMed)

16.  Pitkin RM. Folate and neural tube defects. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(1):285S-288S.  (PubMed)

17.  Eskes TK. Open or closed? A world of difference: a history of homocysteine research. Nutr Rev 1998;56(8):236-244.  (PubMed)

18.  Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, Selvin S, Schaffer DM. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160(2):102-109.  (PubMed)

19.  McCann JC, Hudes M, Ames BN. An overview of evidence for a causal relationship between dietary availability of choline during development and cognitive function in offspring. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2006;30(5):696-712.  (PubMed)

20.  Whitehouse PJ. The cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer's disease. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59 (Suppl 13):19-22.  (PubMed)

21.  Higgins JP, Flicker L. Lecithin for dementia and cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000(2):CD001015.  (PubMed)

22.  Zeisel SH, Mar MH, Howe JC, Holden JM. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. J Nutr 2003;133(5):1302-1307.  (PubMed)

23.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

24. Shaw GM, Finnell RH, Blom HJ, et al. Choline and risk of neural tube defects in a folate-fortified population. Epidemiology 2009;20(5):714-719.  (PubMed)