skip page navigationOregon State University

Micronutrient Information Center

References: Lignans


1.  Lampe JW. Isoflavonoid and lignan phytoestrogens as dietary biomarkers. J Nutr. 2003;133 Suppl 3:956S-964S.  (PubMed)

2.  de Kleijn MJ, van der Schouw YT, Wilson PW, Grobbee DE, Jacques PF. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens is associated with a favorable metabolic cardiovascular risk profile in postmenopausal U.S.women: the Framingham study. J Nutr. 2002;132(2):276-282.  (PubMed)

3.  Valsta LM, Kilkkinen A, Mazur W, et al. Phyto-oestrogen database of foods and average intake in Finland. Br J Nutr. 2003;89 Suppl 1:S31-38.  (PubMed)

4.  Rowland I, Faughnan M, Hoey L, Wahala K, Williamson G, Cassidy A. Bioavailability of phyto-oestrogens. Br J Nutr. 2003;89 Suppl 1:S45-58.  (PubMed)

5.  Kilkkinen A, Pietinen P, Klaukka T, Virtamo J, Korhonen P, Adlercreutz H. Use of oral antimicrobials decreases serum enterolactone concentration. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(5):472-477.  (PubMed)

6.  Kuijsten A, Arts IC, Vree TB, Hollman PC. Pharmacokinetics of enterolignans in healthy men and women consuming a single dose of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. J Nutr. 2005;135(4):795-801.  (PubMed)

7.  National Cancer Institute. Understanding Estrogen Receptors/SERMs. National Cancer Institute. January, 2005. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov
/cancertopics/understandingcancer/estrogenreceptors
.

8.  Wang LQ. Mammalian phytoestrogens: enterodiol and enterolactone. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002;777(1-2):289-309.  (PubMed)

9.  Brooks JD, Thompson LU. Mammalian lignans and genistein decrease the activities of aromatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in MCF-7 cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;94(5):461-467.  (PubMed)

10.  Vanharanta M, Voutilainen S, Nurmi T, et al. Association between low serum enterolactone and increased plasma F2-isoprostanes, a measure of lipid peroxidation. Atherosclerosis. 2002;160(2):465-469.  (PubMed)

11.  Vanharanta M, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Adlercreutz H, Salonen JT. Risk of cardiovascular disease-related and all-cause death according to serum concentrations of enterolactone: Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(9):1099-1104.  (PubMed)

12.  Kilkkinen A, Erlund I, Virtanen MJ, Alfthan G, Ariniemi K, Virtamo J. Serum enterolactone concentration and the risk of coronary heart disease in a case-cohort study of Finnish male smokers. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163(8):687-693.  (PubMed)

13.  Cunnane SC, Hamadeh MJ, Liede AC, Thompson LU, Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ. Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(1):62-68.  (PubMed)

14.  Arjmandi BH, Khan DA, Jurna S. Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res. 1998;18:1203-1214.

15.  Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vidgen E, et al. Health aspects of partially defatted flaxseed, including effects on serum lipids, oxidative measures, and ex vivo androgen and progestin activity: a controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(3):395-402.  (PubMed)

16.  Patade A, Devareddy L, Lucas EA, Korlagunta K, Daggy BP, Arjmandi BH. Flaxseed reduces total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in Native American postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008;17(3):355-366.  (PubMed)

17.  Clark WF, Kortas C, Heidenheim AP, Garland J, Spanner E, Parbtani A. Flaxseed in lupus nephritis: a two-year nonplacebo-controlled crossover study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20(2 Suppl):143-148.  (PubMed)

18.  Lemay A, Dodin S, Kadri N, Jacques H, Forest JC. Flaxseed dietary supplement versus hormone replacement therapy in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(3):495-504.  (PubMed)

19.  Lucas EA, Wild RD, Hammond LJ, et al. Flaxseed improves lipid profile without altering biomarkers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(4):1527-1532.  (PubMed)

20.  Stuglin C, Prasad K. Effect of flaxseed consumption on blood pressure, serum lipids, hemopoietic system and liver and kidney enzymes in healthy humans. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2005;10(1):23-27.  (PubMed)

21.  Bloedon LT, Balikai S, Chittams J, et al. Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk factors: results from a double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27(1):65-74.  (PubMed)

22.  Dodin S, Lemay A, Jacques H, Legare F, Forest JC, Masse B. The effects of flaxseed dietary supplement on lipid profile, bone mineral density, and symptoms in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, wheat germ placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(3):1390-1397.  (PubMed)

23.  Kuijsten A, Arts IC, van't Veer P, Hollman PC. The relative bioavailability of enterolignans in humans is enhanced by milling and crushing of flaxseed. J Nutr. 2005;135(12):2812-2816.  (PubMed)

24.  Horn-Ross PL, Hoggatt KJ, West DW, et al. Recent diet and breast cancer risk: the California Teachers Study (USA). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13(5):407-415.  (PubMed)

25.  Keinan-Boker L, van Der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, Peeters PH. Dietary phytoestrogens and breast cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(2):282-288.  (PubMed)

26.  Touillaud MS, Thiebaut AC, Niravong M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F. No association between dietary phytoestrogens and risk of premenopausal breast cancer in a French cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(12):2574-2576.  (PubMed)

27.  Touillaud MS, Thiebaut AC, Fournier A, Niravong M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F. Dietary lignan intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(6):475-486.  (PubMed)

28.  Velentzis LS, Cantwell MM, Cardwell C, Keshtgar MR, Leathem AJ, Woodside JV. Lignans and breast cancer risk in pre- and post-menopausal women: meta-analyses of observational studies. Br J Cancer. 2009;100(9):1492-1498.  (PubMed)

29.  Velentzis LS, Woodside JV, Cantwell MM, Leathem AJ, Keshtgar MR. Do phytoestrogens reduce the risk of breast cancer and breast cancer recurrence? What clinicians need to know. Eur J Cancer. 2008;44(13):1799-1806.  (PubMed)

30.  Adlercreutz H. Lignans and human health. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2007;44(5-6):483-525.  (PubMed)

31.  Boccardo F, Puntoni M, Guglielmini P, Rubagotti A. Enterolactone as a risk factor for breast cancer: a review of the published evidence. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;365(1-2):58-67.  (PubMed)

32.  Horn-Ross PL, John EM, Canchola AJ, Stewart SL, Lee MM. Phytoestrogen intake and endometrial cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(15):1158-1164.  (PubMed)

33.  Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Lundin E, Micheli A, et al. Circulating enterolactone and risk of endometrial cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006;119(10):2376-2381.  (PubMed)

34.  McCann SE, Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Graham S. Risk of human ovarian cancer is related to dietary intake of selected nutrients, phytochemicals and food groups. J Nutr. 2003;133(6):1937-1942.  (PubMed)

35.  Kilkkinen A, Virtamo J, Virtanen MJ, Adlercreutz H, Albanes D, Pietinen P. Serum enterolactone concentration is not associated with prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(11 Pt 1):1209-1212.  (PubMed)

36.  Stattin P, Adlercreutz H, Tenkanen L, et al. Circulating enterolactone and prostate cancer risk: a Nordic nested case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2002;99(1):124-129.  (PubMed)

37.  Stattin P, Bylund A, Biessy C, Kaaks R, Hallmans G, Adlercreutz H. Prospective study of plasma enterolactone and prostate cancer risk (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(10):1095-1102.  (PubMed)

38.  Strom SS, Yamamura Y, Duphorne CM, et al. Phytoestrogen intake and prostate cancer: a case-control study using a new database. Nutr Cancer. 1999;33(1):20-25.  (PubMed)

39.  Hedelin M, Klint A, Chang ET, et al. Dietary phytoestrogen, serum enterolactone and risk of prostate cancer: the cancer prostate Sweden study (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17(2):169-180.  (PubMed)

40.  Travis RC, Spencer EA, Allen NE, et al. Plasma phyto-oestrogens and prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Br J Cancer. 2009;100(11):1817-1823.  (PubMed)

41.  Ward H, Chapelais G, Kuhnle GG, Luben R, Khaw KT, Bingham S. Lack of prospective associations between plasma and urinary phytoestrogens and risk of prostate or colorectal cancer in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(10):2891-2894.  (PubMed)

42.  Heald CL, Ritchie MR, Bolton-Smith C, Morton MS, Alexander FE. Phyto-oestrogens and risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men. Br J Nutr. 2007;98(2):388-396.  (PubMed)

43.  Kim MK, Chung BC, Yu VY, et al. Relationships of urinary phyto-oestrogen excretion to BMD in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002;56(3):321-328.  (PubMed)

44.  Kardinaal AF, Morton MS, Bruggemann-Rotgans IE, van Beresteijn EC. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52(11):850-855.  (PubMed)

45.  Brooks JD, Ward WE, Lewis JE, et al. Supplementation with flaxseed alters estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women to a greater extent than does supplementation with an equal amount of soy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(2):318-325.  (PubMed)

46.  Meagher LP, Beecher GR. Assessment of data on the lignan content of foods. J Food Compos Anal. 2000;13(6):935-947.

47.  Ososki AL, Kennelly EJ. Phytoestrogens: a review of the present state of research. Phytother Res. 2003;17(8):845-869.  (PubMed)

48.  Milder IE, Feskens EJ, Arts IC, de Mesquita HB, Hollman PC, Kromhout D. Intake of the plant lignans secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, and pinoresinol in Dutch men and women. J Nutr. 2005;135(5):1202-1207.  (PubMed)

49.  de Kleijn MJ, van der Schouw YT, Wilson PW, et al. Intake of dietary phytoestrogens is low in postmenopausal women in the United States: the Framingham study(1-4). J Nutr. 2001;131(6):1826-1832.  (PubMed)

50.  Thompson LU. Experimental studies on lignans and cancer. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;12(4):691-705.  (PubMed)

51.  Milder IE, Arts IC, van de Putte B, Venema DP, Hollman PC. Lignan contents of Dutch plant foods: a database including lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol. Br J Nutr. 2005;93(3):393-402.  (PubMed)

52.  Clark WF, Parbtani A, Huff MW, et al. Flaxseed: a potential treatment for lupus nephritis. Kidney Int. 1995;48(2):475-480.  (PubMed)