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Micronutrient Information Center

References: Coenzyme Q10


1.  Ernster L, Dallner G. Biochemical, physiological and medical aspects of ubiquinone function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1271(1):195-204.  (PubMed)

2.  Crane FL. Biochemical functions of coenzyme Q10. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20(6):591-598.  (PubMed)

3.  Nohl H, Gille L. The role of coenzyme Q in lysosomes. In: Kagan VEQ, P. J. (ed). Coenzyme Q: Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:99-106.

4.  Thomas SR, Stocker R. Mechanisms of antioxidant action of ubiquinol-10 for low-density lipoprotein. In: Kagan VE, Quinn PJ,eds. Coenzyme Q: Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:131-150.

5.  Kagan VE, Fabisak JP, Tyurina YY. Independent and concerted antioxidant functions of coenzyme Q. In: Kagan VE, Quinn PJ, eds. Coenzyme Q: Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:119-130.

6.  Overvad K, Diamant B, Holm L, Holmer G, Mortensen SA, Stender S. Coenzyme Q10 in health and disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;53(10):764-770.   (PubMed)

7.  Weber C. Dietary intake and absorption of coenzyme Q. In: Kagan VE, Quinn PJ,eds. Coenzyme Q: Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:209-215.

8.  Rustin P, Munnich A, Rotig A. Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction caused by coenzyme Q deficiency. Methods Enzymol. 2004;382:81-88.   (PubMed)

9.  Kalen A, Appelkvist EL, Dallner G. Age-related changes in the lipid compositions of rat and human tissues. Lipids. 1989;24(7):579-584.  (PubMed)

10.  Beckman KB, Ames BN. Mitochondrial aging: open questions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;854:118-127.  (PubMed)

11.  Alho H, Lonnrot K. Coenzyme Q supplementation and longevity. In: Kagan VE, Quinn PJ,eds. Coenzyme Q: Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:371-380.

12.  Singh RB, Niaz MA, Kumar A, Sindberg CD, Moesgaard S, Littarru GP. Effect on absorption and oxidative stress of different oral Coenzyme Q10 dosages and intake strategy in healthy men. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):219-224.  (PubMed)

13.  Sohal RS, Kamzalov S, Sumien N, et al. Effect of coenzyme Q10 intake on endogenous coenzyme Q content, mitochondrial electron transport chain, antioxidative defenses, and life span of mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;40(3):480-487.  (PubMed)

14.  Quiles JL, Ochoa JJ, Battino M, et al. Life-long supplementation with a low dosage of coenzyme Q10 in the rat: effects on antioxidant status and DNA damage. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):73-86.  (PubMed)

15.  Mohr D, Bowry VW, Stocker R. Dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoprotein to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1126(3):247-254.  (PubMed)

16.  Witting PK, Pettersson K, Letters J, Stocker R. Anti-atherogenic effect of coenzyme Q10 in apolipoprotein E gene knockout mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29(3-4):295-305.  (PubMed)

17.  Thomas SR, Leichtweis SB, Pettersson K, et al. Dietary cosupplementation with vitamin E and coenzyme Q(10) inhibits atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E gene knockout mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21(4):585-593.  (PubMed)

18.  Turunen M, Wehlin L, Sjoberg M, et al. beta2-Integrin and lipid modifications indicate a non-antioxidant mechanism for the anti-atherogenic effect of dietary coenzyme Q10. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296(2):255-260.  (PubMed)

19.  Shoffner JM. Oxidative phosphorylation diseases. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D,eds. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease. 8th ed. Volume 2. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001:2367-2392.

20.  Rotig A, Appelkvist EL, Geromel V, et al. Quinone-responsive multiple respiratory-chain dysfunction due to widespread coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Lancet. 2000;356(9227):391-395.  (PubMed)

21.  Boitier E, Degoul F, Desguerre I, et al. A case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy associated with a muscle coenzyme Q10 deficiency. J Neurol Sci. 1998;156(1):41-46.  (PubMed)

22.  Munnich A, Rotig A, Cormier-Daire V, Rustin P. Clinical presentation of respiratory chain deficiency. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D,eds. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease. 8th ed. Volume 2. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001:2261-2274.

23.  Horvath R, Gorman G, Chinnery PF. How can we treat mitochondrial encephalomyopathies? Approaches to therapy. Neurotherapeutics. 2008;5:558-568.   (PubMed)

24.  National Institutes of Health. Phase III Trial of Coenzyme Q10 in Mitochondrial Disease. ClinicalTrials.gov [Web page]. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00432744?term=coenzyme+Q10+AND+mitochondrial&rank=1. Accessed 2/23/12.

25.  Trupp RJ, Abraham WT. Congestive heart failure. In: Rakel RE, Bope ET,eds. Rakel: Conn's Current Therapy 2002. 54th ed. New York: W. B. Saunders Company; 2002:306-313.

26.  Folkers K, Vadhanavikit S, Mortensen SA. Biochemical rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82(3):901-904.  (PubMed)

27.  Belardinelli R, Mucaj A, Lacalaprice F, et al. Coenzyme Q10 and exercise training in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2006; 27(22):2675-2681.  (PubMed)

28.  Tran MT, Mitchell TM, Kennedy DT, Giles JT. Role of coenzyme Q10 in chronic heart failure, angina, and hypertension. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(7):797-806.  (PubMed)

29.  Belardinelli R, Mucaj A, Lacalaprice F, et al. Coenzyme Q10 improves contractility of dysfunctional myocardium in chronic heart failure. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):137-145.  (PubMed)

30.  Khatta M, Alexander BS, Krichten CM, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(8):636-640.  (PubMed)

31. Watson PS, Scalia GM, Galbraith A, Burstow DJ, Bett N, Aroney CN. Lack of effect of coenzyme Q on left ventricular function in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;33(6):1549-1552.  (PubMed)

32.  Sander S, Coleman CI, Patel AA, Kluger J, White CM. The impact of coenzyme Q10 on systolic function in patients with chronic heart failure. J Card Fail. 2006;12:464-472.  (PubMed)

33.  Molyneux SL, Florkowski CM, George PM, et al. Coenzyme Q10: an independent predictor of mortality in chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:1435-1441.  (PubMed)

34.  McMurray JJ, Dunselman P, Wedel H, et al. Coenzyme Q10, rosuvastatin, and clinical outcomes in heart failure: a pre-specified substudy of CORONA (controlled rosuvastatin multinational study in heart failure). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:1196-1204.   (PubMed)

35.  Lonnrot K, Tolvanen JP, Porsti I, Ahola T, Hervonen A, Alho H. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and recovery from ischemia in senescent rat myocardium. Life Sci. 1999;64(5):315-323.  (PubMed)

36.  Rosenfeldt FL, Pepe S, Linnane A, et al. The effects of ageing on the response to cardiac surgery: protective strategies for the ageing myocardium. Biogerontology. 2002;3(1-2):37-40.  (PubMed)

37.  Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM. Overview of the use of CoQ10 in cardiovascular disease. Biofactors. 1999;9(2-4):273-284.  (PubMed)

38.  Taggart DP, Jenkins M, Hooper J, et al. Effects of short-term supplementation with coenzyme Q10 on myocardial protection during cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;61(3):829-833.  (PubMed)

39.  Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Shukla PK, Thakur AS. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13(3):203-208.  (PubMed)

40.  Burke BE, Neuenschwander R, Olson RD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension. South Med J. 2001;94(11):1112-1117.  (PubMed)

41.  Rosenfeldt FL, Haas SJ, Krum H, et al. Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials. J Hum Hypertens. 2007;21:297-306.   (PubMed)

42.  Ross R. Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(2):115-126.  (PubMed)

43.  Watts GF, Playford DA, Croft KD, Ward NC, Mori TA, Burke V. Coenzyme Q(10) improves endothelial dysfunction of the brachial artery in Type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2002;45(3):420-426.  (PubMed)

44.  Hamilton SJ, Chew GT, Watts GF. Coenzyme Q10 improves endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:810-812.  (PubMed)

45.  Lim SC, Lekshminarayanan R, Goh SK, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on microcirculatory endothelial function of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196:966-969.  (PubMed)

46.  Raitakari OT, McCredie RJ, Witting P, et al. Coenzyme Q improves LDL resistance to ex vivo oxidation but does not enhance endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic young adults. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;28(7):1100-1105.  (PubMed)

47.  Kuettner A, Pieper A, Koch J, Enzmann F, Schroeder S. Influence of coenzyme Q(10) and cerivastatin on the flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: results of the ENDOTACT study. Int J Cardiol. 2005;98(3):413-419.  (PubMed)

48.  Tiano L, Belardinelli R, Carnevali P, Principi F, Seddaiu G, Littarru GP. Effect of coenzyme Q10 administration on endothelial function and extracellular superoxide dismutase in patients with ischaemic heart disease: a double-blind, randomized controlled study. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:2249-2255.  (PubMed)

49.  Dai YL, Luk TH, Yiu KH, et al. Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial. Atherosclerosis. 2011;216:395-401.  (PubMed)

50.  Gao L, Mao Q, Cao J, Wang Y, Zhou X, Fan L. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on vascular endothelial function in humans: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis. 2011;221(2):311-316.  (PubMed)

51.  McDonnell MG, Archbold GP. Plasma ubiquinol/cholesterol ratios in patients with hyperlipidaemia, those with diabetes mellitus and in patients requiring dialysis. Clin Chim Acta. 1996;253(1-2):117-126.  (PubMed)

52.  Lim SC, Tan HH, Goh SK, et al. Oxidative burden in prediabetic and diabetic individuals: evidence from plasma coenzyme Q(10). Diabet Med. 2006;23:1344-1349.  (PubMed)

53.  Henriksen JE, Andersen CB, Hother-Nielsen O, Vaag A, Mortensen SA, Beck-Nielsen H. Impact of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) treatment on glycaemic control, insulin requirement and well-being in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 1999;16(4):312-318.  (PubMed)

54.  Eriksson JG, Forsen TJ, Mortensen SA, Rohde M. The effect of coenzyme Q10 administration on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biofactors. 1999;9(2-4):315-318.  (PubMed)

55.  Alcolado JC, Laji K, Gill-Randall R. Maternal transmission of diabetes. Diabet Med. 2002;19(2):89-98.  (PubMed)

56.  Suzuki S, Hinokio Y, Ohtomo M, et al. The effects of coenzyme Q10 treatment on maternally inherited diabetes mellitus and deafness, and mitochondrial DNA 3243 (A to G) mutation. Diabetologia. 1998;41(5):584-588.  (PubMed)

57.  Gotz ME, Gerstner A, Harth R, et al. Altered redox state of platelet coenzyme Q10 in Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm. 2000;107(1):41-48.  (PubMed)

58.  Shults CW, Haas RH, Passov D, Beal MF. Coenzyme Q10 levels correlate with the activities of complexes I and II/III in mitochondria from parkinsonian and nonparkinsonian subjects. Ann Neurol. 1997;42(2):261-264.  (PubMed)

59.  Isobe C, Abe T, Terayama Y. Levels of reduced and oxidized coenzyme Q-10 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with living Parkinson's disease demonstrate that mitochondrial oxidative damage and/or oxidative DNA damage contributes to the neurodegenerative process. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:159-63.  (PubMed)

60.  Hargreaves IP, Lane A, Sleiman PM. The coenzyme Q10 status of the brain regions of Parkinson's disease patients. Neurosci Lett. 2008;447:17-19.  (PubMed)

61.  Shults CW, Oakes D, Kieburtz K, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Arch Neurol. 2002;59(10):1541-1550.  (PubMed)

62.  Muller T, Buttner T, Gholipour AF, Kuhn W. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation provides mild symptomatic benefit in patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2003;341(3):201-204.  (PubMed)

63.  Storch A, Jost WH, Vieregge P, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on symptomatic effects of coenzyme Q(10) in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:938-44.  (PubMed)

64.  A randomized clinical trial of coenzyme Q10 and GPI-1485 in early Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2007;68:20-28.  (PubMed)

65.  National Institutes of Health. Effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) in Parkinson Disease (QE3). ClinicalTrials.gov [Web page]. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00740714?term=coenzyme+Q&rank=2. Accessed 2/15/12.

66.  Koroshetz WJ, Jenkins BG, Rosen BR, Beal MF. Energy metabolism defects in Huntington's disease and effects of coenzyme Q10. Ann Neurol. 1997;41(2):160-165.  (PubMed)

67.  Beal MF. Coenzyme Q10 as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Free Radic Res. 2002;36(4):455-460.  (PubMed)

68.  Ferrante RJ, Andreassen OA, Dedeoglu A, et al. Therapeutic effects of coenzyme Q10 and remacemide in transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci. 2002;22(5):1592-1599.  (PubMed)

69.  Schilling G, Coonfield ML, Ross CA, Borchelt DR. Coenzyme Q10 and remacemide hydrochloride ameliorate motor deficits in a Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model. Neurosci Lett. 2001;315(3):149-153.  (PubMed)

70.  Stack EC, Kubilus JK, Smith K, et al. Chronology of behavioral symptoms and neuropathological sequela in R6/2 Huntington's disease transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol. 2005;490(4):354-370.  (PubMed)

71.  Stack EC, Smith KM, Ryu H, et al. Combination therapy using minocycline and coenzyme Q10 in R6/2 transgenic Huntington's disease mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1762(3):373-380.  (PubMed)

72.  Yang L, Calingasan NY, Wille EJ, et al. Combination therapy with coenzyme Q10 and creatine produces additive neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Journal Neurochem. 2009;109:1427-1439.  (PubMed)

73.  A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 and remacemide in Huntington's disease. Neurology. 2001;57(3):397-404.  (PubMed)

74.  Hyson HC, Kieburtz K, Shoulson I, et al. Safety and tolerability of high-dosage coenzyme Q10 in Huntington's disease and healthy subjects. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1924-1928.  (PubMed)

75.  National Institutes of Health. Coenzyme Q10 in Huntington's Disease (HD) (2CARE). ClinicalTrials.gov [Web page]. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00608881?term=coenzyme+Q10+and+huntington&rank=1. Accessed 3/15/12.

76.  Gatchel JR, Zoghbi HY. Diseases of unstable repeat expansion: mechanisms and common principles. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6(10):743-755.  (PubMed)

77.  Cooper JM, Schapira AH. Friedreich's Ataxia: disease mechanisms, antioxidant and Coenzyme Q10 therapy. Biofactors. 2003;18(1-4):163-171.  (PubMed)

78.  Taroni F, DiDonato S. Pathways to motor incoordination: the inherited ataxias. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004;5(8):641-655.  (PubMed)

79.  Lodi R, Tonon C, Calabrese V, Schapira AH. Friedreich's ataxia: from disease mechanisms to therapeutic interventions. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8(3-4):438-443.  (PubMed)

80.  Lodi R, Hart PE, Rajagopalan B, et al. Antioxidant treatment improves in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in patients with Friedreich's ataxia. Ann Neurol. 2001;49(5):590-596.  (PubMed)

81.  Hart PE, Lodi R, Rajagopalan B, et al. Antioxidant treatment of patients with Friedreich ataxia: four-year follow-up. Arch Neurol. 2005;62(4):621-626.  (PubMed)

82.  Cooper JM, Korlipara LV, Hart PE, Bradley JL, Schapira AH. Coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E deficiency in Friedreich's ataxia: predictor of efficacy of vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 therapy. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:1371-1379.  (PubMed)

83.  Folkers K, Osterborg A, Nylander M, Morita M, Mellstedt H. Activities of vitamin Q10 in animal models and a serious deficiency in patients with cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;234(2):296-299.  (PubMed)

84.  Hodges S, Hertz N, Lockwood K, Lister R. CoQ10: could it have a role in cancer management? Biofactors. 1999;9(2-4):365-370.  (PubMed)

85.  Laaksonen R, Fogelholm M, Himberg JJ, Laakso J, Salorinne Y. Ubiquinone supplementation and exercise capacity in trained young and older men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1995;72(1-2):95-100.  (PubMed)

86.  Malm C, Svensson M, Ekblom B, Sjodin B. Effects of ubiquinone-10 supplementation and high intensity training on physical performance in humans. Acta Physiol Scand. 1997;161(3):379-384.  (PubMed)

87.  Weston SB, Zhou S, Weatherby RP, Robson SJ. Does exogenous coenzyme Q10 affect aerobic capacity in endurance athletes? Int J Sport Nutr. 1997;7(3):197-206.  (PubMed)

88.  Porter DA, Costill DL, Zachwieja JJ, et al. The effect of oral coenzyme Q10 on the exercise tolerance of middle-aged, untrained men. Int J Sports Med. 1995;16(7):421-427.  (PubMed)

89.  Braun B, Clarkson PM, Freedson PS, Kohl RL. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise performance, VO2max, and lipid peroxidation in trained cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr. 1991;1(4):353-365.  (PubMed)

90.  Bonetti A, Solito F, Carmosino G, Bargossi AM, Fiorella PL. Effect of ubidecarenone oral treatment on aerobic power in middle-aged trained subjects. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000;40(1):51-57.  (PubMed)

91.  Willis R, Anthony M, Sun L, Honse Y, Qiao G. Clinical implications of the correlation between coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B6 status. Biofactors. 1999;9(2-4):359-363.  (PubMed)

92.  Mattila P, Kumpulainen J. Coenzymes Q9 and Q10: Contents in foods and dietary intake. J Food Comp Anal. 2001;14(4):409-417.

93.  Kamei M, Fujita T, Kanbe T, et al. The distribution and content of ubiquinone in foods. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1986;56(1):57-63.  (PubMed)

94.  Weber C, Bysted A, Holmer G. Coenzyme Q10 in the diet--daily intake and relative bioavailability. Mol Aspects Med. 1997;18 Suppl:S251-254.  (PubMed)

95.  Shults CW, Flint Beal M, Song D, Fontaine D. Pilot trial of high dosages of coenzyme Q10 in patients with Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2004;188(2):491-494.  (PubMed)

96.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR (eds). PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

97.  Lonnrot K, Holm P, Lagerstedt A, Huhtala H, Alho H. The effects of lifelong ubiquinone Q10 supplementation on the Q9 and Q10 tissue concentrations and life span of male rats and mice. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1998;44(4):727-737.  (PubMed)

98.  Zhang Y, Aberg F, Appelkvist EL, Dallner G, Ernster L. Uptake of dietary coenzyme Q supplement is limited in rats. J Nutr. 1995;125(3):446-453.   (PubMed)

99.  Svensson M, Malm C, Tonkonogi M, Ekblom B, Sjodin B, Sahlin K. Effect of Q10 supplementation on tissue Q10 levels and adenine nucleotide catabolism during high-intensity exercise. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9(2):166-180.   (PubMed)

100.  Matthews RT, Yang L, Browne S, Baik M, Beal MF. Coenzyme Q10 administration increases brain mitochondrial concentrations and exerts neuroprotective effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(15):8892-8897.   (PubMed)

101.  Keith M, Mazer CD, Mikhail P, Jeejeebhoy F, Briet F, Errett L. Coenzyme Q10 in patients undergoing CABG: Effect of statins and nutritional supplementation. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.  (PubMed)

102.  Hathcock JN, Shao A. Risk assessment for coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;45(3):282-288.  (PubMed)

103.  Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty [Web site]. 11/07/02. Available at: http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed 11/07/02, 2002.

104.  Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(13):1221-1227; quiz 1228-1230.  (PubMed)

105.  Folkers K, Langsjoen P, Willis R, et al. Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87(22):8931-8934.  (PubMed)

106.  Colquhoun DM, Jackson R, Walters M, et al. Effects of simvastatin on blood lipids, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 levels and left ventricular function in humans. Eur J Clin Invest. 2005;35(4):251-258.  (PubMed)

107.  Mabuchi H, Higashikata T, Kawashiri M, et al. Reduction of serum ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10 levels by atorvastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2005;12(2):111-119.  (PubMed)

108.  Bargossi AM, Battino M, Gaddi A, et al. Exogenous CoQ10 preserves plasma ubiquinone levels in patients treated with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1994;24(3):171-176.  (PubMed)

109.  Watts GF, Castelluccio C, Rice-Evans C, Taub NA, Baum H, Quinn PJ. Plasma coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) concentrations in patients treated with simvastatin. J Clin Pathol. 1993;46(11):1055-1057.  (PubMed)

110.  Ghirlanda G, Oradei A, Manto A, et al. Evidence of plasma CoQ10-lowering effect by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Pharmacol. 1993;33(3):226-229.  (PubMed)

111.  Laaksonen R, Jokelainen K, Laakso J, et al. The effect of simvastatin treatment on natural antioxidants in low-density lipoproteins and high-energy phosphates and ubiquinone in skeletal muscle. Am J Cardiol. 1996;77(10):851-854.  (PubMed)

112.  Laaksonen R, Ojala JP, Tikkanen MJ, Himberg JJ. Serum ubiquinone concentrations after short- and long-term treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;46(4):313-317.  (PubMed)

113.  Elmberger PG, Kalen A, Lund E, et al. Effects of pravastatin and cholestyramine on products of the mevalonate pathway in familial hypercholesterolemia. J Lipid Res. 1991;32(6):935-940.  (PubMed)

114.  Ashton E, Windebank E, Skiba M, et al. Why did high-dose rosuvastatin not improve cardiac remodeling in chronic heart failure? Mechanistic insights from the UNIVERSE study. Int J Cardiol. 2011;146:404-407.  (PubMed)

115.  Hughes K, Lee BL, Feng X, Lee J, Ong CN. Coenzyme Q10 and differences in coronary heart disease risk in Asian Indians and Chinese. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;32(2):132-138.  (PubMed)

116.  Hargreaves IP, Duncan AJ, Heales SJ, Land JM. The effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on coenzyme Q10: possible biochemical/clinical implications. Drug Saf. 2005;28(8):659-676.  (PubMed)

117.  Laaksonen R, Jokelainen K, Sahi T, Tikkanen MJ, Himberg JJ. Decreases in serum ubiquinone concentrations do not result in reduced levels in muscle tissue during short-term simvastatin treatment in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995;57(1):62-66.  (PubMed)