skip page navigationOregon State University

Micronutrient Information Center

References: Vitamin E and Skin Health

1.  Rhie G, Shin MH, Seo JY, et al. Aging- and photoaging-dependent changes of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in the epidermis and dermis of human skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117(5):1212-1217.  (PubMed)

2.  Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D, Epstein W, Packer L. Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;102(1):122-124.  (PubMed)

3.  Thiele JJ, Traber MG, Packer L. Depletion of human stratum corneum vitamin E: an early and sensitive in vivo marker of UV induced photo-oxidation. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110(5):756-761.  (PubMed)

4.  Ikeda S, Toyoshima K, Yamashita K. Dietary sesame seeds elevate alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol concentrations in skin and adipose tissue of rats fed the tocotrienol-rich fraction extracted from palm oil. J Nutr. 2001;131(11):2892-2897.  (PubMed)

5.  Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S, Kraemer K, Thiele JJ. Oral supplementation with all-Rac- and RRR-alpha-tocopherol increases vitamin E levels in human sebum after a latency period of 14-21 days. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1031:184-194.  (PubMed)

6.  Weber SU, Thiele JJ, Cross CE, Packer L. Vitamin C, uric acid, and glutathione gradients in murine stratum corneum and their susceptibility to ozone exposure. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113(6):1128-1132.  (PubMed)

7.  Vaule H, Leonard SW, Traber MG. Vitamin E delivery to human skin: studies using deuterated alpha-tocopherol measured by APCI LC-MS. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36(4):456-463.  (PubMed)

8.  Thiele JJ, Weber SU, Packer L. Sebaceous gland secretion is a major physiologic route of vitamin E delivery to skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113(6):1006-1010.  (PubMed)

9.  Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D, Packer L. Dose-response effects of acute ultraviolet irradiation on antioxidants and molecular markers of oxidation in murine epidermis and dermis. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;102(4):470-475.  (PubMed)

10.  Weber C, Podda M, Rallis M, Thiele JJ, Traber MG, Packer L. Efficacy of topically applied tocopherols and tocotrienols in protection of murine skin from oxidative damage induced by UV-irradiation. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;22(5):761-769.  (PubMed)

11.  Thiele JJ, Traber MG, Podda M, Tsang K, Cross CE, Packer L. Ozone depletes tocopherols and tocotrienols topically applied to murine skin. FEBS Lett. 1997;401(2-3):167-170.  (PubMed)

12.  Valacchi G, Weber SU, Luu C, Cross CE, Packer L. Ozone potentiates vitamin E depletion by ultraviolet radiation in the murine stratum corneum. FEBS Lett. 2000;466(1):165-168.  (PubMed)

13.  Baumann L. Skin ageing and its treatment. J Pathol. 2007;211(2):241-251.  (PubMed)

14.  Bissett DL, Chatterjee R, Hannon DP. Photoprotective effect of superoxide-scavenging antioxidants against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1990;7(2):56-62.  (PubMed)

15.  Traber MG, Rallis M, Podda M, Weber C, Maibach HI, Packer L. Penetration and distribution of alpha-tocopherol, alpha- or gamma-tocotrienols applied individually onto murine skin. Lipids. 1998;33(1):87-91.  (PubMed)

16.  Thiele JJ, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin E in human skin: organ-specific physiology and considerations for its use in dermatology. Mol Aspects Med. 2007;28(5-6):646-667.  (PubMed)

17.  Nada A, Krishnaiah YS, Zaghloul AA, Khattab I. In vitro and in vivo Permeation of Vitamin E and Vitamin E Acetate from Cosmetic Formulations. Med Princ Pract. 2011;20(6):509-513.  (PubMed)

18.  Alberts DS, Goldman R, Xu MJ, et al. Disposition and metabolism of topically administered alpha-tocopherol acetate: a common ingredient of commercially available sunscreens and cosmetics. Nutr Cancer. 1996;26(2):193-201.  (PubMed)

19.  Mavon A, Raufast V, Redoules D. Skin absorption and metabolism of a new vitamin E prodrug, delta-tocopherol-glucoside: in vitro evaluation in human skin models. J Control Release. 2004;100(2):221-231.  (PubMed)

20.  Marra F, Ostacolo C, Laneri S, et al. Synthesis, hydrolysis, and skin retention of amino acid esters of alpha-tocopherol. J Pharm Sci. 2009;98(7):2364-2376.  (PubMed)

21.  Kosari P, Alikhan A, Sockolov M, Feldman SR. Vitamin E and allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis. 2010;21(3):148-153.  (PubMed)

22.  Machlin LJ, Filipski R, Nelson J, Horn LR, Brin M. Effects of a prolonged vitamin E deficiency in the rat. J Nutr. 1977;107(7):1200-1208.  (PubMed)

23.  Brown RG, Button GM, Smith JT. Effect of vitamin E deficiency on collagen metabolism in the rat's skin. J Nutr. 1967;91(1):99-106.  (PubMed)

24.  Igarashi A, Uzuka M, Nakajima K. The effects of vitamin E deficiency on rat skin. Br J Dermatol. 1989;121(1):43-49.  (PubMed)

25.  Kagan V, Witt E, Goldman R, Scita G, Packer L. Ultraviolet light-induced generation of vitamin E radicals and their recycling. A possible photosensitizing effect of vitamin E in skin. Free Radic Res Commun. 1992;16(1):51-64.  (PubMed)

26.  Kondo S, Mamada A, Yamaguchi J, Fukuro S. Protective effect of dl-alpha-tocopherol on the cytotoxicity of ultraviolet B against human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1990;7(4):173-177.  (PubMed)

27.  Jin GH, Liu Y, Jin SZ, Liu XD, Liu SZ. UVB induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and protective effect of antioxidant agents. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2007;46(1):61-68.  (PubMed)

28.  Stewart MS, Cameron GS, Pence BC. Antioxidant nutrients protect against UVB-induced oxidative damage to DNA of mouse keratinocytes in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 1996;106(5):1086-1089.  (PubMed)

29.  Pauling L, Willoughby R, Reynolds R, Blaisdell BE, Lawson S. Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in hairless mice irradiated with ultraviolet light in relation to intake of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and of D, L-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E). Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. 1982;23:53-82.  (PubMed)

30.  Gerrish KE, Gensler HL. Prevention of photocarcinogenesis by dietary vitamin E. Nutr Cancer. 1993;19(2):125-133.  (PubMed)

31.  Burke KE, Clive J, Combs GF, Jr., Nakamura RM. Effects of topical L-selenomethionine with topical and oral vitamin E on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation in Skh:2 hairless mice. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49(3):458-472.  (PubMed)

32.  Burke KE, Clive J, Combs GF, Jr., Commisso J, Keen CL, Nakamura RM. Effects of topical and oral vitamin E on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation in Skh:2 hairless mice. Nutr Cancer. 2000;38(1):87-97.  (PubMed)

33.  Record IR, Dreosti IE, Konstantinopoulos M, Buckley RA. The influence of topical and systemic vitamin E on ultraviolet light-induced skin damage in hairless mice. Nutr Cancer. 1991;16(3-4):219-225.  (PubMed)

34.  McArdle F, Rhodes LE, Parslew RA, et al. Effects of oral vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation on ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in human skin. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(5):1270-1275.  (PubMed)

35.  Werninghaus K, Meydani M, Bhawan J, Margolis R, Blumberg JB, Gilchrest BA. Evaluation of the photoprotective effect of oral vitamin E supplementation. Arch Dermatol. 1994;130(10):1257-1261.  (PubMed)

36.  van der Pols JC, Heinen MM, Hughes MC, Ibiebele TI, Marks GC, Green AC. Serum antioxidants and skin cancer risk: an 8-year community-based follow-up study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(4):1167-1173.  (PubMed)

37.  McNaughton SA, Marks GC, Green AC. Role of dietary factors in the development of basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer of the skin. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(7):1596-1607.  (PubMed)

38.  Eberlein-Konig B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38(1):45-48.  (PubMed)

39.  Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;25(9):1006-1012.  (PubMed)

40.  Placzek M, Gaube S, Kerkmann U, et al. Ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage in human epidermis is modified by the antioxidants ascorbic acid and D-alpha-tocopherol. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124(2):304-307.  (PubMed)

41.  Yamada Y, Obayashi M, Ishikawa T, Kiso Y, Ono Y, Yamashita K. Dietary tocotrienol reduces UVB-induced skin damage and sesamin enhances tocotrienol effects in hairless mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008;54(2):117-123.  (PubMed)

42.  Lopez-Torres M, Thiele JJ, Shindo Y, Han D, Packer L. Topical application of alpha-tocopherol modulates the antioxidant network and diminishes ultraviolet-induced oxidative damage in murine skin. Br J Dermatol. 1998;138(2):207-215.  (PubMed)

43.  Saral Y, Uyar B, Ayar A, Naziroglu M. Protective effects of topical alpha-tocopherol acetate on UVB irradiation in guinea pigs: importance of free radicals. Physiol Res. 2002;51(3):285-290.  (PubMed)

44.  Yuen KS, Halliday GM. alpha-Tocopherol, an inhibitor of epidermal lipid peroxidation, prevents ultraviolet radiation from suppressing the skin immune system. Photochem Photobiol. 1997;65(3):587-592.  (PubMed)

45.  Chen W, Barthelman M, Martinez J, Alberts D, Gensler HL. Inhibition of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation in epidermal p53 gene of UV-irradiated mice by alpha-tocopherol. Nutr Cancer. 1997;29(3):205-211.  (PubMed)

46.  McVean M, Liebler DC. Inhibition of UVB induced DNA photodamage in mouse epidermis by topically applied alpha-tocopherol. Carcinogenesis. 1997;18(8):1617-1622.  (PubMed)

47.  McVean M, Liebler DC. Prevention of DNA photodamage by vitamin E compounds and sunscreens: roles of ultraviolet absorbance and cellular uptake. Mol Carcinog. 1999;24(3):169-176.  (PubMed)

48.  Ritter EF, Axelrod M, Minn KW, et al. Modulation of ultraviolet light-induced epidermal damage: beneficial effects of tocopherol. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;100(4):973-980.  (PubMed)

49.  Trevithick JR, Shum DT, Redae S, et al. Reduction of sunburn damage to skin by topical application of vitamin E acetate following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation: effect of delaying application or of reducing concentration of vitamin E acetate applied. Scanning Microsc. 1993;7(4):1269-1281.  (PubMed)

50.  Trevithick JR, Xiong H, Lee S, et al. Topical tocopherol acetate reduces post-UVB, sunburn-associated erythema, edema, and skin sensitivity in hairless mice. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992;296(2):575-582.  (PubMed)

51.  Gensler HL, Aickin M, Peng YM, Xu M. Importance of the form of topical vitamin E for prevention of photocarcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer. 1996;26(2):183-191.  (PubMed)

52.  Beijersbergen van Henegouwen GM, Junginger HE, de Vries H. Hydrolysis of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate) in the skin and its UV protecting activity (an in vivo study with the rat). J Photochem Photobiol B. 1995;29(1):45-51.  (PubMed)

53.  Schoonderwoerd SA, Beijersbergen van Henegouwen GM, Persons KC. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and di-butyl-hydroxytoluene (BHT) on UV-A-induced photobinding of 8-methoxypsoralen to Wistar rat epidermal biomacromolecules in vivo. Arch Toxicol. 1991;65(6):490-494.  (PubMed)

54.  Slaga TJ, Bracken WM. The effects of antioxidants on skin tumor initiation and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. Cancer Res. 1977;37(6):1631-1635.  (PubMed)

55.  Potapenko A, Abijev GA, Pistsov M, et al. PUVA-induced erythema and changes in mechanoelectrical properties of skin. Inhibition by tocopherols. Arch Dermatol Res. 1984;276(1):12-16.  (PubMed)

56.  Roshchupkin DI, Pistsov MY, Potapenko AY. Inhibition of ultraviolet light-induced erythema by antioxidants. Arch Dermatol Res. 1979;266(1):91-94.  (PubMed)

57.  Thiele JJ, Hsieh SN, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin E: critical review of its current use in cosmetic and clinical dermatology. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):805-813; discussion 813.  (PubMed)

58.  Zhai H, Behnam S, Villarama CD, Arens-Corell M, Choi MJ, Maibach HI. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and preventive effects of a topical emulsion and its vehicle control on the skin response to UV exposure. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;18(6):288-293.  (PubMed)

59.  Montenegro L, Bonina F, Rigano L, Giogilli S, Sirigu S. Protective effect evaluation of free radical scavengers on UVB induced human cutaneous erythema by skin reflectance spectrophotometry. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1995;17(3):91-103.  (PubMed)

60.  Chung JH, Seo JY, Lee MK, et al. Ultraviolet modulation of human macrophage metalloelastase in human skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119(2):507-512.  (PubMed)

61.  Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48(6):866-874.  (PubMed)

62.  Darr D, Dunston S, Faust H, Pinnell S. Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants. Acta Derm Venereol. 1996;76(4):264-268.  (PubMed)

63.  Lin FH, Lin JY, Gupta RD, et al. Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125(4):826-832.  (PubMed)

64.  Quevedo WC, Jr., Holstein TJ, Dyckman J, McDonald CJ, Isaacson EL. Inhibition of UVR-induced tanning and immunosuppression by topical applications of vitamins C and E to the skin of hairless (hr/hr) mice. Pigment Cell Res. 2000;13(2):89-98.  (PubMed)

65.  Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol. 1998;139(2):332-339.  (PubMed)

66.  Quevedo WC, Jr., Holstein TJ, Dyckman J, McDonald CJ. The responses of the human epidermal melanocyte system to chronic erythemal doses of UVR in skin protected by topical applications of a combination of vitamins C and E. Pigment Cell Res. 2000;13(3):190-192.  (PubMed)

67.  Murray JC, Burch JA, Streilein RD, Iannacchione MA, Hall RP, Pinnell SR. A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human skin against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59(3):418-425.  (PubMed)

68.  Wu S, Gao J, Dinh QT, Chen C, Fimmel S. IL-8 production and AP-1 transactivation induced by UVA in human keratinocytes: roles of D-alpha-tocopherol. Mol Immunol. 2008;45(8):2288-2296.  (PubMed)

69.  Kato E, Sasaki Y, Takahashi N. Sodium dl-alpha-tocopheryl-6-O-phosphate inhibits PGE(2) production in keratinocytes induced by UVB, IL-1beta and peroxidants. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19(21):6348-6355.  (PubMed)

70.  Shibata A, Nakagawa K, Kawakami Y, Tsuzuki T, Miyazawa T. Suppression of gamma-tocotrienol on UVB induced inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes and HR-1 hairless mice via inflammatory mediators multiple signaling. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(11):7013-7020.  (PubMed)

71.  Nakagawa K, Shibata A, Maruko T, et al. gamma-Tocotrienol reduces squalene hydroperoxide-induced inflammatory responses in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lipids. 2010;45(9):833-841.  (PubMed)

72.  Yoshida E, Watanabe T, Takata J, Yamazaki A, Karube Y, Kobayashi S. Topical application of a novel, hydrophilic gamma-tocopherol derivative reduces photo-inflammation in mice skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126(7):1633-1640.  (PubMed)

73.  Meydani SN, Barklund MP, Liu S, et al. Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52(3):557-563.  (PubMed)

74.  Han SN, Meydani SN. Impact of vitamin E on immune function and its clinical implications. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2006;2(4):561-567.  (PubMed)

75.  Jiang Q, Ames BN. Gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats. FASEB J. 2003;17(8):816-822.  (PubMed)

76.  Tsoureli-Nikita E, Hercogova J, Lotti T, Menchini G. Evaluation of dietary intake of vitamin E in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: a study of the clinical course and evaluation of the immunoglobulin E serum levels. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41(3):146-150.  (PubMed)

77.  Keller KL, Fenske NA. Uses of vitamins A, C, and E and related compounds in dermatology: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;39(4 Pt 1):611-625.  (PubMed)

78.  Hayakawa R, Ueda H, Nozaki T, et al. Effects of combination treatment with vitamins E and C on chloasma and pigmented contact dermatitis. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1981;3(1):31-38.  (PubMed)

79.  Javanbakht MH, Keshavarz SA, Djalali M, et al. Randomized controlled trial using vitamins E and D supplementation in atopic dermatitis. J Dermatolog Treat. 2011;22(3):144-150.  (PubMed)

80.  Shukla A, Rasik AM, Patnaik GK. Depletion of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and antioxidant defence enzymes in a healing cutaneous wound. Free Radic Res. 1997;26(2):93-101.  (PubMed)

81.  Musalmah M, Nizrana MY, Fairuz AH, et al. Comparative effects of palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol on healing and wound tissue antioxidant enzyme levels in diabetic rats. Lipids. 2005;40(6):575-580.  (PubMed)

82.  Musalmah M, Fairuz AH, Gapor MT, Ngah WZ. Effect of vitamin E on plasma malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzyme levels and the rates of wound closures during wound healing in normal and diabetic rats. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11 Suppl 7:S448-451.  (PubMed)

83.  Taren DL, Chvapil M, Weber CW. Increasing the breaking strength of wounds exposed to preoperative irradiation using vitamin E supplementation. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1987;57(2):133-137.  (PubMed)

84.  Ehrlich HP, Tarver H, Hunt TK. Inhibitory effects of vitamin E on collagen synthesis and wound repair. Ann Surg. 1972;175(2):235-240.  (PubMed)

85.  Baumann LS, Spencer J. The effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scars. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25(4):311-315.  (PubMed)

86.  Jenkins M, Alexander JW, MacMillan BG, Waymack JP, Kopcha R. Failure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgery. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1986;7(4):309-312.  (PubMed)

87.  Ellinger S, Stehle P. Efficacy of vitamin supplementation in situations with wound healing disorders: results from clinical intervention studies. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12(6):588-595.  (PubMed)

88.  Barbosa E, Faintuch J, Machado Moreira EA, et al. Supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and zinc attenuates oxidative stress in burned children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. J Burn Care Res. 2009;30(5):859-866.  (PubMed)

89.  Passi S, De Pita O, Grandinetti M, Simotti C, Littarru GP. The combined use of oral and topical lipophilic antioxidants increases their levels both in sebum and stratum corneum. Biofactors. 2003;18(1-4):289-297.  (PubMed)

90.  Burke KE. Photodamage of the skin: protection and reversal with topical antioxidants. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2004;3(3):149-155.  (PubMed)

91.  Nagata C, Nakamura K, Wada K, et al. Association of dietary fat, vegetables and antioxidant micronutrients with skin ageing in Japanese women. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(10):1493-1498.  (PubMed)

92.  Boelsma E, van de Vijver LP, Goldbohm RA, Klopping-Ketelaars IA, Hendriks HF, Roza L. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(2):348-355.  (PubMed)

93.  Gehring W, Fluhr J, Gloor M. Influence of vitamin E acetate on stratum corneum hydration. Arzneimittelforschung. 1998;48(7):772-775.  (PubMed)

94.  Gonullu U, Sensoy D, Uner M, Yener G, Altinkurt T. Comparing the moisturizing effects of ascorbic acid and calcium ascorbate against that of tocopherol in emulsions. J Cosmet Sci. 2006;57(6):465-473.  (PubMed)