skip page navigationOregon State University

Micronutrient Information Center

References: Essential Fatty Acids


1.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Fats: Total Fat and Fatty Acids. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2002:422-541 (National Academy Press)

2.  Simopoulos AP, Leaf A, Salem N, Jr. Workshop statement on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000;63(3):119-121.  (PubMed)

3.  Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002;106(21):2747-2757.  (PubMed)

4.  Lichtenstein AH, Jones PJ. Lipids: absorption and transport. In: Bowman BA, Russel RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 8th ed. Washington, D. C.: ILSI Press; 2001:93-103

5.  Nakamura MT, Nara TY. Structure, function, and dietary regulation of delta6, delta5, and delta9 desaturases. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:345-376.  (PubMed)

6.  Burdge G. Alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in men and women: nutritional and biological implications. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004;7(2):137-144.  (PubMed)

7.  Burdge GC, Jones AE, Wootton SA. Eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids are the principal products of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in young men*. Br J Nutr. 2002;88(4):355-364.  (PubMed)

8.  Burdge GC, Wootton SA. Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women. Br J Nutr. 2002;88(4):411-420.  (PubMed)

9.  Giltay EJ, Gooren LJ, Toorians AW, Katan MB, Zock PL. Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations are higher in women than in men because of estrogenic effects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(5):1167-1174.  (PubMed)

10.  Muskiet FA, Fokkema MR, Schaafsma A, Boersma ER, Crawford MA. Is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) essential? Lessons from DHA status regulation, our ancient diet, epidemiology and randomized controlled trials. J Nutr. 2004;134(1):183-186.  (PubMed)

11.  Cunnane SC. Problems with essential fatty acids: time for a new paradigm? Prog Lipid Res. 2003;42(6):544-568.  (PubMed)

12.  Stillwell W, Wassall SR. Docosahexaenoic acid: membrane properties of a unique fatty acid. Chem Phys Lipids. 2003;126(1):1-27.  (PubMed)

13.  Jeffrey BG, Weisingerb HS, Neuringer M, Mitcheli DC. The role of docosahexaenoic acid in retinal function. Lipids. 2001;36(9):859-871.  (PubMed)

14.  SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2005;24(1):87-138.  (PubMed)

15.  Innis SM. Perinatal biochemistry and physiology of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Pediatr. 2003;143(4 Suppl):S1-8.  (PubMed)

16.  Chalon S, Vancassel S, Zimmer L, Guilloteau D, Durand G. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cerebral function: focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission. Lipids. 2001;36(9):937-944.  (PubMed)

17.  Calder PC. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002;61(3):345-358.  (PubMed)

18.  Price PT, Nelson CM, Clarke SD. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene expression. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000;11(1):3-7.  (PubMed)

19.  Sampath H, Ntambi JM. Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene expression. Nutr Rev. 2004;62(9):333-339.  (PubMed)

20.  Jump DB. Fatty acid regulation of gene transcription. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2004;41(1):41-78.  (PubMed)

21.  Jump DB, Botolin D, Wang Y, Xu J, Demeure O, Christian B. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and hepatic gene transcription. Chem Phys Lipids. 2008;153(1):3-13. (PubMed)

22.  Jump DB. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008;19(3):242-247.  (PubMed)

23.  Jump DB, Botolin D, Wang Y, Xu J, Christian B, Demeure O. Fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription. J Nutr. 2005;135(11):2503-2506.  (PubMed)

24.  Jeppesen PB, Hoy CE, Mortensen PB. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(1):126-133.  (PubMed)

25.  Smit EN, Muskiet FA, Boersma ER. The possible role of essential fatty acids in the pathophysiology of malnutrition: a review. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004;71(4):241-250.  (PubMed)

26.  Mascioli EA, Lopes SM, Champagne C, Driscoll DF. Essential fatty acid deficiency and home total parenteral nutrition patients. Nutrition. 1996;12(4):245-249.  (PubMed)

27.  Stegink LD, Freeman JB, Wispe J, Connor WE. Absence of the biochemical symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency in surgical patients undergoing protein sparing therapy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977;30(3):388-393.  (PubMed)

28.  Jeppesen PB, Hoy CE, Mortensen PB. Deficiencies of essential fatty acids, vitamin A and E and changes in plasma lipoproteins in patients with reduced fat absorption or intestinal failure. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(8):632-642.  (PubMed)

29.  Lepage G, Levy E, Ronco N, Smith L, Galeano N, Roy CC. Direct transesterification of plasma fatty acids for the diagnosis of essential fatty acid deficiency in cystic fibrosis. J Lipid Res. 1989;30(10):1483-1490.  (PubMed)

30.  Holman RT, Johnson SB, Hatch TF. A case of human linolenic acid deficiency involving neurological abnormalities. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;35(3):617-623.  (PubMed)

31.  Fedorova I, Hussein N, Baumann MH, Di Martino C, Salem N, Jr. An n-3 fatty acid deficiency impairs rat spatial learning in the Barnes maze. Behav Neurosci. 2009;123(1):196-205.  (PubMed)

32.  Fedorova I, Salem N, Jr. Omega-3 fatty acids and rodent behavior. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;75(4-5):271-289.  (PubMed)

33.  Uauy R, Hoffman DR, Peirano P, Birch DG, Birch EE. Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development. Lipids. 2001;36(9):885-895.  (PubMed)

34.  Larque E, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B. Perinatal supply and metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: importance for the early development of the nervous system. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;967:299-310.  (PubMed)

35.  Uauy R, Hoffman DR, Mena P, Llanos A, Birch EE. Term infant studies of DHA and ARA supplementation on neurodevelopment: results of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr. 2003;143(4 Suppl):S17-25.  (PubMed)

36.  Simmer K, Patole S. Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD000375.  (PubMed)

37.  Simmer K. Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001(4):CD000376.  (PubMed)

38.  Eilander A, Hundscheid DC, Osendarp SJ, Transler C, Zock PL. Effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on visual and cognitive development throughout childhood: a review of human studies. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007;76(4):189-203.  (PubMed)

39.  SanGiovanni JP, Parra-Cabrera S, Colditz GA, Berkey CS, Dwyer JT. Meta-analysis of dietary essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as they relate to visual resolution acuity in healthy preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2000;105(6):1292-1298.  (PubMed)

40.  O'Connor DL, Hall R, Adamkin D, et al. Growth and development in preterm infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):359-371.  (PubMed)

41.  Fewtrell MS, Morley R, Abbott RA, et al. Double-blind, randomized trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in formula fed to preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2002;110(1 Pt 1):73-82.  (PubMed)

42.  Fewtrell MS, Abbott RA, Kennedy K, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with fish oil and borage oil in preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2004;144(4):471-479.  (PubMed)

43.  Clandinin MT, Van Aerde JE, Merkel KL, et al. Growth and development of preterm infants fed infant formulas containing docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. J Pediatr. 2005;146(4):461-468.  (PubMed)

44.  Birch EE, Castaneda YS, Wheaton DH, Birch DG, Uauy RD, Hoffman DR. Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented or control formula for 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(4):871-879.  (PubMed)

45.  Auestad N, Scott DT, Janowsky JS, et al. Visual, cognitive, and language assessments at 39 months: a follow-up study of children fed formulas containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to 1 year of age. Pediatrics. 2003;112(3 Pt 1):e177-183.  (PubMed)

46.  Gibson RA, Chen W, Makrides M. Randomized trials with polyunsaturated fatty acid interventions in preterm and term infants: functional and clinical outcomes. Lipids. 2001;36(9):873-883.  (PubMed)

47.  Birch EE, Garfield S, Castaneda Y, Hughbanks-Wheaton D, Uauy R, Hoffman D. Visual acuity and cognitive outcomes at 4 years of age in a double-blind, randomized trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented infant formula. Early Hum Dev. 2007;83(5):279-284.  (PubMed)

48.  McCann JC, Ames BN. Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(2):281-295.  (PubMed)

49.  Koo WW. Efficacy and safety of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid addition to infant formulas: can one buy better vision and intelligence? J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22(2):101-107.  (PubMed)

50.  Makrides M, Gibson RA. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1 Suppl):307S-311S.  (PubMed)

51.  Onwude JL, Lilford RJ, Hjartardottir H, Staines A, Tuffnell D. A randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of fish oil in high risk pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;102(2):95-100.  (PubMed)

52.  Olsen SF, Sorensen JD, Secher NJ, et al. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet. 1992;339(8800):1003-1007.  (PubMed)

53.  Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, Plasse T, Major S, Carlson SE. A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(3):469-479.  (PubMed)

54.  Szajewska H, Horvath A, Koletzko B. Effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of women with low-risk pregnancies on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1337-1344.  (PubMed)

55.  Olsen SF, Secher NJ, Tabor A, Weber T, Walker JJ, Gluud C. Randomised clinical trials of fish oil supplementation in high risk pregnancies. Fish Oil Trials In Pregnancy (FOTIP) Team. BJOG. 2000;107(3):382-395.  (PubMed)

56.  Horvath A, Koletzko B, Szajewska H. Effect of supplementation of women in high-risk pregnancies with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2007;98(2):253-259.  (PubMed)

57.  Koletzko B, Lien E, Agostoni C, et al. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med. 2008;36(1):5-14.  (PubMed)

58.  Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, Saugstad OD, Drevon CA. Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics. 2003;111(1):e39-44.  (PubMed)

59.  Dunstan JA, Simmer K, Dixon G, Prescott SL. Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(1):F45-50.  (PubMed)

60.  Judge MP, Harel O, Lammi-Keefe CJ. Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(6):1572-1577.  (PubMed)

61.  Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA. 2006;296(15):1885-1899.  (PubMed)

62.  Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Binkoski AE. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular health. Nutr Rev. 2004;62(11):414-426.  (PubMed)

63.  Shekelle RB, Shryock AM, Paul O, et al. Diet, serum cholesterol, and death from coronary heart disease. The Western Electric study. N Engl J Med. 1981;304(2):65-70.  (PubMed)

64.  Oh K, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the nurses' health study. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;161(7):672-679.  (PubMed)

65.  Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Spiegelman D, Stampfer M, Willett WC. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. BMJ. 1996;313(7049):84-90.  (PubMed)

66.  Laaksonen DE, Nyyssonen K, Niskanen L, Rissanen TH, Salonen JT. Prediction of cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged men by dietary and serum linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(2):193-199.  (PubMed)

67.  Sacks FM, Katan M. Randomized clinical trials on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med. 2002;113 Suppl 9B:13S-24S.  (PubMed)

68.  Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992;12(8):911-919.  (PubMed)

69.  Lewis B, Krikler D. Soya-bean oil in myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1968;2(7570):693-699.  (PubMed)

70.  Dayton S, Pearce ML, Goldman H, et al. Controlled trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat for prevention of atherosclerotic complications. Lancet. 1968;2(7577):1060-1062.  (PubMed)

71.  Leren P. The Oslo diet-heart study. Eleven-year report. Circulation. 1970;42(5):935-942.  (PubMed)

72.  Turpeinen O, Karvonen MJ, Pekkarinen M, Miettinen M, Elosuo R, Paavilainen E. Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: the Finnish Mental Hospital Study. Int J Epidemiol. 1979;8(2):99-118.  (PubMed)

73.  Frantz ID, Jr., Dawson EA, Ashman PL, et al. Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet on cardiovascular risk. The Minnesota Coronary Survey. Arteriosclerosis. 1989;9(1):129-135.  (PubMed)

74.  Miettinen M, Turpeinen O, Karvonen MJ, Pekkarinen M, Paavilainen E, Elosuo R. Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease in women: the Finnish mental hospital study. Int J Epidemiol. 1983;12(1):17-25.  (PubMed)

75.  Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Rimm E, et al. Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2009;119(6):902-907.   (PubMed) /p>

76.  Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Hu FB, et al. Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation. 2005;111(2):157-164.  (PubMed)

77.  Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease among women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(5):890-897.  (PubMed)

78.  Dolecek TA. Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1992;200(2):177-182.  (PubMed)

79.  Pietinen P, Ascherio A, Korhonen P, et al. Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145(10):876-887.  (PubMed)

80.  Oomen CM, Ocke MC, Feskens EJ, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. alpha-Linolenic acid intake is not beneficially associated with 10-y risk of coronary artery disease incidence: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(4):457-463.  (PubMed)

81.  Albert CM, Oh K, Whang W, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid intake and risk of sudden cardiac death and coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2005;112(21):3232-3238.  (PubMed)

82.  Mozaffarian D. Does alpha-linolenic acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease? A review of the evidence. Altern Ther Health Med. 2005;11(3):24-30.  (PubMed)

83.  Wendland E, Farmer A, Glasziou P, Neil A. Effect of alpha linolenic acid on cardiovascular risk markers: a systematic review. Heart. 2006;92(2):166-169.  (PubMed)

84.  Bemelmans WJ, Lefrandt JD, Feskens EJ, et al. Increased alpha-linolenic acid intake lowers C-reactive protein, but has no effect on markers of atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(7):1083-1089.  (PubMed)

85.  Rallidis LS, Paschos G, Liakos GK, Velissaridou AH, Anastasiadis G, Zampelas A. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid decreases C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6 in dyslipidaemic patients. Atherosclerosis. 2003;167(2):237-242.  (PubMed)

86.  Zhao G, Etherton TD, Martin KR, West SG, Gillies PJ, Kris-Etherton PM. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid reduces inflammatory and lipid cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr. 2004;134(11):2991-2997.  (PubMed)

87.  Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new recommendations from the American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23(2):151-152.  (PubMed)

88.  Wang C, Harris WS, Chung M, et al. n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(1):5-17.  (PubMed)

89.  Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, et al. Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review. BMJ. 2006;332(7544):752-760.  (PubMed)

90.  Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB, de Lezenne Coulander C. The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(19):1205-1209.  (PubMed)

91.  Kromhout D, Feskens EJ, Bowles CH. The protective effect of a small amount of fish on coronary heart disease mortality in an elderly population. Int J Epidemiol. 1995;24(2):340-345.  (PubMed)

92.  Dolecek TA, Granditis G. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). World Rev Nutr Diet. 1991;66:205-216.  (PubMed)

93.  Daviglus ML, Stamler J, Orencia AJ, et al. Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(15):1046-1053.  (PubMed)

94.  Yuan JM, Ross RK, Gao YT, Yu MC. Fish and shellfish consumption in relation to death from myocardial infarction among men in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(9):809-816.  (PubMed)

95.  Hu FB, Bronner L, Willett WC, et al. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 2002;287(14):1815-1821.  (PubMed)

96.  Jarvinen R, Knekt P, Rissanen H, Reunanen A. Intake of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart mortality in men and women. Br J Nutr. 2006;95(4):824-829.  (PubMed)

97.  Iso H, Kobayashi M, Ishihara J, et al. Intake of fish and n3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese: the Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I. Circulation. 2006;113(2):195-202.  (PubMed)

98.  Nakamura Y, Ueshima H, Okamura T, et al. Association between fish consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Japan: NIPPON DATA80, 1980-99. Am J Med. 2005;118(3):239-245.  (PubMed)

99.  Leaf A, Xiao YF, Kang JX, Billman GE. Prevention of sudden cardiac death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Pharmacol Ther. 2003;98(3):355-377.  (PubMed)

100.  Albert CM, Hennekens CH, O'Donnell CJ, et al. Fish consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death. JAMA. 1998;279(1):23-28.  (PubMed)

101.  Albert CM, Campos H, Stampfer MJ, et al. Blood levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden death. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(15):1113-1118.  (PubMed)

102.  Mozaffarian D. Fish and n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of fatal coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(6):1991S-1996S.  (PubMed)

103.  Leaf A, Albert CM, Josephson M, et al. Prevention of fatal arrhythmias in high-risk subjects by fish oil n-3 fatty acid intake. Circulation. 2005;112(18):2762-2768.  (PubMed)

104.  Raitt MH, Connor WE, Morris C, et al. Fish oil supplementation and risk of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation in patients with implantable defibrillators: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293(23):2884-2891.  (PubMed)

105.  Brouwer IA, Zock PL, Camm AJ, et al. Effect of fish oil on ventricular tachyarrhythmia and death in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: the Study on Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Ventricular Arrhythmia (SOFA) randomized trial. JAMA. 2006;295(22):2613-2619.  (PubMed)

106.  Jenkins DJ, Josse AR, Beyene J, et al. Fish-oil supplementation in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2008;178(2):157-164.  (PubMed)

107.  London B, Albert C, Anderson ME, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiac arrhythmias: prior studies and recommendations for future research: a report from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Office Of Dietary Supplements Omega-3 Fatty Acids and their Role in Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis Workshop. Circulation. 2007;116(10):e320-335.  (PubMed)

108.  American Stroke Association. What is a stroke? 2009. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3030066. Accessed 3/9/09.

109.  Keli SO, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Fish consumption and risk of stroke. The Zutphen Study. Stroke. 1994;25(2):328-332.  (PubMed)

110.  Gillum RF, Mussolino ME, Madans JH. The relationship between fish consumption and stroke incidence. The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(5):537-542.  (PubMed)

111.  Morris MC, Manson JE, Rosner B, Buring JE, Willett WC, Hennekens CH. Fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in the physicians' health study: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142(2):166-175.  (PubMed)

112.  Orencia AJ, Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Shekelle RB, Stamler J. Fish consumption and stroke in men. 30-year findings of the Chicago Western Electric Study. Stroke. 1996;27(2):204-209.  (PubMed)

113.  Myint PK, Welch AA, Bingham SA, et al. Habitual fish consumption and risk of incident stroke: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Public Health Nutr. 2006;9(7):882-888.  (PubMed)

114.  Iso H, Rexrode KM, Stampfer MJ, et al. Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women. JAMA. 2001;285(3):304-312.  (PubMed)

115.  He K, Rimm EB, Merchant A, et al. Fish consumption and risk of stroke in men. JAMA. 2002;288(24):3130-3136.  (PubMed)

116.  He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML, et al. Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Stroke. 2004;35(7):1538-1542.  (PubMed)

117.  Tanaka K, Ishikawa Y, Yokoyama M, et al. Reduction in the recurrence of stroke by eicosapentaenoic acid for hypercholesterolemic patients: subanalysis of the JELIS trial. Stroke. 2008;39(7):2052-2058.  (PubMed)

118.  Austin MA, Hokanson JE, Edwards KL. Hypertriglyceridemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol. 1998;81(4A):7B-12B.  (PubMed)

119.  Harris WS. n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5 Suppl):1645S-1654S.  (PubMed)

120.  Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Kupelnick B, Chew P, Lau J. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2006;189(1):19-30.  (PubMed)

121.  Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM, Harris KA. Intakes of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid associated with reduced risk for death from coronary heart disease in healthy adults. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008;10(6):503-509.  (PubMed)

122.  Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Lefevre M, et al. Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. J Nutr. 2009;139(4):804S-819S.  (PubMed)

123.  Maccioni RB, Munoz JP, Barbeito L. The molecular bases of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Arch Med Res. 2001;32(5):367-381.  (PubMed)

124.  Kalmijn S, van Boxtel MP, Ocke M, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Launer LJ. Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology. 2004;62(2):275-280.  (PubMed)

125.  Kalmijn S, Launer LJ, Ott A, Witteman JC, Hofman A, Breteler MM. Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the Rotterdam Study. Ann Neurol. 1997;42(5):776-782.  (PubMed)

126.  Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003;60(7):940-946.  (PubMed)

127.  van Marum RJ. Current and future therapy in Alzheimer's disease. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22(3):265-274.  (PubMed)

128.  Kyle DJ, Schaefer E, Patton G, Beiser A. Low serum docosahexaenoic acid is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. Lipids. 1999;34 Suppl:S245.  (PubMed)

129.  Conquer JA, Tierney MC, Zecevic J, Bettger WJ, Fisher RH. Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer's disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment. Lipids. 2000;35(12):1305-1312.  (PubMed)

130.  Tully AM, Roche HM, Doyle R, et al. Low serum cholesteryl ester-docosahexaenoic acid levels in Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study. Br J Nutr. 2003;89(4):483-489.  (PubMed)

131.  Schaefer EJ, Bongard V, Beiser AS, et al. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(11):1545-1550.  (PubMed)

132.  Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet. 1989;2(8666):757-761.  (PubMed)

133.  de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, Mamelle N. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation. 1999;99(6):779-785.  (PubMed)

134.  Tuttle KR, Shuler LA, Packard DP, et al. Comparison of low-fat versus Mediterranean-style dietary intervention after first myocardial infarction (from The Heart Institute of Spokane Diet Intervention and Evaluation Trial). Am J Cardiol. 2008;101(11):1523-1530.  (PubMed)

135.  Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999;354(9177):447-455.  (PubMed)

136.  Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, et al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation. 2002;105(16):1897-1903.  (PubMed)

137.  Singh RB, Niaz MA, Sharma JP, Kumar R, Rastogi V, Moshiri M. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil and mustard oil in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: the Indian experiment of infarct survival--4. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1997;11(3):485-491.  (PubMed)

138.  Nilsen DW, Albrektsen G, Landmark K, Moen S, Aarsland T, Woie L. Effects of a high-dose concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or corn oil introduced early after an acute myocardial infarction on serum triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(1):50-56.  (PubMed)

139.  Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2002;112(4):298-304.  (PubMed)

140.  Sacks FM, Stone PH, Gibson CM, Silverman DI, Rosner B, Pasternak RC. Controlled trial of fish oil for regression of human coronary atherosclerosis. HARP Research Group. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;25(7):1492-1498.  (PubMed)

141.  von Schacky C, Angerer P, Kothny W, Theisen K, Mudra H. The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(7):554-562.  (PubMed)

142.  Balk E, Chung M, Lichtenstein A, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors and intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 2004(93):1-6.  (PubMed)

143.  Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, et al. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 2006;114(1):82-96.  (PubMed)

144.  Montori VM, Farmer A, Wollan PC, Dinneen SF. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(9):1407-1415.  (PubMed)

145.  Glauber H, Wallace P, Griver K, Brechtel G. Adverse metabolic effect of omega-3 fatty acids in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108(5):663-668.  (PubMed)

146.  Friday KE, Childs MT, Tsunehara CH, Fujimoto WY, Bierman EL, Ensinck JW. Elevated plasma glucose and lowered triglyceride levels from omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in type II diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1989;12(4):276-281.  (PubMed)

147.  MacLean CH, Mojica WA, Morton SC, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and glycemic control in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and on inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and osteoporosis. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 2004(89):1-4.  (PubMed)

148.  Hartweg J, Farmer AJ, Perera R, Holman RR, Neil HA. Meta-analysis of the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins and other emerging lipid cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2007;50(8):1593-1602.  (PubMed)

149.  Farmer A, Montori V, Dinneen S, Clar C. Fish oil in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(3):CD003205.  (PubMed)

150.  Hu FB, Cho E, Rexrode KM, Albert CM, Manson JE. Fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality in diabetic women. Circulation. 2003;107(14):1852-1857.  (PubMed)

151.  Nettleton JA, Katz R. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(3):428-440.  (PubMed)

152.  Friedberg CE, Janssen MJ, Heine RJ, Grobbee DE. Fish oil and glycemic control in diabetes. A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(4):494-500.  (PubMed)

153.  Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, et al. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care. 2003;26 Suppl 1:S51-61.  (PubMed)

154.  Fortin PR, Lew RA, Liang MH, et al. Validation of a meta-analysis: the effects of fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48(11):1379-1390.  (PubMed)

155.  Goldberg RJ, Katz J. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain. 2007;129(1-2):210-223.  (PubMed)

156.  Lorenz R, Weber PC, Szimnau P, Heldwein W, Strasser T, Loeschke K. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil in chronic inflammatory bowel disease--a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. J Intern Med Suppl. 1989;225(731):225-232.  (PubMed)

157.  Lorenz-Meyer H, Bauer P, Nicolay C, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and low carbohydrate diet for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. A randomized controlled multicenter trial. Study Group Members (German Crohn's Disease Study Group). Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996;31(8):778-785.  (PubMed)

158.  Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, Pera A, Boschi S, Miglioli M. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(24):1557-1560.  (PubMed)

159.  Romano C, Cucchiara S, Barabino A, Annese V, Sferlazzas C. Usefulness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in addition to mesalazine in maintaining remission in pediatric Crohn's disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(45):7118-7121.  (PubMed)

160.  Aslan A, Triadafilopoulos G. Fish oil fatty acid supplementation in active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1992;87(4):432-437.  (PubMed)

161.  Hawthorne AB, Daneshmend TK, Hawkey CJ, et al. Treatment of ulcerative colitis with fish oil supplementation: a prospective 12 month randomised controlled trial. Gut. 1992;33(7):922-928.  (PubMed)

162.  Stenson WF, Cort D, Rodgers J, et al. Dietary supplementation with fish oil in ulcerative colitis. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(8):609-614.  (PubMed)

163.  Loeschke K, Ueberschaer B, Pietsch A, et al. n-3 fatty acids only delay early relapse of ulcerative colitis in remission. Dig Dis Sci. 1996;41(10):2087-2094.  (PubMed)

164.  De Ley M, de Vos R, Hommes DW, Stokkers P. Fish oil for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD005986.  (PubMed)

165.  Hodge L, Salome CM, Hughes JM, et al. Effect of dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on severity of asthma in children. Eur Respir J. 1998;11(2):361-365.  (PubMed)

166.  Okamoto M, Mitsunobu F, Ashida K, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids compared with n-6 fatty acids on bronchial asthma. Intern Med. 2000;39(2):107-111.  (PubMed)

167.  Wong KW. Clinical efficacy of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with asthma. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(1):98-105.  (PubMed)

168.  Schachter HM, Reisman J, Tran K, et al. Health effects of omega-3 fatty acids on asthma. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 2004(91):1-7.  (PubMed)

169.  Woods RK, Thien FC, Abramson MJ. Dietary marine fatty acids (fish oil) for asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(3):CD001283.  (PubMed)

170.  Reisman J, Schachter HM, Dales RE, et al. Treating asthma with omega-3 fatty acids: where is the evidence? A systematic review. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:26.  (PubMed)

171.  Donadio JV, Grande JP. IgA nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(10):738-748.  (PubMed)

172.  Donadio JV, Jr., Bergstralh EJ, Offord KP, Spencer DC, Holley KE. A controlled trial of fish oil in IgA nephropathy. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(18):1194-1199.  (PubMed)

173.  Donadio JV, Jr., Grande JP, Bergstralh EJ, Dart RA, Larson TS, Spencer DC. The long-term outcome of patients with IgA nephropathy treated with fish oil in a controlled trial. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999;10(8):1772-1777.  (PubMed)

174.  Donadio JV, Jr., Larson TS, Bergstralh EJ, Grande JP. A randomized trial of high-dose compared with low-dose omega-3 fatty acids in severe IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12(4):791-799.  (PubMed)

175.  Alexopoulos E, Stangou M, Pantzaki A, Kirmizis D, Memmos D. Treatment of severe IgA nephropathy with omega-3 fatty acids: the effect of a "very low dose" regimen. Ren Fail. 2004;26(4):453-459.  (PubMed)

176.  Bennett WM, Walker RG, Kincaid-Smith P. Treatment of IgA nephropathy with eicosapentanoic acid (EPA): a two-year prospective trial. Clin Nephrol. 1989;31(3):128-131.  (PubMed)

177.  Cheng IK, Chan PC, Chan MK. The effect of fish-oil dietary supplement on the progression of mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1990;5(4):241-246.  (PubMed)

178.  Pettersson EE, Rekola S, Berglund L, et al. Treatment of IgA nephropathy with omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Clin Nephrol. 1994;41(4):183-190.  (PubMed)

179.  Hogg RJ, Lee J, Nardelli N, et al. Clinical trial to evaluate omega-3 fatty acids and alternate day prednisone in patients with IgA nephropathy: report from the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;1(3):467-474.  (PubMed)

180.  Branten AJ, Klasen IS, Wetzels JF. Short-term effects of fish oil treatment on urinary excretion of high- and low-molecular weight proteins in patients with IgA nephropathy. Clin Nephrol. 2002;58(4):267-274.  (PubMed)

181.  Dillon JJ. Fish oil therapy for IgA nephropathy: efficacy and interstudy variability. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997;8(11):1739-1744.  (PubMed)

182.  Strippoli GF, Manno C, Schena FP. An "evidence-based" survey of therapeutic options for IgA nephropathy: assessment and criticism. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41(6):1129-1139.  (PubMed)

183.  Hibbeln JR. Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet. 1998;351(9110):1213.  (PubMed)

184.  Noaghiul S, Hibbeln JR. Cross-national comparisons of seafood consumption and rates of bipolar disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(12):2222-2227.  (PubMed)

185.  Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, Altamura C, Neels H, Meltzer HY. Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res. 1999;85(3):275-291.  (PubMed)

186.  Peet M, Murphy B, Shay J, Horrobin D. Depletion of omega-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cell membranes of depressive patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43(5):315-319.  (PubMed)

187.  Tiemeier H, van Tuijl HR, Hofman A, Kiliaan AJ, Breteler MM. Plasma fatty acid composition and depression are associated in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(1):40-46.  (PubMed)

188.  Mamalakis G, Tornaritis M, Kafatos A. Depression and adipose essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;67(5):311-318.  (PubMed)

189.  Locke CA, Stoll AL. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depression. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2001;89:173-185.  (PubMed)

190.  Silvers KM, Woolley CC, Hamilton FC, Watts PM, Watson RA. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in the treatment of depression. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;72(3):211-218.  (PubMed)

191.  Grenyer BF, Crowe T, Meyer B, et al. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31(7):1393-1396.  (PubMed)

192.  Rogers PJ, Appleton KM, Kessler D, et al. No effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPA and DHA) supplementation on depressed mood and cognitive function: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(2):421-431.  (PubMed)

193.  Marangell LB, Martinez JM, Zboyan HA, Kertz B, Kim HF, Puryear LJ. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(5):996-998.  (PubMed)

194.  Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu CC, Shen WW. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;13(4):267-271.  (PubMed)

195.  Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(1):167-169.  (PubMed)

196.  Nemets H, Nemets B, Apter A, Bracha Z, Belmaker RH. Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(6):1098-1100.  (PubMed)

197.  Stoll AL, Severus WE, Freeman MP, et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(5):407-412.  (PubMed)

198.  Keck PE, Jr., Mintz J, McElroy SL, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of ethyl-eicosapentanoate in the treatment of bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60(9):1020-1022.  (PubMed)

199.  Osher Y, Bersudsky Y, Belmaker RH. Omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: report of a small open-label study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66(6):726-729.  (PubMed)

200.  Frangou S, Lewis M, McCrone P. Efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:46-50.  (PubMed)

201.  Lin PY, Su KP. A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(7):1056-1061.  (PubMed)

202.  Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(12):1954-1967.  (PubMed)

203.  Appleton KM, Hayward RC, Gunnell D, et al. Effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood: systematic review of published trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(6):1308-1316.  (PubMed)

204.  Assies J, Lieverse R, Vreken P, Wanders RJ, Dingemans PM, Linszen DH. Significantly reduced docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in erythrocyte membranes from schizophrenic patients compared with a carefully matched control group. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49(6):510-522.  (PubMed)

205.  Kemperman RF, Veurink M, van der Wal T, et al. Low essential fatty acid and B-vitamin status in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and its response to dietary supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;74(2):75-85.  (PubMed)

206.  Horrobin DF, Manku MS, Hillman H, Iain A, Glen M. Fatty acid levels in the brains of schizophrenics and normal controls. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30(8):795-805.  (PubMed)

207.  Laugharne JD, Mellor JE, Peet M. Fatty acids and schizophrenia. Lipids. 1996;31 Suppl:S163-165.  (PubMed)

208.  Peet M, Brind J, Ramchand CN, Shah S, Vankar GK. Two double-blind placebo-controlled pilot studies of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2001;49(3):243-251.  (PubMed)

209.  Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, van Rensburg SJ. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(9):1596-1598.  (PubMed)

210.  Emsley R, Niehaus DJ, Koen L, et al. The effects of eicosapentaenoic acid in tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Schizophr Res. 2006;84(1):112-120.  (PubMed)

211.  Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, Hibbeln JR, Knable M. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(12):2071-2074.  (PubMed)

212.  Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging exploratory study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with persistent schizophrenic symptoms. J Psychiatr Res. 2002;36(1):7-18.  (PubMed)

213.  Joy CB, Mumby-Croft R, Joy LA. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish or evening primrose oil) for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003(2):CD001257.  (PubMed)

214.  Hooijmans CR, Kiliaan AJ. Fatty acids, lipid metabolism and Alzheimer pathology. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;585(1):176-196.  (PubMed)

215.  Quinn JF, Raman R, Thomas RG, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA 2010;304(17):1903-1911.  (PubMed)

216.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. 2008. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/. Accessed 11/7/08.

217.  Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

218.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Agency Response Letter: GRAS Notice No. GRN 000080. 2001. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/95s0316/95s-0316-rpt0354-061-Ref-F-FDA-Response-Ltr-g80-vol273.pdf.

219.  Zurier RB, Rossetti RG, Jacobson EW, et al. gamma-Linolenic acid treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39(11):1808-1817.  (PubMed)

220.  Vaddadi KS. The use of gamma-linolenic acid and linoleic acid to differentiate between temporal lobe epilepsy and schizophrenia. Prostaglandins Med. 1981;6(4):375-379.  (PubMed)

221.  Nordstrom DC, Honkanen VE, Nasu Y, Antila E, Friman C, Konttinen YT. Alpha-linolenic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study: flaxseed vs. safflower seed. Rheumatol Int. 1995;14(6):231-234.  (PubMed)

222.  Alonso L, Marcos ML, Blanco JG, et al. Anaphylaxis caused by linseed (flaxseed) intake. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;98(2):469-470.  (PubMed)

223.  Harbige LS. Fatty acids, the immune response, and autoimmunity: a question of n-6 essentiality and the balance between n-6 and n-3. Lipids. 2003;38(4):323-341.  (PubMed)

224.  Carlson SE, Cooke RJ, Werkman SH, Tolley EA. First year growth of preterm infants fed standard compared to marine oil n-3 supplemented formula. Lipids. 1992;27(11):901-907.  (PubMed)

225.  Environmental Protection Agency. Fish Advisories. 2003. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/.

226.  Fish or pills? Consumer Reports. 2003;68(7):30-32.

227.  ConsumerLab. Product Review: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA and DHA) from Fish/Marine Oils. 2005. Available at: http://www.consumerlab.com/results/omega3.asp.

228.  Melanson SF, Lewandrowski EL, Flood JG, Lewandrowski KB. Measurement of organochlorines in commercial over-the-counter fish oil preparations: implications for dietary and therapeutic recommendations for omega-3 fatty acids and a review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129(1):74-77.  (PubMed)

229.  Hilbert G, Lillemark L, Balchen S, Hojskov CS. Reduction of organochlorine contaminants from fish oil during refining. Chemosphere. 1998;37(7):1241-1252.  (PubMed)

230.  Bender NK, Kraynak MA, Chiquette E, Linn WD, Clark GM, Bussey HI. Effects of Marine Fish Oils on the Anticoagulation Status of Patients Receiving Chronic Warfarin Therapy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 1998;5(3):257-261.  (PubMed)

231.  Buckley MS, Goff AD, Knapp WE. Fish oil interaction with warfarin. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38(1):50-52.  (PubMed)

232.  Valk EE, Hornstra G. Relationship between vitamin E requirement and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in man: a review. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2000;70(2):31-42.  (PubMed)

233.  Higdon JV, Liu J, Du SH, Morrow JD, Ames BN, Wander RC. Supplementation of postmenopausal women with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid is not associated with greater in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with oils rich in oleate and linoleate as assessed by plasma malondialdehyde and F(2)-isoprostanes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(3):714-722.  (PubMed)

234.  Wander RC, Du SH, Ketchum SO, Rowe KE. alpha-Tocopherol influences in vivo indices of lipid peroxidation in postmenopausal women given fish oil. J Nutr. 1996;126(3):643-652.  (PubMed)

235.  Wander RC, Du SH. Oxidation of plasma proteins is not increased after supplementation with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(3):731-737.  (PubMed)

236.  European Commission Directorate General for Health and Consumer Protection. Eurodiet: Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. 2001. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/nutrition/
report01_en.pdf/
. Accessed 3/9/09.

237.  Hamazaki T, Okuyama H. The Japan Society for Lipid Nutrition recommends to reduce the intake of linoleic acid. A review and critique of the scientific evidence. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2003;92:109-132.  (PubMed)

238.  Park WJ, Kothapalli KS, Lawrence P, Tyburczy C, Brenna JT. An alternate pathway to long chain polyunsaturates: The FADS2 gene product u8-desaturates 20:2n-6 and 20:3n-3. J Lipid Res. 2009;50(6):1195-1202.  (PubMed)

239.  Serhan CN, Yacoubian S, Yang R. Anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators. Annu Rev Pathol. 2008;3:279-312.  (PubMed)

240.  Calder PC. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;75(3):197-202.  (PubMed)